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Neurol India ; 69(5): 1424-1426, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502579


BACKGROUND: The ongoing Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has revealed a plethora of extrapulmonary manifestations including neurological presentations. To date, nervous system demyelination has been relatively infrequently reported in this setting. Also, while most data point toward immune activation as a causative process, few studies propound a direct effect. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 35-year-old man presented with severe new-onset headache, hemiparesis, and focal seizures culminating in deeply altered sensorium. Radiological evaluation showed a large expansile demyelinating lesion in the right cerebral hemisphere. Nasopharyngeal swab COVID reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was positive. After initial non-response to steroids, the patient responded well to plasma exchange leading to complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights a case of active severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection presenting with tumefactive demyelination and subsequent response to therapy. It is important to recognize atypical presentations at this juncture as it may be crucial for planning treatment strategies.

COVID-19 , Demyelinating Diseases , Adult , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 51: 102900, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129113


BACKGROUND: Since March 2020, during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been observed that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has neurological involvement with various clinical tables. METHODS: We present 3 new cases admitted to our clinic with various neurological findings which were affected by SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Imaging studies have shown that inflammatory/demyelinizing lesions appeared in different areas of the central nervous system which were accepted as an atypical demyelinating spectrum associated with Covid 19. CONCLUSIONS: With increasing experience, it has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may also have a neurotrophic effect. The spectrum of neurological involvement is also expanding as the pandemic continues. These 3 cases suggest that the virus plays a role in the clinical onset of the inflammatory/demyelinating disease.

COVID-19 , Demyelinating Diseases , Central Nervous System , Demyelinating Diseases/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 44: 102324, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613379


After the novel coronavirus disease outbreak first began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the viral epidemic has quickly spread across the world, and it is now a major public health concern. Here we present a 21-year-old male with encephalomyelitis following intermittent vomiting and malaise for 4 days. He reported upper respiratory signs and symptoms 2 weeks before this presentation. Two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses were notable for mononuclear pleocytosis, elevated protein (more than 100 mg/dl), and hypoglycorrhachia. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed bilateral posterior internal capsule lesions extending to the ventral portion of the pons and a marbled splenium hyperintensity pattern. Cervical and thoracic MRI showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), none of which were enhanced with gadolinium. Both the AQP4 and MOG antibodies were negative. Spiral chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed to COVID-19 as did the high IgG level against coronavirus, but the oropharyngeal swabs were negative. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have not been adequately studied. Some COVID-19 patients, especially those suffering from a severe disease, are highly likely to have central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. Our case is a post-COVID-19 demyelinating event in the CNS.

COVID-19/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Adult , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Young Adult