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1.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 656-661, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260618

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) commonly results in a respiratory illness in symptomatic patients; however, those critically ill can develop a leukoencephalopathy. We describe two patients who had novel subacute MRI findings in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leukoencephalopathy, which we hypothesize could implicate a potent small-vessel vasculitis, ischemic demyelination and the presence of prolonged ischemia. Recent evidence of the direct neuroinvasiness of SARS-CoV-2 leading to ischemia and vascular damage supports this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/pathology , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Leukoencephalopathies/virology , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/pathology , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/virology
2.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 121(4): 859-866, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208875

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2), that already appeared as a global pandemic. Presentation of the disease often includes upper respiratory symptoms like dry cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and rhinorrhea that can develop to respiratory failure, needing intubation. Furthermore, the occurrence of acute and subacute neurological manifestations such as stroke, encephalitis, headache, and seizures are frequently stated in patients with COVID-19. One of the reported neurological complications of severe COVID-19 is the demolition of the myelin sheath. Indeed, the complex immunological dysfunction provides a substrate for the development of demyelination. Nevertheless, few published reports in the literature describe demyelination in subjects with COVID-19. In this short narrative review, we discuss probable pathological mechanisms that may trigger demyelination in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and summarize the clinical evidence, confirming SARS-CoV-2 condition as a risk factor for the destruction of myelin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 44: 102324, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613379

ABSTRACT

After the novel coronavirus disease outbreak first began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the viral epidemic has quickly spread across the world, and it is now a major public health concern. Here we present a 21-year-old male with encephalomyelitis following intermittent vomiting and malaise for 4 days. He reported upper respiratory signs and symptoms 2 weeks before this presentation. Two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses were notable for mononuclear pleocytosis, elevated protein (more than 100 mg/dl), and hypoglycorrhachia. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed bilateral posterior internal capsule lesions extending to the ventral portion of the pons and a marbled splenium hyperintensity pattern. Cervical and thoracic MRI showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), none of which were enhanced with gadolinium. Both the AQP4 and MOG antibodies were negative. Spiral chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed to COVID-19 as did the high IgG level against coronavirus, but the oropharyngeal swabs were negative. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have not been adequately studied. Some COVID-19 patients, especially those suffering from a severe disease, are highly likely to have central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. Our case is a post-COVID-19 demyelinating event in the CNS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Adult , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Young Adult
5.
J Neurol ; 267(11): 3154-3156, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609091

ABSTRACT

The association between coronaviruses and central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating lesions has been previously shown. However, no case has been described of an association between the novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and CNS demyelinating disease so far. SARS-COV-2 was previously detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample of a patient with encephalitis. However, the virus identity was not confirmed by deep sequencing of SARS-COV-2 detected in the CSF. Here, we report a case of a patient with mild respiratory symptoms and neurological manifestations compatible with clinically isolated syndrome. The viral genome of SARS-COV-2 was detected and sequenced in CSF with 99.74-100% similarity between the patient virus and worldwide sequences. This report suggests a possible association of SARS-COV-2 infection with neurological symptoms of demyelinating disease, even in the absence of relevant upper respiratory tract infection signs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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