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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010134, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection may be associated with increased risks of major adverse cardiovascular effect (MACE), but a large-scale study evaluating the association between DENV infection and MACEs is still lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All laboratory confirmed dengue cases in Taiwan during 2009 and 2015 were included by CDC notifiable database. The self-controlled case-series design was used to evaluate the association between DENV infection and MACE (including acute myocardial infarction [AMI], heart failure and stroke). The "risk interval" was defined as the first 7 days after the diagnosis of DENV infection and the "control interval" as 1 year before and 1 year after the risk interval. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for MACE were estimated by conditional Poisson regression. Finally, the primary outcome of the incidence of MACEs within one year of dengue was observed in 1,247 patients. The IRR of MACEs was 17.9 (95% CI 15.80-20.37) during the first week after the onset of DENV infection observed from 1,244 eligible patients. IRR were significantly higher for hemorrhagic stroke (10.9, 95% CI 6.80-17.49), ischemic stroke (15.56, 95% CI 12.44-19.47), AMI (13.53, 95% CI 10.13-18.06), and heart failure (27.24, 95% CI 22.67-32.73). No increased IRR was observed after day 14. CONCLUSIONS: The risks for MACEs are significantly higher in the immediate time period after dengue infection. Since dengue infection is potentially preventable by early recognition and vaccination, the dengue-associated MACE should be taken into consideration when making public health management policies.


Subject(s)
Dengue/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Stroke/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
3.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 64: e13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709614

ABSTRACT

Clinical similarities among viral diseases become even more relevant considering the current scenario, especially in Brazil, where there is a high incidence of these diseases and overlapping seasonality. We report the case of a patient with acute clinical manifestations composed of predominant respiratory symptoms and alveolar hemorrhage in which three etiologies (dengue, influenza and COVID-19) were investigated concomitantly. Only the diagnosis of dengue was confirmed. Then, the patient's immunological profile in response to stimulation of mononuclear cells with dengue virus antigen was analyzed in an attempt to identify specific characteristics that could be associated with the clinical manifestation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19713, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454811

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents with non-specific clinical features. This may result in misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis, and lead to further transmission in the community. We aimed to derive early predictors to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza and dengue. The study comprised 126 patients with COVID-19, 171 with influenza and 180 with dengue, who presented within 5 days of symptom onset. All cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests. We used logistic regression models to identify demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory markers in classifying COVID-19 versus influenza, and COVID-19 versus dengue. The performance of each model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Shortness of breath was the strongest predictor in the models for differentiating between COVID-19 and influenza, followed by diarrhoea. Higher lymphocyte count was predictive of COVID-19 versus influenza and versus dengue. In the model for differentiating between COVID-19 and dengue, patients with cough and higher platelet count were at increased odds of COVID-19, while headache, joint pain, skin rash and vomiting/nausea were indicative of dengue. The cross-validated area under the ROC curve for all four models was above 0.85. Clinical features and simple laboratory markers for differentiating COVID-19 from influenza and dengue are identified in this study which can be used by primary care physicians in resource limited settings to determine if further investigations or referrals would be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dengue/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Adult , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Dengue/complications , Dengue/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vomiting/etiology , Young Adult
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 439, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever and coronavirus disease 2019 have now begun to overlap within tropical and subtropical regions. This is due to the high prevalence of dengue fever in these regions and the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic situation. The similarity of symptoms between the two diseases can confuse diagnoses, but coinfection can also occur. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two cases of patients with dengue and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 coinfection. The first case is that of a 24-year-old Hispanic woman with acute fever, odynophagia, and diarrhea, without respiratory symptoms and with positive molecular tests for both dengue and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The second case is that of a 59-year-old Hispanic male patient with fever and respiratory symptoms of 2 weeks duration, negative molecular tests, and positive serological tests for both viruses. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of both viral infections can help elucidate diagnoses and prognoses. CONCLUSIONS: Severe dengue infection is common in young adults, while coronavirus disease 2019 is generally asymptomatic. In older people, the severity of dengue fever will depend on their comorbidities or the infectious serotype, but coronavirus disease 2019 is consistently more severe in this group. The accurate diagnosis of both infections can better guide clinical management, as well as public health actions in transmission control, now especially important during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Dengue , Severe Dengue , Adult , Aged , Coinfection/diagnosis , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 363-367, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374605

ABSTRACT

The risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue coinfection is increased in tropical countries; however, the extrapulmonary clinical manifestations have not been fully characterized. We report a 42-year-old woman whose clinical manifestations began with fever, diarrhea, headache, chest pain, myalgia, odynophagia, and arthralgia. Despite mild respiratory symptoms and normal chest computed tomography scan results, she was diagnosed with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Because she had erythema and petechiae with a decreased platelet count, the dengue NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM/IgG test were performed, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention RT-PCR assay detected the dengue virus serotype 1 infection. Additionally, increased liver enzyme serum levels were found in the patient, who later developed hepatomegaly. Hence, the mechanism of hepatic pathology associated with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue coinfection needs further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , Female , Fever , Hematology/methods , Humans , Lost to Follow-Up , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serogroup , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 729, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most common arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Like other regions, dengue-endemic areas have faced the additional public health and socio-economic impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 and dengue co-infections have been reported, with complicated patient management and care requirements. This review aimed to collate and synthesise current knowledge on the clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 and dengue virus co-infection, a potentially important new dimension to be considered in public health management of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases from 1st January to 21st November 2020. The key search terms used were "dengue" and "coronavirus". Descriptive analysis with graphical illustrations were used to present the clinical and laboratory parameters of the co-infection. RESULTS: Thirteen published papers and four news articles were included in the review. Most studies were case reports with a detailed description of the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the co-infection. All cases were in adults with the exception of a six-year old child. The common symptoms of co-infection were fever, dyspnea, headache, and cough. Common laboratory results included thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated transaminases, and leukopenia. Serious outcomes of co-infection included septic shock, acute respiratory disease syndrome and multi-organ failure, leading to death in some patients. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and dengue co-infection was associated with severe disease and fatal outcomes. The correct diagnosis and treatment of co-infection poses a substantial challenge due to the overlapping clinical and laboratory parameters. Therefore, confirmative diagnostic tests are necessary for accurate and timely diagnosis and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Dengue , Adult , Child , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 751-755, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337787

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a considerable overlap occurred between the COVID-19 pandemic and seasonal dengue transmission in India. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of acute or recent infection with SARS-CoV-2 on the course and outcomes of dengue fever in children. We prospectively enrolled 44 children with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of dengue fever. Assessment of acute and recent SARS-CoV-2 infection was done using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and IgG antibody through ELISA. Children were grouped based on evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and clinical severity, and outcomes were compared. The median age of the study cohort was 96 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 69-129 months). Fever (98%), vomiting (78%), abdominal pain (68%), hepatomegaly (68%), and edema (32%) were the common features. About two-thirds (N = 30) had severe dengue; 20 (45%) had dengue shock. Liver dysfunction (58%) and acute kidney injury (25%) were other major organ dysfunctions. Nineteen (43%) children stayed in the pediatric intensive care unit for a median duration of 5 days (IQR: 2-11 days). None had acute SARS-CoV2 infection; however, IgG against SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 15 (34%) cases. Children with recent exposure to SARS-CoV-2 showed a trend toward a lower incidence of acute kidney injury, fewer organ dysfunctions, and a lower frequency of invasive ventilation. Four children (9%) died; none of the deaths were in the SARS-CoV-2-exposed group. The present study exposes preliminary evidence that dengue fever might follow a less severe course in children with recent exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is pertinent to understand the antigenic similarity and cross-protective antibody response between the two viruses and their clinical relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dengue/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 43: 102132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284575

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Before the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrival and its pandemic, dengue was already a significant cause of epidemics in South East Asia and Latin America. In 2020 with their cocirculation, coinfections began to be observed and reported in different countries. As expected, this syndemic is evident in different areas and deserves proper characterisation and studies in Peru. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the clinical, epidemiological, diagnostic characteristics and outcomes in a Social Security Hospital of Chiclayo, Lambayeque, Peru, of patients that were diagnosed simultaneously with COVID-19 and dengue during May-August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients with COVID-19/dengue coinfection were identified. Of them, 60% presented thrombocytopenia, and 52% fever, among other findings. The case fatality rate in this group was 28%, being higher in those patients initially classified as severe dengue (100%), as well as in females (55%) than males (21%) (OR = 4.65; 95%CI 1.18-18.45). DISCUSSION: Co-occurrence of COVID-19/Dengue is growing as a consequence of the syndemic of these viral diseases in endemic areas, such as Latin America, and as both conditions may evolve to severe disease, their epidemiological but clinical interaction in terms of outcomes need further assessment in future studies in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue/complications , Dengue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical consequences of SARS-CoV-2 and DENGUE virus co-infection are not promising. However, their treatment options are currently unavailable. Current studies have shown that quercetin is both resistant to COVID-19 and DENGUE; this study aimed to evaluate the possible functional roles and underlying mechanisms of action of quercetin as a potential molecular candidate against COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection. METHODS: We used a series of bioinformatics analyses to understand and characterize the biological functions, pharmacological targets and therapeutic mechanisms of quercetin in COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection. RESULTS: We revealed the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and DENGUE, including pathological mechanisms, key inflammatory pathways and possible methods of intervention, 60 overlapping targets related to the co-infection and the drug were identified, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) was constructed and TNFα, CCL-2 and CXCL8 could become potential drug targets. Furthermore, we disclosed the signaling pathways, biological functions and upstream pathway activity of quercetin in COVID-19 and DENGUE. The analysis indicated that quercetin could inhibit cytokines release, alleviate excessive immune responses and eliminate inflammation, through NF-κB, IL-17 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to reveal quercetin as a pharmacological drug for COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection. COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection remain a potential threat to the world's public health system. Therefore, we need innovative thinking to provide admissible evidence for quercetin as a potential molecule drug for the treatment of COVID-19 and DENGUE, but the findings have not been verified in actual patients, so further clinical drug trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dengue Virus/chemistry , Dengue/drug therapy , Quercetin/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chemokine CCL2/chemistry , Chemokine CCL2/drug effects , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/complications , Dengue/genetics , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-8/chemistry , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukin-8/genetics , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196472

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 171, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present as any other acute febrile undifferentiated illness. In tropical regions, clinicians are increasingly challenged to differentiate these febrile illnesses without the use of diagnostics. With this pandemic, many of these tropical diseases are neglected and go underreported. Dengue is holoendemic in the Maldives, and dengue viruses circulate throughout the year. Reports about coinfections with dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are scarce, and the outcome and the dynamics of the disease may be altered in the presence of coinfection. We have described the clinical manifestation and serial laboratory profile, and highlighted the atypical findings uncommon in dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year old Asian male, presented on day 6 of dengue infection with warning signs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that was done as per hospital protocol was found to be positive. Case 2 was a 38-year old Asian male, was admitted on day 5 of illness with symptoms of acute respiratory infection with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Evaluation of progressive leukopenia and thrombocytopenia showed positive dengue serology. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be conscientious when working on the differential diagnosis of possible tropical diseases in cases of coronavirus disease 2019, specifically, when patients develop hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis with elevated expression of aspartate higher than alanine transaminase, which is frequently observed in dengue infection. Caution must be taken during the administration of intravenous fluids when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and dengue coinfection, as coronavirus disease 2019 patients are more prone to develop pulmonary edema. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to avoid the devastating complications of severe forms of dengue infection. It is important to repeat and reconfirm the dengue serology in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to avoid false positivity. Diligence and care must be taken not to neglect other endemic tropical diseases in the region during the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dengue/complications , Leukopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection , Cough/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/therapy , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Fluid Therapy , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/physiopathology
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001928

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 348-351, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993267

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infections occurred in Argentina during 2020. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in a cohort of patients hospitalized because of co-infection. We retrospectively identified 13 patients from different hospitals in Buenos Aires who had confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus and obtained clinical and laboratory data from clinical records. All patients had febrile disease when hospitalized. Headache was a common symptom. A total of 8 patients had respiratory symptoms, 5 had pneumonia, and 3 had rash. Nearly all patients had lymphopenia when hospitalized. No patients were admitted to an intensive care unit or died during follow up. Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus can occur in patients living in areas in which both viruses are epidemic. The outcome of these patients did not seem to be worse than those having either SARS-CoV-2 or dengue infection alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , Dengue/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
18.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960585

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a major health concern in South Asian countries transmitted by bite of day breeder mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Severity of plasma leak, shock, bleeding tendency and other organ dysfunction can be more pronounced in infants. The management becomes further complicated in the presence of a co-existing COVID-19 infection. Although COVID-19 infection is usually asymptomatic or has mild manifestations in children, however in presence of serious co-infection like dengue it can modify the course of the illness and lead to drastic consequences. Here, we present one such case of a 9-month-old female child who tested positive for dengue as well as COVID-19 during the ongoing corona pandemic and went on to develop shock, encephalopathy with deranged liver enzymes but managed to overcome all odds and recover from the disease by day 14 of illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India , Infant
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