Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376994

ABSTRACT

Viral infection is a global public health threat causing millions of deaths. A suitable small animal model is essential for viral pathogenesis and host response studies that could be used in antiviral and vaccine development. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri or Tupaia belangeri chinenesis), a squirrel-like non-primate small mammal in the Tupaiidae family, has been reported to be susceptible to important human viral pathogens, including hepatitis viruses (e.g., HBV, HCV), respiratory viruses (influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2, human adenovirus B), arboviruses (Zika virus and dengue virus), and other viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus, etc.). The pathogenesis of these viruses is not fully understood due to the lack of an economically feasible suitable small animal model mimicking natural infection of human diseases. The tree shrew model significantly contributes towards a better understanding of the infection and pathogenesis of these important human pathogens, highlighting its potential to be used as a viable viral infection model of human viruses. Therefore, in this review, we summarize updates regarding human viral infection in the tree shrew model, which highlights the potential of the tree shrew to be utilized for human viral infection and pathogenesis studies.


Subject(s)
Disease Models, Animal , Tupaia , Virus Diseases , Adenoviridae Infections/immunology , Adenoviridae Infections/virology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/pathology , Dengue/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/pathology , Hepatitis C/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/pathology , Zika Virus Infection/virology
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 751-755, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337787

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a considerable overlap occurred between the COVID-19 pandemic and seasonal dengue transmission in India. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of acute or recent infection with SARS-CoV-2 on the course and outcomes of dengue fever in children. We prospectively enrolled 44 children with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of dengue fever. Assessment of acute and recent SARS-CoV-2 infection was done using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and IgG antibody through ELISA. Children were grouped based on evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and clinical severity, and outcomes were compared. The median age of the study cohort was 96 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 69-129 months). Fever (98%), vomiting (78%), abdominal pain (68%), hepatomegaly (68%), and edema (32%) were the common features. About two-thirds (N = 30) had severe dengue; 20 (45%) had dengue shock. Liver dysfunction (58%) and acute kidney injury (25%) were other major organ dysfunctions. Nineteen (43%) children stayed in the pediatric intensive care unit for a median duration of 5 days (IQR: 2-11 days). None had acute SARS-CoV2 infection; however, IgG against SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 15 (34%) cases. Children with recent exposure to SARS-CoV-2 showed a trend toward a lower incidence of acute kidney injury, fewer organ dysfunctions, and a lower frequency of invasive ventilation. Four children (9%) died; none of the deaths were in the SARS-CoV-2-exposed group. The present study exposes preliminary evidence that dengue fever might follow a less severe course in children with recent exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is pertinent to understand the antigenic similarity and cross-protective antibody response between the two viruses and their clinical relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dengue/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575074, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256374

ABSTRACT

Combined cellular and humoral host immune response determine the clinical course of a viral infection and effectiveness of vaccination, but currently the cellular immune response cannot be measured on simple blood samples. As functional activity of immune cells is determined by coordinated activity of signaling pathways, we developed mRNA-based JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity assays to quantitatively measure the cellular immune response on Affymetrix expression microarray data of various types of blood samples from virally infected patients (influenza, RSV, dengue, yellow fever, rotavirus) or vaccinated individuals, and to determine vaccine immunogenicity. JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was increased in blood samples of patients with viral, but not bacterial, infection and was higher in influenza compared to RSV-infected patients, reflecting known differences in immunogenicity. High JAK-STAT3 pathway activity was associated with more severe RSV infection. In contrast to inactivated influenza virus vaccine, live yellow fever vaccine did induce JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity in blood samples, indicating superior immunogenicity. Normal (healthy) JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was established, enabling assay interpretation without the need for a reference sample. The JAK-STAT pathway assays enable measurement of cellular immune response for prognosis, therapy stratification, vaccine development, and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Diagnosis, Differential , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Rotavirus Infections/blood , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus Vaccines , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity
4.
Acta Trop ; 214: 105782, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064690

ABSTRACT

Originated in Wuhan, China, the coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) has quickly spread worldwide, reaching countries that already faced other endemics and epidemics. In Brazil, such a concerning situation includes arboviruses, among which the dengue virus stands out. Here, we determined the rate of SARS-CoV-2/dengue virus co-infection in a total of 178 patients with COVID-19 symtoms admitted into a large public hospital of the Federal District of Brazil. Furthermore, we evaluated whether prior or active dengue virus infection influenced hematological, biochemical, and clinical parameters of such patients. One hundred and twelve (63%) individuals tested positive for COVID-19, of which 43 (38.4%) were co-infected with dengue virus, and 50 (44.6%) had antibodies indicative of previous dengue infection. Co-infected patients showed lower numbers of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes, higher glucose rates, and a worse pulmonary condition. Of note, prior infections with dengue virus did not influence clinical parameters, but active dengue fever resulted in higher hospitalization rate. In conclusion, amid the current complex epidemiological scenario in Brazil, our data support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 and dengue co-infection affects an important percentage of COVID-19 patients and leads to worse clinical parameters, requiring greater attention from health authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/diagnosis , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Coinfection/diagnosis , Creatine Kinase/blood , Dengue/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Sampling Studies
5.
Curr Opin Virol ; 43: 71-78, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987407

ABSTRACT

The first licensed dengue vaccine led to considerable controversy, and to date, no dengue vaccine is in widespread use. All three leading dengue vaccine candidates are live attenuated vaccines, with the main difference between them being the type of backbone and the extent of chimerization. While CYD-TDV (the first licensed dengue vaccine) does not include non-structural proteins of dengue, TAK-003 contains the dengue virus serotype 2 backbone, and the Butantan/Merck vaccine contains three full-genomes of the four dengue virus serotypes. While dengue-primed individuals can already benefit from vaccination against all four serotypes with the first licensed dengue vaccine CYD-TDV, the need for dengue-naive population has not yet been met. To improve tetravalent protection, sequential vaccination should be considered in addition to a heterologous prime-boost approach.


Subject(s)
Dengue Vaccines/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Animals , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/administration & dosage , Dengue Vaccines/genetics , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/physiology , Drug Development , Humans
6.
Euro Surveill ; 25(36)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976158

ABSTRACT

In August 2020, during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, five locally acquired cases of dengue virus type 1 were detected in a family cluster in Vicenza Province, North-East Italy where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are endemic. The primary case was an importation from West Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first outbreak of autochthonous dengue reported in Italy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, screening of febrile travelers from endemic countries is crucial in areas where competent vectors are present.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue/diagnosis , Travel , Adult , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Indonesia , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19839, 2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927249

ABSTRACT

Severe pneumonia and multiorgan dysfunction in COVID-19 and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are two diseases that can associate with an altered immune response to the infecting virus. To determine the similarities and differences in the cytokine and chemokine responses in these two infections, we compared responses in patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and acute dengue at different time points of illness. During early disease, patients who proceeded to develop COVID-19 severe pneumonia (SP) and DHF had significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-10 and MIP3α than those who developed mild illness. The lowest levels of IFNγ in early illness were seen in those who succumbed to their illness due to COVID-19. Levels of serum IL-10 (p = 0.0001), IL-6 (p = 0.002), MIP-3α (p = 0.02) and CD40-L levels (p = 0.002) significantly increased from 5 to 9 day of illness to 10-21 day of illness in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, but not in those with mild illness. In contrast, these cytokine/chemokine levels remained unchanged in those with DHF or dengue fever (DF) during febrile and critical phases. Although IL-10 levels were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with SP, patients with DHF had 25-fold higher levels, whereas IL-6 levels were 11-fold higher in those with COVID-19 SP. IL-10 and other cytokines were evaluated in a larger cohort of patients during early illness (≤ 4 days) who proceeded to develop DF (n = 71) or DHF (n = 64). Of the cytokines evaluated, IL-10 was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in those who went on to develop DHF compared to DF. Low IFNγ response to the SARS-CoV2 and high levels of immunosuppressive IL-10 in both COVID-19 and dengue during early illness are indicators of an altered antiviral response potentially contributing to disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Dengue/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokine CCL20/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/pathology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 572567, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886164

ABSTRACT

Immunological adaptations in pregnancy allow maternal tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus but also increase maternal susceptibility to infection. At implantation, the endometrial stroma, glands, arteries and immune cells undergo anatomical and functional transformation to create the decidua, the specialized secretory endometrium of pregnancy. The maternal decidua and the invading fetal trophoblast constitute a dynamic junction that facilitates a complex immunological dialogue between the two. The decidual and peripheral immune systems together assume a pivotal role in regulating the critical balance between tolerance and defense against infection. Throughout pregnancy, this equilibrium is repeatedly subjected to microbial challenge. Acute viral infection in pregnancy is associated with a wide spectrum of adverse consequences for both mother and fetus. Vertical transmission from mother to fetus can cause developmental anomalies, growth restriction, preterm birth and stillbirth, while the mother is predisposed to heightened morbidity and maternal death. A rapid, effective response to invasive pathogens is therefore essential in order to avoid overwhelming maternal infection and consequent fetal compromise. This sentinel response is mediated by the innate immune system: a heritable, highly evolutionarily conserved system comprising physical barriers, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and a variety of immune cells-principally neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells-which express pattern-receptors that detect invariant molecular signatures unique to pathogenic micro-organisms. Recognition of these signatures during acute infection triggers signaling cascades that enhance antimicrobial properties such as phagocytosis, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of the complement system. As well as coordinating the initial immune response, macrophages and dendritic cells present microbial antigens to lymphocytes, initiating and influencing the development of specific, long-lasting adaptive immunity. Despite extensive progress in unraveling the immunological adaptations of pregnancy, pregnant women remain particularly susceptible to certain acute viral infections and continue to experience mortality rates equivalent to those observed in pandemics several decades ago. Here, we focus specifically on the pregnancy-induced vulnerabilities in innate immunity that contribute to the disproportionately high maternal mortality observed in the following acute viral infections: Lassa fever, Ebola virus disease (EVD), dengue fever, hepatitis E, influenza, and novel coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Decidua/immunology , Placenta/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/pathology , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/pathology , Hepatitis E/immunology , Hepatitis E/pathology , Humans , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lassa Fever/immunology , Lassa Fever/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy
9.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(2): e2161, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777660

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an international public health crisis with devastating effects. In particular, this pandemic has further exacerbated the burden in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where dengue fever, caused by dengue virus (DENV), is already endemic to the population. The similar clinical manifestations shared by Covid-19 and dengue fever have raised concerns, especially in dengue-endemic countries with limited resources, leading to diagnostic challenges. In addition, cross-reactivity of the immune responses in these infections is an emerging concern, as pre-existing DENV-antibodies might potentially affect Covid-19 through antibody-dependent enhancement. In this review article, we aimed to raise the issue of Covid-19 and dengue fever misdiagnosis, not only in a clinical setting but also with regards to cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and DENV antibodies. We also have discussed the potential consequences of overlapping immunological cascades between dengue and Covid-19 on disease severity and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200225, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-723314

ABSTRACT

In the near future, the overlap of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue epidemics is a concrete threat in tropical regions. Co-epidemics of COVID-19 and dengue could be an overwhelming challenge for health systems in low- and middle-income countries. In this work, we investigated potential serological cross-reactions between COVID-19 and dengue patients. Among 32 COVID-19 positive sera, no positive Dengue virus (DENV) IgG/IgM results were observed. On the other hand, one false-positive result was observed among 44 DENV-positive sera tested for COVID-19 antibodies with each of the two rapid tests used. Further data on accuracy of COVID-19 diagnostic test are urgently warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Dengue/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Dengue Virus/immunology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
11.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 633-643, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711937

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism by which the pathogenesis of certain viral infections is enhanced in the presence of sub-neutralizing or cross-reactive non-neutralizing antiviral antibodies. In vitro modelling of ADE has attributed enhanced pathogenesis to Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated viral entry, rather than canonical viral receptor-mediated entry. However, the putative FcγR-dependent mechanisms of ADE overlap with the role of these receptors in mediating antiviral protection in various viral infections, necessitating a detailed understanding of how this diverse family of receptors functions in protection and pathogenesis. Here, we discuss the diversity of immune responses mediated upon FcγR engagement and review the available experimental evidence supporting the role of FcγRs in antiviral protection and pathogenesis through ADE. We explore FcγR engagement in the context of a range of different viral infections, including dengue virus and SARS-CoV, and consider ADE in the context of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Leukocytes/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dengue/drug therapy , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, IgG/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, IgG/genetics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction , Virus Internalization/drug effects
13.
Cytometry A ; 97(7): 662-667, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621110

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and recurrent dengue epidemics in tropical countries have turned into a global health threat. While both virus-caused infections may only reveal light symptoms, they can also cause severe diseases. Here, we review the possible antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurrence, known for dengue infections, when there is a second infection with a different virus strain. Consequently, preexisting antibodies do not neutralize infection, but enhance it, possibly by triggering Fcγ receptor-mediated virus uptake. No clinical data exist indicating such mechanism for SARS-CoV-2, but previous coronavirus infections or infection of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent with different SARS-CoV-2 strains could promote ADE, as experimentally shown for antibodies against the MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV spike S protein. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/pathology , Humans , Image Cytometry/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...