Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 35
Filter
1.
Uirusu ; 71(1): 1-10, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817863

ABSTRACT

Dengue, an arbovirus, is a public health treat in the tropics and sub-tropical climates worldwide. The disease incidence has grown dramatically worldwide, with an estimated 390 million dengue virus infection per year. Dengue has distinct epidemiological patterns which are associated with the four virus serotypes. All four serotypes can co-circulate within a region, in which a number of regions are hyperendemic for all 4 serotypes. Currently, there are no specific treatment or vaccine for the disease. Dengue prevention depends on vector control measures and early interventions. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed immense pressure on health care and management systems worldwide. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation was aggravated by the simultaneous dengue outbreaks, that has led to a double burden which has further impacted the healthcare sector, particularly in resource limited settings. This review article will focus on dengue epidemics during the COVID-19 pandemic and discuss on recent findings on immunological cascades between dengue and COVID-19 and, the impact on vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267899, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is endemic in more than 100 countries and has the highest incidence among infectious diseases in Malaysia. The increase of dengue fever cases during the COVID-19 pandemic and the movement control order (MCO) highlighted the necessity to assess the dengue preventive practices among the population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the level of dengue preventive practices and its associated factors among residents in a residential area in Johor, Malaysia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 respondents from a Johor residential area between May and June 2021. A validated self-administered questionnaire was created using google forms and distributed to the respondents via WhatsApp. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (i) Sociodemographic characteristics and history of dengue fever, (ii) dengue preventive practices, and (iii) six constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM). The association between the dependent and independent variables were examined using multiple logistic regression with a significant level set at less than 0.05. RESULT: About half of the respondents have a good level of dengue preventive practices. Respondents with a history of dengue fever (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.2, p = 0.033), low perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0, p = 0.018), high self-efficacy (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.8, p = 0.045), and high cues to take action (aOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.2, p < 0.001) had higher odds of practicing good dengue preventive measures. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a moderate level of dengue preventive practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, a stronger dengue control programme is recommended by focusing on cues to take action, self-efficacy, and recruiting those with a history of dengue fever to assist health authorities in promoting good dengue preventive practices in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 667, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic placed an unprecedented overload on healthcare system globally. With all medical resources being dedicated to contain the spread of the disease, the pandemic may have impacted the burden of other infectious diseases such as dengue, particularly in countries endemic for dengue fever. Indeed, the co-occurrence of COVID-19 made dengue diagnosis challenging because of some shared clinical manifestations between the two pathogens. Furthermore, the sudden emergence and novelty of this global public health crisis has forced the suspension or slow-down of several research trials due to the lack of sufficient knowledge on how to handle the continuity of research trials during the pandemic. We report on challenges we have faced during the COVID-19 pandemic and measures that were implemented to continue the iDEM project (intervention for Dengue Epidemiology in Malaysia). METHODS: This randomized controlled trial aims to assess the effectiveness of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) on the incidence of dengue in urban Malaysia by combining: targeted outdoor residual spraying (TORS), deployment of auto-dissemination devices (ADDs), and active community engagement (CE). Our operational activities started on February 10, 2020, a few weeks before the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Malaysia. RESULTS: The three main issues affecting the continuity of the trial were: ensuring the safety of field workers during the interventions; ensuring the planned turnover of TORS application and ADD deployment and services; and maintaining the CE activities as far as possible. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the pandemic has created monumental challenges, we ensured the safety of field workers by providing complete personal protective equipment and regular COVID-19 testing. Albeit with delay, we maintained the planned interval time between TORS application and ADDs services by overlapping the intervention cycles instead of having them in a sequential scheme. CE activities continued remotely through several channels (e.g., phone calls and text messages). Sustained efforts of the management team, significant involvement of the Malaysian Ministry of Health and a quick and smart adaptation of the trial organisation according to the pandemic situation were the main factors that allowed the successful continuation of our research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: ISRCTN-81915073 . Date of registration: 17/04/2020, 'Retrospectively registered'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106269, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729465

ABSTRACT

Monte Verde, a peri­urban squatter community near San Pedro Sula, virtually eliminated Aedes aegypti production in all known larval habitats: wells; water storage containers including pilas (open concrete water tanks used for laundry), 200-liter drums, 1000-liter plastic "cisterns," buckets; and objects collecting rainwater. The project began in 2016 when Monte Verde was overrun with dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. During more than a year of experimentation, Monte Verde residents crafted an effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly toolkit that was inexpensive but required full community participation. Biological control with copepods, turtles, and tilapia was at the core of the toolkit, along with a mix of other methods such as getting rid of unnecessary containers, scrubbing them to remove Ae. aegypti eggs, and covering them to exclude mosquitoes or rainwater. Environmentally friendly larvicides also had a limited but crucial role. Key design features: (1) toolkit components known to be nearly 100% effective at preventing Ae. aegypti production when fitted to appropriate larval habitats; (2) using Ae. aegypti larval habitats as a resource by transforming them into "egg sinks" to drive Ae. aegypti population decline; (3) dedicated community volunteers who worked with their neighbors, targeting 100% coverage of all known Ae. aegypti larval habitats with an appropriate control method; (4) monthly monitoring in which the volunteers visited every house to assess progress and improve coverage as an ongoing learning experience for both volunteers and residents. Taking pupae as an indicator of Ae. aegypti production, from September 2018 to the end of the record in December 2021 (except for a brief lapse during COVID lockdown in 2020), the monthly count of pupae fluctuated between zero and 0.6% of the 22,984 pupae counted in the baseline survey at the beginning of the project. Adult Ae. aegypti declined to low numbers but did not disappear completely. There were no recognizable cases of dengue, Zika, or chikungunya after June 2018, though the study design based on a single site did not provide a basis for rigorous confirmation that Monte Verde's Ae. aegypti control program was responsible. Nonetheless, Monte Verde's success at eliminating Ae. aegypti production can serve as a model for extending this approach to other communities. Key ingredients for success were outside stimulation and facilitation to foster shared community awareness and commitment regarding the problem and its solution, enduring commitment of local leadership, compatibility of the toolkit with the local community, overcoming social obstacles, rapid results with "success breeding success," and building resilience.


Subject(s)
Aedes , COVID-19 , Copepoda , Dengue , Tilapia , Turtles , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Aedes/physiology , Animals , Communicable Disease Control , Community Participation , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Honduras , Humans , Larva , Mosquito Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 388, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the major mosquito-borne disease in Sri Lanka. After its first detection in January 2020, COVID-19 has become the major health issue in Sri Lanka. The impact of public health measures, notably restrictions on movement of people to curb COVID-19 transmission, on the incidence of dengue during the period March 2020 to April 2021 was investigated. METHODS: The incidence of dengue and COVID-19, rainfall and the public movement restrictions implemented to contain COVID-19 transmission were obtained from Sri Lanka government sources. A Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was used to predict the monthly dengue incidence from March 2020 to April 2021 for each of the country's 25 districts based on five years of pre-pandemic data, and compared with the actual recorded incidence of dengue during this period. Ovitrap collections of Aedes larvae were performed in Jaffna city in the Jaffna district from August 2020 to April 2021 and the findings compared with similar collections made in the pre-pandemic period from March 2019 to December 2019. RESULTS: The recorded numbers of dengue cases for every month from March 2020 to April 2021 in the whole country and for all 25 districts over the same period were lower than the numbers of dengue cases predicted from data for the five years (2015-2019) immediately preceding the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of dengue cases recorded nationwide represented a 74% reduction from the predicted number of dengue cases for the March 2020 to April 2021 period. The numbers of Aedes larvae collected from ovitraps per month were reduced by 88.6% with a lower proportion of Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus in Jaffna city from August 2020 until April 2021 compared with March 2019 to December 2019. CONCLUSION: Public health measures that restricted movement of people, closed schools, universities and offices to contain COVID-19 transmission unexpectedly led to a significant reduction in the reported numbers of dengue cases in Sri Lanka. This contrasts with findings reported from Singapore. The differences between the two tropical islands have significant implications for the epidemiology of dengue. Reduced access to blood meals and lower vector densities, particularly of Ae. aegypti, resulting from the restrictions on movement of people, are suggested to have contributed to the lower dengue incidence in Sri Lanka.


Subject(s)
Aedes , COVID-19 , Dengue , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Mosquito Vectors , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
7.
Mol Ther ; 30(5): 2058-2077, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612108

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need to tackle viral variants, expand the number of antigens, and assess diverse delivery systems for vaccines against emerging viruses. In the present study, a DNA vaccine candidate was generated by combining in tandem envelope protein domain III (EDIII) of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 and a dengue virus (DENV)-2 non-structural protein 1 (NS1) protein-coding region. Each domain was designed as a serotype-specific consensus coding sequence derived from different genotypes based on the whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates in India and complemented with data from Africa. This sequence was further optimized for protein expression. In silico structural analysis of the EDIII consensus sequence revealed that epitopes are structurally conserved and immunogenic. The vaccination of mice with this construct induced pan-serotype neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cell responses. Assaying intracellular interferon (IFN)-γ staining, immunoglobulin IgG2(a/c)/IgG1 ratios, and immune gene profiling suggests a strong Th1-dominant immune response. Finally, the passive transfer of immune sera protected AG129 mice challenged with a virulent, non-mouse-adapted DENV-2 strain. Our findings collectively suggest an alternative strategy for dengue vaccine design by offering a novel vaccine candidate with a possible broad-spectrum protection and a successful clinical translation either as a stand alone or in a mix and match strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Vaccines , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Vaccines, DNA , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Vaccines/genetics , Dengue Virus/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
8.
Biochemistry ; 60(46): 3449-3451, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590174

ABSTRACT

Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), whose full power was not realized until the advent of powerful detectors in 2012, has a unique position as a method of structure determination as it is capable of providing information about not only the structure but also the dynamical features of biomolecules. This information is of special importance in understanding virus-host interaction and explains the crucial role of cryo-EM in the efforts to find vaccinations and cures for pandemics the world has experienced in the past decade.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy , Host Microbial Interactions , Single Molecule Imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/virology
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 240-249, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe COVID-19 pandemic and measures against it provided a unique opportunity to understand the transmission of other infectious diseases and to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 prevention measures on them. Here we show a dengue epidemic in Yunnan, China, during the pandemic of COVID-19 was dramatically reduced compared to non-pandemic years and, importantly, spread was confined to only one city, Ruili. Three key features characterized this dengue outbreak: (i) the urban-to-suburban spread was efficiently blocked; (ii) the scale of epidemic in urban region was less affected; (iii) co-circulation of multiple strains was attenuated. These results suggested that countermeasures taken during COVID-19 pandemic are efficient to prevent dengue transmission between cities and from urban to suburban, as well to reduce the co-circulation of multiple serotypes or genotypes. Nevertheless, as revealed by the spatial analysis, once the dengue outbreak was established, its distribution was very stable and resistant to measures against COVID-19, implying the possibility to develop a precise prediction method.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Dengue Virus , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genotype , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Spatial Analysis , Vero Cells
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450904

ABSTRACT

Member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have faced dengue outbreaks for decades, and the region has one of the highest rates of dengue globally. Outbreaks continue to occur concurrently with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the 10 ASEAN countries. Both infectious diseases pose a tremendous burden in these countries related to both infection control and the economy. Increases in the number of dengue cases occurred in part due to disruptions in the pathogen-host-vector relationship caused by changes in human behaviour in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The spread of dengue was further aggravated by the implementation of lockdowns and social distancing policies. These measures limited the coverage of dengue preventive programs and delayed the medical management of both diseases due to co-infection and misdiagnosis. It is of the utmost importance for the population to remain aware of both diseases, and dengue vector control strategies must be devised to properly address outbreaks using digitalization and remote surveillance. Similarly, critical triage algorithms and further research are also needed to combat co-infection and misdiagnosis. Controlling the spread of COVID-19 though vaccination should also be undertaken to reduce the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Communicable Disease Control , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 557, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387494

ABSTRACT

Dengue virus (DENV) is spread from human to human through the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito and leads to about 100 million clinical infections yearly. Treatment options and vaccine availability for DENV are limited. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) are considered a promising antiviral approach but infectious virus contamination has limited their development. Here, a DENV-derived DIP production cell line was developed that continuously produced DENV-free DIPs. The DIPs contained and could deliver to cells a DENV serotype 2 subgenomic defective-interfering RNA, which was originally discovered in DENV infected patients. The DIPs released into cell culture supernatant were purified and could potently inhibit replication of all DENV serotypes in cells. Antiviral therapeutics are limited for many viral infection. The DIP system described could be re-purposed to make antiviral DIPs for many other RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses.


Subject(s)
Defective Viruses , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Defective Viruses/genetics , Defective Viruses/metabolism , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/metabolism , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/biosynthesis , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Load
13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that human mobility is an important factor in dengue epidemiology. Changes in mobility resulting from COVID-19 pandemic set up a real-life situation to test this hypothesis. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of reduced mobility due to this pandemic in the occurrence of dengue in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: It is an ecological study of time series, developed between January and August 2020. We use the number of confirmed dengue cases and residential mobility, on a daily basis, from secondary information sources. Mobility was represented by the daily percentage variation of residential population isolation, obtained from the Google database. We modeled the relationship between dengue occurrence and social distancing by negative binomial regression, adjusted for seasonality. We represent the social distancing dichotomously (isolation versus no isolation) and consider lag for isolation from the dates of occurrence of dengue. RESULTS: The risk of dengue decreased around 9.1% (95% CI: 14.2 to 3.7) in the presence of isolation, considering a delay of 20 days between the degree of isolation and the dengue first symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that mobility can play an important role in the epidemiology of dengue and should be considered in surveillance and control activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Brazil/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6073-6076, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318724

ABSTRACT

The Cook Island government has made several efforts to ensure zero confirmed cases and transmission of COVID-19, especially among visiting travelers. However, the Cook Island ministry of health has to deal with the new strain of dengue fever outbreak, known as dengue fever type 2 (DEN-2), by adopting several measures to control its spread, especially in the affected parts of the subtropical country. This paper aims to describe the dengue fever response taken in Cook Island and suggest recommendations to control the risk of transmission in endemic parts of the world.


Subject(s)
Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Endemic Diseases , Humans , Mosquito Control , Polynesia/epidemiology , Serogroup
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(2): 187-193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317391

ABSTRACT

In American countries, simultaneously with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, epidemics caused by different arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) are occurring. In Mexico, several of the strategies to control the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which transmits arboviruses, involve the interaction of health personnel with the community. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and home confinement measures have been implemented. To obey these measures and avoid the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, the National Center for Preventive Programs and Disease Control (CENAPRECE) has presented the vector control strategy in the scenario of simultaneous dengue and COVID-19 transmission in Mexico. In this work, we mention the routine comprehensive mosquito control measures and describe the adaptations that have been made. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of medical personnel training and supervision, especially focusing on the similarity of symptoms between both pathologies.


En países americanos, simultáneas a la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) se están dando epidemias ocasionadas por diferentes arbovirus (del dengue, chikunguña y virus del Zika). En México, varias de las estrategias para control del mosquito Aedes aegypti, transmisor de arbovirus, involucran la interacción del personal salubrista y los moradores. Debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 se han implementado medidas de distanciamiento social y resguardo domiciliario. Para respetar estas medidas y evitar riesgo de contagio por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), el Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades (CENAPRECE) ha presentado la estrategia de control de vectores en el escenario de transmisión simultánea por dengue y COVID-19 en México. En este trabajo mencionamos las medidas habituales de manejo integral de mosquito y mencionamos las adaptaciones realizadas. De igual forma, discutimos la relevancia de la capacitación y la supervisión al personal médico, esto debido a la similitud entre la sintomatología entre ambas patologías.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Mosquito Control/methods , Pandemics , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Health Promotion , Humans , Information Dissemination , Physical Distancing , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
16.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 160, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: East Africa is home to 170 million people and prone to frequent outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers and various bacterial diseases. A major challenge is that epidemics mostly happen in remote areas, where infrastructure for Biosecurity Level (BSL) 3/4 laboratory capacity is not available. As samples have to be transported from the outbreak area to the National Public Health Laboratories (NPHL) in the capitals or even flown to international reference centres, diagnosis is significantly delayed and epidemics emerge. MAIN TEXT: The East African Community (EAC), an intergovernmental body of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and South Sudan, received 10 million € funding from the German Development Bank (KfW) to establish BSL3/4 capacity in the region. Between 2017 and 2020, the EAC in collaboration with the Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine (Germany) and the Partner Countries' Ministries of Health and their respective NPHLs, established a regional network of nine mobile BSL3/4 laboratories. These rapidly deployable laboratories allowed the region to reduce sample turn-around-time (from days to an average of 8h) at the centre of the outbreak and rapidly respond to epidemics. In the present article, the approach for implementing such a regional project is outlined and five major aspects (including recommendations) are described: (i) the overall project coordination activities through the EAC Secretariat and the Partner States, (ii) procurement of equipment, (iii) the established laboratory setup and diagnostic panels, (iv) regional training activities and capacity building of various stakeholders and (v) completed and ongoing field missions. The latter includes an EAC/WHO field simulation exercise that was conducted on the border between Tanzania and Kenya in June 2019, the support in molecular diagnosis during the Tanzanian Dengue outbreak in 2019, the participation in the Ugandan National Ebola response activities in Kisoro district along the Uganda/DRC border in Oct/Nov 2019 and the deployments of the laboratories to assist in SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics throughout the region since early 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The established EAC mobile laboratory network allows accurate and timely diagnosis of BSL3/4 pathogens in all East African countries, important for individual patient management and to effectively contain the spread of epidemic-prone diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Networks , Dengue/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Laboratories , Mobile Health Units , Burundi/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Dengue/prevention & control , Epidemics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units/economics , Public Health , Rwanda/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Sudan/epidemiology , Tanzania/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology
17.
N Engl J Med ; 384(23): 2177-2186, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia pipientis are less susceptible than wild-type A. aegypti to dengue virus infection. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial involving releases of wMel-infected A. aegypti mosquitoes for the control of dengue in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. We randomly assigned 12 geographic clusters to receive deployments of wMel-infected A. aegypti (intervention clusters) and 12 clusters to receive no deployments (control clusters). All clusters practiced local mosquito-control measures as usual. A test-negative design was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention. Patients with acute undifferentiated fever who presented to local primary care clinics and were 3 to 45 years of age were recruited. Laboratory testing was used to identify participants who had virologically confirmed dengue (VCD) and those who were test-negative controls. The primary end point was symptomatic VCD of any severity caused by any dengue virus serotype. RESULTS: After successful introgression of wMel into the intervention clusters, 8144 participants were enrolled; 3721 lived in intervention clusters, and 4423 lived in control clusters. In the intention-to-treat analysis, VCD occurred in 67 of 2905 participants (2.3%) in the intervention clusters and in 318 of 3401 (9.4%) in the control clusters (aggregate odds ratio for VCD, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.35; P = 0.004). The protective efficacy of the intervention was 77.1% (95% CI, 65.3 to 84.9) and was similar against the four dengue virus serotypes. The incidence of hospitalization for VCD was lower among participants who lived in intervention clusters (13 of 2905 participants [0.4%]) than among those who lived in control clusters (102 of 3401 [3.0%]) (protective efficacy, 86.2%; 95% CI, 66.2 to 94.3). CONCLUSIONS: Introgression of wMel into A. aegypti populations was effective in reducing the incidence of symptomatic dengue and resulted in fewer hospitalizations for dengue among the participants. (Funded by the Tahija Foundation and others; AWED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03055585; Indonesia Registry number, INA-A7OB6TW.).


Subject(s)
Aedes/microbiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Dengue/transmission , Mosquito Vectors , Wolbachia , Adolescent , Adult , Aedes/virology , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Incidence , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mosquito Vectors/microbiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Young Adult
18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(23): 2252-2253, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263528
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575074, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256374

ABSTRACT

Combined cellular and humoral host immune response determine the clinical course of a viral infection and effectiveness of vaccination, but currently the cellular immune response cannot be measured on simple blood samples. As functional activity of immune cells is determined by coordinated activity of signaling pathways, we developed mRNA-based JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity assays to quantitatively measure the cellular immune response on Affymetrix expression microarray data of various types of blood samples from virally infected patients (influenza, RSV, dengue, yellow fever, rotavirus) or vaccinated individuals, and to determine vaccine immunogenicity. JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was increased in blood samples of patients with viral, but not bacterial, infection and was higher in influenza compared to RSV-infected patients, reflecting known differences in immunogenicity. High JAK-STAT3 pathway activity was associated with more severe RSV infection. In contrast to inactivated influenza virus vaccine, live yellow fever vaccine did induce JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity in blood samples, indicating superior immunogenicity. Normal (healthy) JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was established, enabling assay interpretation without the need for a reference sample. The JAK-STAT pathway assays enable measurement of cellular immune response for prognosis, therapy stratification, vaccine development, and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Diagnosis, Differential , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Rotavirus Infections/blood , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus Vaccines , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL