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1.
Eur Psychiatry ; 66(1): e50, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current evidence on the risk of admission- or medication-requiring psychiatric sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is limited to selected populations, short durations, and loss to follow-up. This study examined if SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased long-term risk of psychiatric admissions and de novo prescription of psychoactive medication in the general population of Denmark. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) were assigned to either the control or SARS-CoV-2 group based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests between 1 January 2020 and 27 November 2021. Infected subjects were matched 1:5 to control subjects by propensity score. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Adjusted Cox regression was applied to the unmatched population with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a time-dependent covariate. Follow-up time was 12 months or until the end of the study. RESULTS: A total of 4,585,083 adults were included in the study. Approximately 342,084 had a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and were matched 1:5 with 1,697,680 controls. The IRR for psychiatric admission was 0.79 in the matched population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-0.85, p < 0.001). In the unmatched population, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for psychiatric admission were either below 1.00 or with a 95% CI lower limit of 1.01. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an increased risk of de novo prescription of psychoactive medication in both the matched (IRR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.11, p < 0.01) and unmatched population (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.28-1.34, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found a signal of increased use of psychoactive medication, specifically benzodiazepines, among SARS-CoV-2-positive persons, but the risk of psychiatric admissions did not increase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Registries , Denmark/epidemiology
2.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1126240, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318153

ABSTRACT

Aims: The benefits associated with being physical active on mental health is well-established, but little is known on how rapid changes in physical activity are associated with mental health. This study investigated the association between changes in physical activity and mental health among Danish university students during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: Online survey data were collected among 2,280 university students at the University of Southern Denmark and University of Copenhagen in May-June 2020 as part the "COVID-19 International Student Well-being Study." Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze associations between changes in physical activity and mental health (depression and stress scores) adjusted for potential socio-economic confounders. Results: During the first COVID-19 lockdown, 40% decreased their moderate and 44% their vigorous physical activity, while 16% increased their moderate and 13% their vigorous physical activity. Overall, students with a stable physical activity level had the lowest mean depressive and stress scores. Adjusted analyses showed that a decrease in vigorous and moderate physical activity level was significantly associated with a higher depression score (mean difference (vigorous): 1.36, p < 0.001 and mean difference (moderate): 1.55, p < 0.001). A decrease in vigorous physical activity and an increase in moderate physical activity was associated with a 1-point increase in the PSS-4 stress score (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of students changed their physical activity level during lockdown. Our findings emphasize the importance of staying physically active during COVID-19 lockdown. This knowledge might be important for relevant health authorities to bridle post-pandemic mental health challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Students , Denmark/epidemiology
3.
Am Heart J ; 260: 58-71, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Annual influenza vaccination is widely recommended in older adults and other high-risk groups including patients with cardiovascular disease. The real-world effectiveness of influenza vaccination is limited by suboptimal uptake and effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates are therefore needed. The purpose of this trial is to investigate whether behavioral nudges digitally delivered via the Danish nationwide mandatory governmental electronic letter system can increase influenza vaccination uptake among older adults. METHODS: The NUDGE-FLU trial is a randomized implementation trial randomizing all Danish citizens aged 65 years and above without an exemption from the Danish mandatory governmental electronic letter system to receive no digitally delivered behavioral nudge (usual care arm) or to receive one of 9 electronic letters (intervention arms) each leveraging different behavioral science strategies. The trial has randomized 964,870 participants with randomization clustered at the household level (n = 691,820 households). Intervention letters were delivered on September 16, 2022, and follow-up is currently ongoing. All trial data are captured using the nationwide Danish administrative health registries. The primary end point is the receipt of an influenza vaccine on or before January 1, 2023. The secondary end point is time to vaccination. Exploratory end points include clinical events such as hospitalization for influenza or pneumonia, cardiovascular events, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. DISCUSSION: The nationwide randomized NUDGE-FLU trial is one of the largest implementation trials ever conducted and will provide important insights into effective communication strategies to maximize vaccination uptake among high-risk groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT05542004, registered September 15, 2022, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05542004.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Humans , Denmark/epidemiology , Government , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 89(6): 1820-1833, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318482

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the experience with use of sotrovimab following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in high-risk groups. METHODS: In a nationwide, population-based cohort study, we identified all individuals treated with sotrovimab (N = 2933) and stratified them by 4 high-risk groups: (A) malignant haematological disease, (B) solid organ transplantation, (C) anti-CD20 therapy ≤1 year and (D) other risks. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios for hospitalization, death and associated prognostic factors. RESULTS: Of 2933 sotrovimab-treated individuals, 83% belonged to high-risk groups (37.6% haematological malignancy, 27.4% solid organ transplantation and 17.5% treatment with anti-CD20 ≤1 year). Only 17.8% had other risks (11.8% were pregnant, 10.7% primary immunodeficiency, 21.2% other malignancy, 4.3% received anti-CD20 >1 year and 52.0% other/unknown causes). Within 90 days of infusion, 30.2% were hospitalized and 5.3% died. The main prognostic factors were the predefined high-risk groups, mainly malignant haematological disease and age ≥65 years. Number of COVID-19 vaccines (≥3) was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization. The Delta but not the Omicron BA.2 variant was associated with a higher risk of death compared to the BA.1 variant. CONCLUSION: More than 90% of the patients treated with sotrovimab belonged to the very high-risk groups as described in the Danish guidelines. Sotrovimab-treated individuals remained at a high risk of hospitalization and death which was strongly associated with the underlying immunocompromised state and age. Having received >3 COVID-19 vaccines was association with decreased risk of death and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology
5.
Midwifery ; 123: 103716, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and the derived changes in maternity care have created stress and anxiety among pregnant women in different parts of the world. In times of stress and crisis, spirituality, including spiritual and religious practices, may increase. OBJECTIVE: To describe if the COVID-19 pandemic influenced pregnant women's considerations and practises of existential meaning-making and to investigate such considerations and practices during the early pandemic in a large nationwide sample. METHODS: We used survey data from a nationwide cross-sectional study sent to all registered pregnant women in Denmark during April and May 2020. We used questions from four core items on prayer and meditation practices. RESULTS: A total of 30,995 women were invited, of whom 16,380 participated (53%). Among respondents, we found that 44% considered themselves believers, 29% confirmed a specific form of prayer, and 18% confirmed a specific form of meditation. In addition, most respondents (88%) reported that the COVID-19 pandemic had not influenced their responses. CONCLUSION: In a nationwide Danish cohort of pregnant women, existential meaning-making considerations and practices were not changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nearly one in two study participants described themselves as believers, and many practised prayer and/or meditation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Meditation , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Denmark/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283909, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293996

ABSTRACT

In Denmark, a nationwide COVID-19 lockdown was implemented on March 12, 2020 and eased on April 14, 2020. The COVID-19 lockdown featured reduced prevalence of extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight births. This study aims to explore the impact of this COVID-19 lockdown on term birthweights in Denmark. We conducted a nationwide register-based cohort study on 27,870 live singleton infants, born at term (weeks 37-41), between March 12 and April 14, 2015-2020, using data from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. Primary outcomes, corrected for confounders, were birthweight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), comparing the COVID-19 lockdown to the previous five years. Data were analysed using linear regression to assess associations with birthweight. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations with relative-size-for-gestational-age (xGA) categories. Adjusted mean birthweight was significantly increased by 16.9 g (95% CI = 4.1-31.3) during the lockdown period. A dip in mean birthweight was found in gestational weeks 37 and 38 balanced by an increase in weeks 40 and 41. The 2020 lockdown period was associated with an increased LGA prevalence (aOR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05-1.21). No significant changes in proportions of xGA groups were found between 2015 and 2019. The nationwide COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a small but significant increase in birthweight and proportion of LGA infants, driven by an increase in birthweight in gestational weeks 40 and 41.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Birth Weight , Cohort Studies , Term Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology
7.
Acute Med ; 22(1): 50-52, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292536

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, several hospital systems observed a reduction in patients with respiratory complaints. Using the Danish national registers, we conducted an observational study on disease severity and 30-day all-cause mortality for acutely admitted pneumonia patients before (3/19-3/20) and during (3/20-2/21) the pandemic. We calculated mortality rate ratios and Cox regression analyses. We identified 54,405 patients and during the pandemic, patients were older, more likely to be male, had more co-morbidity and a lower albumin on admission. Crude mortality was higher during the pandemic (8.4 vs. 6.9%). Adjusted hazard ratio for 30-day all-cause mortality was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01-1.14). We showed a small but significant, increase in mortality risk for patients admitted to hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic in Denmark.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Hospital Mortality , Denmark/epidemiology
8.
Can J Diabetes ; 47(4): 352-358, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of death among patients with COVID-19. However, the available studies lack detail on COVID-19 illness severity and measurement of relevant comorbidities. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, retrospective cohort study of patients 18 years of age and older who were hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and November 30, 2020, in Ontario, Canada, and Copenhagen, Denmark. Chart abstraction emphasizing comorbidities and disease severity was performed by trained research personnel. The association between diabetes and death was measured using Poisson regression. The main outcome measure was in-hospital 30-day risk of death. RESULTS: Our study included 1,133 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Ontario and 305 in Denmark, of whom 405 and 75 patients, respectively, had pre-existing diabetes. In both Ontario and Denmark, patients with diabetes were more likely to be older; have chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and higher troponin levels; and be receiving antibiotics, when compared with adults without diabetes. In Ontario, 24% (n=96) of adults with diabetes died compared with 15% (n=109) of adults without diabetes. In Denmark, 16% (n=12) of adults with diabetes died in hospital compared with 13% (n=29) of those without diabetes. In Ontario, the crude mortality ratio among patients with diabetes was 1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 2.07) and in the adjusted regression model it was 1.19 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.66). In Denmark, the crude mortality ratio among patients with diabetes was 1.27 (95% CI, 0.68 to 2.36) and in the adjusted model it was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.49 to 1.54). Meta-analysis of the 2 rate ratios from each region resulted in a crude mortality ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.96) and an adjusted mortality ratio of 1.11 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.47). CONCLUSION: The presence of diabetes was not strongly associated with in-hospital COVID-19 mortality independent of illness severity and other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Adult , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Denmark/epidemiology
9.
Scand J Public Health ; 51(5): 754-758, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim is to compare Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway regarding government response to the COVID-19 pandemic in mid-March-June 2020 using the Oxford Government Response Tracker. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive longitudinal ecological study. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of time series data. RESULTS: Sweden displayed a far lower response index in March. By late April indexes were similar. In May-June, response indexes were lower in Finland and Norway than in Sweden. The average response index in mid-March-June was similar in Sweden, Finland and Norway. CONCLUSIONS: The government response in the four countries indicates that timing of response was essential. Sweden's slow and weak initial government response in March-April was followed by less loosening of government response in May-June compared with, especially, Finland and Norway, which resulted in similar average government response in mid-March-June for the three countries. As a comparison, COVID-19 mortality per capita was 10 times higher in Sweden than in Finland and Norway, and five times higher than in Denmark during the same period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology , Finland/epidemiology , Norway/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e069065, 2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282403

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The ENFORCE cohort is a national Danish prospective cohort of adults who received a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine as part of the Danish National SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programme. It was designed to investigate the long-term effectiveness, safety and durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines used in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6943 adults scheduled to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the Danish COVID-19 vaccination programme were enrolled in the study prior to their first vaccination. Participants will be followed for a total of 2 years with five predetermined follow-up visits and additional visits in relation to any booster vaccination. Serology measurements are performed after each study visit. T-cell immunity is evaluated at each study visit for a subgroup of 699 participants. Safety information is collected from participants at visits following each vaccination. Data on hospital admissions, diagnoses, deaths and SARS-CoV-2 PCR results are collected from national registries throughout the study period. The median age of participants was 64 years (IQR 53-75), 56.6% were women and 23% were individuals with an increased risk of a serious course of COVID-19. A total of 340 (4.9%) participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG at baseline. FINDINGS TO DATE: Results have been published on risk factors for humoral hyporesponsiveness and non-durable response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the risk of breakthrough infections at different levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG by viral variant and on the antibody neutralising capacity against different SARS-CoV-2 variants following primary and booster vaccinations. FUTURE PLANS: The ENFORCE cohort will continuously generate studies investigating immunological response, effectiveness, safety and durability of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04760132.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Denmark/epidemiology
12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 102(6): 681-689, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275097

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to explore maternal characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, vaccination status, and virus variants among pregnant women admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with severe COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified pregnant women admitted to ICU in Sweden (n = 96), Norway (n = 31), and Denmark (n = 16) because of severe COVID-19, from national registers and clinical databases between March 2020 and February 2022 (Denmark), August 2022 (Sweden), or December 2022 (Norway). Their background characteristics, pregnancy outcome, and vaccination status were compared with all birthing women and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test-positive pregnant women during the same time period. We calculated the number admitted to ICU per 10 000 birthing and per 1000 SARS-CoV-2 test-positive women during the Index, Alpha, Delta, and Omicron periods. RESULTS: Women admitted to ICU had a higher mean body mass index, were more often of non-Scandinavian origin, had on average lower education and income levels, had a higher proportion of chronic and pregnancy-related conditions, delivered preterm, had neonates with low Apgar scores, and had more infants admitted to neonatal care, compared with all birthing and test-positive pregnant women. Of those admitted to ICU, only 7% had been vaccinated before admission. Overall, the highest proportion of women admitted to ICU per birthing was during the Delta period (4.1 per 10 000 birthing women). In Norway, the highest proportion admitted to ICU per test-positive pregnant women was during the Delta period (17.8 per 1000 test-positive), whereas the highest proportion of admitted per test-positive in Sweden and Denmark was seen during the Index period (15.4 and 8.9 per 1000 test-positive, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Admission to ICU because of COVID-19 in pregnancy was a rare event in the Scandinavian countries, but women who were unvaccinated, of non-Scandinavian origin, and with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of admission to ICU. In addition, women admitted to ICU for COVID-19 had higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Norway , Denmark/epidemiology
13.
Elife ; 122023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274387

ABSTRACT

Background: Denmark was one of the few countries where it was politically decided to continue cancer screening during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the actual population uptake of mammography and cervical screening during this period. Methods: The first COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark was announced on 11 March 2020. To investigate possible changes in cancer screening activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we analysed data from the beginning of 2017 until the end of 2021. A time series analysis was carried out to discover possible trends and outliers in the screening activities in the period 2017-2021. Data on mammography screening and cervical screening were retrieved from governmental pandemic-specific monitoring of health care activities. Results: A brief drop was seen in screening activity right after the first COVID-19 lockdown, but the activity quickly returned to its previous level. A short-term deficit of 43% [CI -49 to -37] was found for mammography screening. A short-term deficit of 62% [CI -65 to -58] was found for cervical screening. Furthermore, a slight, statistically significant downward trend in cervical screening from 2018 to 2021 was probably unrelated to the pandemic. Other changes, for example, a marked drop in mammography screening towards the end of 2021, also seem unrelated to the pandemic. Conclusions: Denmark continued cancer screening during the pandemic, but following the first lockdown a temporary drop was seen in breast and cervical screening activity. Funding: Region Zealand (R22-A597).


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology
14.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 102(5): 567-576, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy may cause viral inflammation of the placenta, resulting in fetal demise even without fetal or newborn infection. The impact of timing of the infection and the mechanisms that cause fetal morbidity and mortality are not well understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To describe placental pathology from women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, a SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry-positive placenta and late miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or medically indicated birth due to fetal distress. RESULTS: The triad of trophoblastic necrosis, inflammatory intervillous infiltrates, and increased perivillous fibrinoid deposition was present in all 17 placentas; the pregnancies resulted in eight stillbirths, two late miscarriages (19 and 21 weeks' gestation), and seven liveborn children, two of which died shortly after delivery. The severity of maternal COVID-19 was not reflected by the extent of the placental lesions. In only one case, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in lung tissue samples from the fetus. The majority events (miscarriage, stillbirth, fetal distress resulting in indicated birth, or livebirth, but neonatal death) happened shortly after maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed. Seven of eight sequenced cases were infected with the Delta (B.1.617.2) virus strain. CONCLUSION: We consolidate findings from previous case series describing extensive SARS-CoV-2 placentitis and placental insufficiency leading to fetal hypoxia. We found sparse evidence to support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 virus had infected the fetus or newborn.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Fetal Distress , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Denmark/epidemiology , Perinatal Death , Chorioamnionitis , Adult
15.
Occup Environ Med ; 80(4): 202-208, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most earlier studies on occupational risk of COVID-19 covering the entire workforce are based on relatively rare outcomes such as hospital admission and mortality. This study examines the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by occupational group based on real-time PCR (RT-PCR) tests. METHODS: The cohort includes 2.4 million Danish employees, 20-69 years of age. All data were retrieved from public registries. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of first-occurring positive RT-PCR test from week 8 of 2020 to week 50 of 2021 were computed by Poisson regression for each four-digit Danish Version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations job code with more than 100 male and 100 female employees (n=205). Occupational groups with low risk of workplace infection according to a job exposure matrix constituted the reference group. Risk estimates were adjusted by demographic, social and health characteristics including household size, completed COVID-19 vaccination, pandemic wave and occupation-specific frequency of testing. RESULTS: IRRs of SARS-CoV-2 infection were elevated in seven healthcare occupations and 42 occupations in other sectors, mainly social work activities, residential care, education, defence and security, accommodation and transportation. No IRRs exceeded 2.0. The relative risk in healthcare, residential care and defence/security declined across pandemic waves. Decreased IRRs were observed in 12 occupations. DISCUSSION: We observed a modestly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among employees in numerous occupations, indicating a large potential for preventive actions. Cautious interpretation of observed risk in specific occupations is needed because of methodological issues inherent in analyses of RT-PCR test results and because of multiple statistical tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Workforce , Denmark/epidemiology
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 38(5): 523-531, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249546

ABSTRACT

A substantial part of mortality during the COVID-19-pandemic occurred among nursing home residents which caused alarm in many countries. We investigate nursing home mortality in relation to the expected mortality prior to the pandemic. This nationwide register-based study included all 135,501 Danish nursing home residents between 2015 until October 6, 2021. All-cause mortality rates were calculated using a standardization method on sex and age distribution of 2020. Survival probability and lifetime lost for 180 days was calculated using Kaplan Meier estimates. Of 3,587 COVID-19 related deaths, 1137 (32%) occurred among nursing home residents. The yearly all-cause mortality rates per 100,000 person-years in 2015, 2016, and 2017 were 35,301 (95% CI: 34,671-35,943), 34,801 (95% CI: 34,180-35,432), and 35,708 (95% CI: 35,085-36,343), respectively. Slightly elevated mortality rates per 100,000 person-years were seen in 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021 of 38,268 (95% CI: 37,620-38,929), 36,956 (95% CI: 36,323-37,600), 37,475 (95% CI: 36,838-38,122), and 38,536 (95% CI: 37,798-39,287), respectively. For SARS-CoV-2-infected nursing home residents, lifetime lost difference was 42 days (95% CI: 38-46) in 2020 versus non-infected in 2018. Among vaccinated in 2021, lifetime lost difference was 25 days (95% CI: 18-32) for SARS-CoV-2-infected versus non-infected. Even though a high proportion of COVID-19 fatalities took place in nursing homes and SARS-CoV-2-infection increased the risk of individual death, the annual mortality was only slightly elevated. For future epidemics or pandemics reporting numbers of fatal cases in relation to expected mortality is critical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homes for the Aged , Mortality , Nursing Homes , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 33(5): 273-276, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275121

ABSTRACT

Patients with mental illness are at an increased risk of COVID-19 infection, morbidity, and mortality, and prioritisation of this group for COVID-19 vaccination programmes has therefore been suggested. Vaccine uptake may, however, be compromised by vaccine hesitancy amongst patients with mental illness, posing a critical public health issue. We conducted two surveys to provide weighted estimates of vaccine willingness amongst patients with mental illness and the general population of Denmark. Vaccine willingness was high in both groups, but slightly lower amongst patients with mental illness (84.8%), compared with the general population (89.5%) (p < .001). Based on these findings, vaccine hesitancy does not appear to be a major barrier for vaccine uptake amongst patients with mental illness in Denmark, but may be so in other countries with lower general vaccine willingness. Replication of the present study in other countries is strongly warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Case-Control Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/mortality , Mental Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0417422, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240744

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to provide information about immunity against COVID-19 along with risk factors and behavior among employees in day care facilities and preschools (DCS) in Denmark. In collaboration with the Danish Union of Pedagogues, during February and March 2021, 47,810 members were offered a point-of-care rapid SARS-CoV-2 antibody test (POCT) at work and were invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposure. Seroprevalence data from Danish blood donors (total Ig enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) were used as a proxy for the Danish population. A total of 21,018 (45%) DCS employees completed the questionnaire and reported their POCT result {median age, 44.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], [32.7 to 53.6]); females, 84.1%}, of which 20,267 (96.4%) were unvaccinated and included in analysis. A total of 1,857 (9.2%) participants tested seropositive, significantly higher than a seroprevalence at 7.6% (risk ratio [RR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 1.27) among 40,541 healthy blood donors (median age, 42 years [IQR, 28 to 53]; males, 51.3%). Exposure at work (RR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 3.6) was less of a risk factor than exposure within the household (RR, 12.7; 95% CI, 10.2 to 15.8). Less than 25% of participants reported wearing face protection at work. Most of the participants expressed some degree of fear of contracting COVID-19 both at work and outside work. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was slightly higher in DCS staff than in blood donors, but possible exposure at home was associated with a higher risk than at work. DCS staff expressed fear of contracting COVID-19, though there was limited use of face protection at work. IMPORTANCE Identifying at-risk groups and evaluating preventive interventions in at-risk groups is imperative for the ongoing pandemic as well as for the control of future epidemics. Although DCS staff have a much higher risk of being infected within their own household than at their workplace, most are fearful of being infected with COVID-19 or bringing COVID-19 to work. This represents an interesting dilemma and an important issue which should be addressed by public health authorities for risk communication and pandemic planning. This study design can be used in a strategy for ongoing surveillance of COVID-19 immunity or other infections in the population. The findings of this study can be used to assess the need for future preventive interventions in DCS, such as the use of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Child Day Care Centers , Faculty , Schools , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281579, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Attempts to manage the COVID-19 pandemic have involved a massive flow of guidelines and information to health professionals on how to reorganize clinical work and handle patients with COVID-19. The aim of this paper is to investigate how Danish general practitioners (GPs) made sense of and worked with guidelines and associated information on COVID-19 in the first months of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 13 GPs in the beginning of the pandemic and again approximately three months later. Between the two interviews, they wrote daily notes for 20 days. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and the material was analyzed using thematic network analysis. RESULTS: The interviewed GPs found the situation urgent and serious, and they spent a lot of time reading and working with COVID-19 related guidelines and associated information. Keeping up-to-date with and implementing guidelines was challenging due to the many sources of information and the constant guideline revisions. The GPs were able to assess patients' risk status but were challenged by the changing guidelines regarding this. The GPs found that deciding whether a COVID-19 patient needed to be admitted to hospital was relatively straightforward. An important final challenge was discrepancies between the government's public announcements regarding which patients could be tested for COVID-19, the guidelines provided to GPs, and the local testing capacities, which gave GPs extra work. CONCLUSION: In an urgent situation like the COVID-19 pandemic it is crucial to secure good communication between the government, health authorities, professional medical societies, and health professionals. Improved practices of collaboration between health authorities and professional societies could improve communication in future health crises and relieve GPs of some of the work involved in keeping up-to-date with information flows, constantly reviewing new guidelines, and dealing with communicative inconsistencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , General Practitioners , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Attitude of Health Personnel , Denmark/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245388

ABSTRACT

During the current COVID-19 pandemic, most governments around the world have adopted strict COVID-19 lockdown measures. In Denmark, mainly from January to March 2021, an anonymous protest group called Men in Black organized demonstrations against the Danish COVID-19 lockdown measures in the three major cities in Denmark. Based on an online survey that we carried out in March 2021 in the Danish population aged 16 years and above (n = 2692), we analyze the individual-level factors behind supporting these demonstrations. Based on ordered logit regressions, the results show that being Muslim and being self-employed (business owner) was positively related to supporting the demonstrations, and that age and living in a city municipality was negatively related to supporting the demonstrations. Based on structural equation modeling (SEM), the results showed that the municipal COVID-19 incidence rate mediates the effect of living in a city municipality, that institutional trust mediates the effect of being Muslim, and that COVID-19 health concerns and institutional trust mediate the effect of age. Overall, economic stress among business owners, health concerns, and institutional trust were found to be the main predictors of supporting the demonstrations against the COVID-19 lockdown measures in Denmark.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Trust , Denmark/epidemiology
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