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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e049668, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598698

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced hospital work and healthcare workers all over the world. We explored how Danish nurses coped with the fast, comprehensive organisational changes in their workplace and identified barriers to and facilitators for organisations ensuring the best possible conditions for nurses to meet these challenges. The study focuses on the organisational setting and how it did or did not support the nurses in their work. METHODS: A qualitative explorative design was used in interviewing 23 nurses who had worked at a COVID-19 ward in one of three hospitals. Data were collected in the summer of 2020, and the analysis was inspired by Paul Ricoeur's theory of narratives and interpretation. RESULTS: The presence of managers in the wards helped the nurses in the form of psychological and practical support. Working within an organisation that provides a safe environment was essential for nurses. The experience of a safe environment allowed nurses to ask questions, which supported them in finding solutions to specific tasks in the new and critical working environment. Barriers to handling the new situation were an absence of managers and a lack of a sense of belongingness and trust. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need for management to be present in the ward and for organisational support to be available to nurses so they can provide optimal treatment and care when working in new and unknown conditions during a pandemic. Practical assistance from managers to ease the job is beneficial. Furthermore, the presence of management is essential to provide psychological support and create a safe environment because this allows nurses to ask questions about how to better manage new and critical tasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Denmark/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Euro Surveill ; 26(50)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593153

ABSTRACT

By 9 December 2021, 785 SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant cases have been identified in Denmark. Most cases were fully (76%) or booster-vaccinated (7.1%); 34 (4.3%) had a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of cases with available information reported symptoms (509/666; 76%) and most were infected in Denmark (588/644; 91%). One in five cases cannot be linked to previous cases, indicating widespread community transmission. Nine cases have been hospitalised, one required intensive care and no deaths have been registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24124, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585805

ABSTRACT

The quantification of spreading heterogeneity in the COVID-19 epidemic is crucial as it affects the choice of efficient mitigating strategies irrespective of whether its origin is biological or social. We present a method to deduce temporal and individual variations in the basic reproduction number directly from epidemic trajectories at a community level. Using epidemic data from the 98 districts in Denmark we estimate an overdispersion factor k for COVID-19 to be about 0.11 (95% confidence interval 0.08-0.18), implying that 10 % of the infected cause between 70 % and 87 % of all infections.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Denmark/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Geography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
BMJ ; 375: e068665, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and myocarditis or myopericarditis. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 4 931 775 individuals aged 12 years or older, followed from 1 October 2020 to 5 October 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome, myocarditis or myopericarditis, was defined as a combination of a hospital diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, increased troponin levels, and a hospital stay lasting more than 24 hours. Follow-up time before vaccination was compared with follow-up time 0-28 days from the day of vaccination for both first and second doses, using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as an underlying timescale to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for sex, comorbidities, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 269 participants developed myocarditis or myopericarditis, of whom 108 (40%) were 12-39 years old and 196 (73%) were male. Of 3 482 295 individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), 48 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from the vaccination date compared with unvaccinated individuals (adjusted hazard ratio 1.34 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.00); absolute rate 1.4 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8)). Adjusted hazard ratios among female participants only and male participants only were 3.73 (1.82 to 7.65) and 0.82 (0.50 to 1.34), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 1.3 (0.8 to 1.9) and 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 1.48 (0.74 to 2.98) and the absolute rate was 1.6 (1.0 to 2.6) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. Among 498 814 individuals vaccinated with mRNA-1273 (Moderna), 21 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from vaccination date (adjusted hazard ratio 3.92 (2.30 to 6.68); absolute rate 4.2 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (2.6 to 6.4)). Adjusted hazard ratios among women only and men only were 6.33 (2.11 to 18.96) and 3.22 (1.75 to 5.93), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 2.0 (0.7 to 4.8) and 6.3 (3.6 to 10.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 5.24 (2.47 to 11.12) and the absolute rate was 5.7 (3.3 to 9.3) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with mRNA-1273 was associated with a significantly increased risk of myocarditis or myopericarditis in the Danish population, primarily driven by an increased risk among individuals aged 12-39 years, while BNT162b2 vaccination was only associated with a significantly increased risk among women. However, the absolute rate of myocarditis or myopericarditis after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination was low, even in younger age groups. The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination should be taken into account when interpreting these findings. Larger multinational studies are needed to further investigate the risks of myocarditis or myopericarditis after vaccination within smaller subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
6.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 173, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the risk of an extensive overload of the healthcare systems have elucidated the need to make decisions on the level of life-sustaining treatment for patients requiring hospitalisation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the proportion and characteristics of COVID-19 patients with limitation of life-sustaining treatment decisions and the degree of patient involvement in the decisions. METHODS: A retrospective observational descriptive study was conducted in three Danish regional hospitals, looking at all patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted in 2020 with COVID-19 as the primary diagnosis. Lists of hospitalised patients admitted due to COVID-19 were extracted. The data registration included age, gender, comorbidities, including mental state, body mass index, frailty, recent hospital admissions, COVID-19 life-sustaining treatment, ICU admission, decisions on limitations of life-sustaining treatment before and during current hospitalisation, hospital length of stay, and hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 476 patients were included. For 7% (33/476), a decision about limitation of life-sustaining treatment had been made prior to hospital admission. At the time of admission, one or more limitations of life-sustaining treatment were registered for 16% (75/476) of patients. During the admission, limitation decisions were made for an additional 11 patients, totaling 18% (86/476). For 40% (34/86), the decisions were either made by or discussed with the patient. The decisions not made by patients were made by physicians. For 36% (31/86), no information was disclosed about patient involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Life-sustaining treatment limitation decisions were made for 18% of a COVID-19 patient cohort. Hereof, more than a third of the decisions had been made before hospital admission. Many records lacked information on patient involvement in the decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Patient Participation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7251, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569250

ABSTRACT

New lineages of SARS-CoV-2 are of potential concern due to higher transmissibility, risk of severe outcomes, and/or escape from neutralizing antibodies. Lineage B.1.1.7 (the Alpha variant) became dominant in early 2021, but the association between transmissibility and risk factors, such as age of primary case and viral load remains poorly understood. Here, we used comprehensive administrative data from Denmark, comprising the full population (January 11 to February 7, 2021), to estimate household transmissibility. This study included 5,241 households with primary cases; 808 were infected with lineage B.1.1.7 and 4,433 with other lineages. Here, we report an attack rate of 38% in households with a primary case infected with B.1.1.7 and 27% in households with other lineages. Primary cases infected with B.1.1.7 had an increased transmissibility of 1.5-1.7 times that of primary cases infected with other lineages. The increased transmissibility of B.1.1.7 was multiplicative across age and viral load.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e25-e28, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566087

ABSTRACT

In this prospective nationwide multicenter study from Denmark, myopericarditis after Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was identified in 13 males and 2 females between May 15 and September 15, 2021, among 133,477 vaccinated males and 127,857 vaccinated females 12-17 years of age, equaling 97 males and 16 females per million. In conclusion, the incidence of myopericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination among males appears higher than reports from the United States.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies
9.
BJS Open ; 5(6)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510889

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a global impact on cancer care but the extent to which this has affected the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) in different countries is unknown. CRC management in Denmark was thought to have been relatively less impacted than in other nations during the first wave of the pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the pandemic's impact on CRC in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish national cancer registry identified patients with newly diagnosed with CRC from 1 March 2020 to 1 August 2020 (pandemic interval) and corresponding dates in 2019 (prepandemic interval). Data regarding clinicopathological demographics and perioperative outcomes were retrieved and compared between the two cohorts. RESULTS: Total CRC diagnoses (201 versus 359 per month, P = 0.008) and screening diagnoses (38 versus 80 per month, P = 0.016) were both lower in the pandemic interval. The proportions of patients presenting acutely and the stage at presentation were, however, unaffected. For those patients having surgery, both colonic and rectal cancer operations fell to about half the prepandemic levels: colon (187 (i.q.r. 183-188) to 96 (i.q.r. 94-112) per month, P = 0.032) and rectal cancers (63 (i.q.r. 59-75) to 32 (i.q.r. 28-42) per month, P = 0.008). No difference was seen in surgical practice or postoperative 30-day mortality rate (colon 2.2 versus 2.2 per cent, P = 0.983; rectal 1.0 versus 2.9 per cent, P = 0.118) between the cohorts. Treatment during the pandemic interval was not independently associated with death at 30 or 90 days. CONCLUSION: The initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic reduced the number of new diagnoses made and number of operations but had limited impact on technique or outcomes of CRC care in Denmark.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Colectomy/statistics & numerical data , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Registries
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2853-e2860, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to perform a seroprevalence survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high-risk groups. METHODS: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the 7 hospitals, prehospital services, and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited to be tested by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co, Ltd, Beijing, China). RESULTS: A total of 25 950 participants were invited. Of these, 17 971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. After adjustment for assay sensitivity and specificity, the overall seroprevalence was 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%; difference: 10.7 percentage points [95% CI, 9.5-12.2]). In the high-prevalence area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence (29.7%), whereas departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence (2.2%). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. CONCLUSIONS: We found large differences in the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions that should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission. Regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Administrative Personnel , Antibodies, Viral , Delivery of Health Care , Denmark/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1507-1517, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The more infectious SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 rapidly spread in Europe after December, 2020, and a concern that B.1.1.7 could cause more severe disease has been raised. Taking advantage of Denmark's high RT-PCR testing and whole genome sequencing capacities, we used national health register data to assess the risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation in individuals infected with B.1.1.7 compared with those with other SARS-CoV-2 lineages. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of all SARS-CoV-2-positive cases confirmed by RT-PCR in Denmark, sampled between Jan 1 and March 24, 2021, with 14 days of follow-up for COVID-19 hospitalisation. Cases were identified in the national COVID-19 surveillance system database, which includes data from the Danish Microbiology Database (RT-PCR test results), the Danish COVID-19 Genome Consortium, the National Patient Registry, the Civil Registration System, as well as other nationwide registers. Among all cases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was defined as first admission lasting longer than 12 h within 14 days of a sample with a positive RT-PCR result. The study population and main analysis were restricted to the proportion of cases with viral genome data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) of admission according to infection with B.1.1.7 versus other co-existing lineages with a Poisson regression model with robust SEs, adjusted a priori for sex, age, calendar time, region, and comorbidities. The contribution of each covariate to confounding of the crude RR was evaluated afterwards by a stepwise forward inclusion. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and March 24, 2021, 50 958 individuals with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and at least 14 days of follow-up for hospitalisation were identified; 30 572 (60·0%) had genome data, of whom 10 544 (34·5%) were infected with B.1.1.7. 1944 (6·4%) individuals had a COVID-19 hospitalisation and of these, 571 (29·4%) had a B.1.1.7 infection and 1373 (70·6%) had an infection with other SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Although the overall number of hospitalisations decreased during the study period, the proportion of individuals infected with B.1.1.7 increased from 3·5% to 92·1% per week. B.1.1.7 was associated with a crude RR of hospital admission of 0·79 (95% CI 0·72-0·87; p<0·0001) and an adjusted RR of 1·42 (95% CI 1·25-1·60; p<0·0001). The adjusted RR was increased in all strata of age and calendar period-the two covariates with the largest contribution to confounding of the crude RR. INTERPRETATION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation compared with that of other lineages in an analysis adjusted for covariates. The overall effect on hospitalisations in Denmark was lessened due to a strict lockdown, but our findings could support hospital preparedness and modelling of the projected impact of the epidemic in countries with uncontrolled spread of B.1.1.7. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Genome Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477948

ABSTRACT

Social distancing measures have been a key component in government strategies to mitigate COVID-19 globally. Based on official documents, this study aimed to identify, compare and analyse public social distancing policy measures adopted in Denmark and Sweden regarding the coronavirus from 1 March 2020 until 1 October 2020. A key difference was the greater emphasis on laws and executive orders (sticks) in Denmark, which allowed the country to adopt many stricter policy measures than Sweden, which relied mostly on general guidelines and recommendations (sermons). The main policy adopters in Denmark were the government and the Danish Parliament, whereas the Public Health Agency issued most policies in Sweden, reflecting a difference in political governance and administrative structure in the two countries. During the study period, Sweden had noticeably higher rates of COVID-19 deaths and hospitalizations per 100,000 population than Denmark, yet it is difficult to determine the impact or relative effectiveness of sermons and sticks, particularly with regard to broader and longer-term health, economic and societal effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1418, 2021 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the continuation of the first wave of the Covid-19 outbreak in Denmark, unprecedented restrictions with great impact on the citizen's everyday life were implemented. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental and physical health in the Danish population during the spring 2020 first wave outbreak and lockdown. METHODS: A sample from the adult Danish population (n = 2190) were included. Self-reported measures of illness worry (Whiteley-6-R), emotional distress (SCL-90), and physical symptom load (SLC-90) were obtained before and during the first wave of the pandemic and compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Impact of covariates on physical and mental health was evaluated with ordinal regression analyses. Results from a tailored questionnaire regarding the Covid-19 pandemic were presented to explore the direct impact of the pandemic. RESULTS: We only found minor increases in illness worry, emotional distress and physical symptom load (0-1 points difference, p ≤ 0.007) during the Covid-19 pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Sex, age, education, and physical disease were not associated with illness worry, emotional distress, or physical symptom load. Overall, the participants were trustful in the authorities' recommendations and felt that they managed the pandemic and the restrictions to a great extent despite that some expected great/major future consequences of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic only had minor impact on mental and physical health in the Danish general population. Future studies should address the impact of the second wave of the pandemic and the renewed implementation of the concomitant restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI59-SI67, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with RA treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with RA. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark between 1 March and 12 August 2020. The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals. Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA treated and non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, HCQ or glucocorticoids, respectively. Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD sp - individudals. RESULTS: Patients with IRD (n = 58 052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.86] with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29 440, HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.64). There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization associated with TNF-inhibitor, HCQ nor glucocorticoid use. COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.53) for a severe outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with IRD were more likely to be admitted with COVID-19 than the general population, and COVID-19 admitted patients with RA could be at higher risk of a severe outcome. Treatment with specific DMARDs did not affect the risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/virology
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 664, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused great uncertainty about causes, treatment and mortality of the new virus. Constant updates of recommendations and restrictions from national authorities may have caused great concern for pregnant women. Reports suggested an increased number of pregnant women choosing to give birth at home, some even unassisted ('freebirth') due to concerns of transmission in hospital or reduction in birthplace options. During April and May 2020, we aimed to investigate i) the level of concern about coronavirus transmission in Danish pregnant women, ii) the level of concern related to changes in maternity services due to the pandemic, and iii) implications for choice of place of birth. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional online survey study, inviting all registered pregnant women in Denmark (n = 30,009) in April and May 2020. RESULTS: The response rate was 60% (n = 17,995). Concerns of transmission during pregnancy and birth were considerable; 63% worried about getting severely ill whilst pregnant, and 55% worried that virus would be transmitted to their child. Thirtyeight percent worried about contracting the virus at the hospital. The most predominant concern related to changes in maternity services during the pandemic was restrictions on partners' attendance at birth (81%). Especially nulliparous women were concerned about whether cancelled antenatal classes or fewer physical midwifery consultations would affect their ability to give birth or care for their child postpartum.. The proportion of women who considered a home birth was equivalent to pre-pandemic home birth rates in Denmark (3%). During the temporary discontinue of public home birth services, 18% of this group considered a home birth assisted by a private midwife (n = 125), and 6% considered a home birth with no midwifery assistance at all (n = 41). CONCLUSION: Danish pregnant womens' concerns about virus transmission to the unborn child and worries about contracting the virus during hospital appointments were considerable during the early pandemic. Home birth rates may not be affected by the pandemic, but restrictions in home birth services may impose decisions to freebirth for a small proportion of the population.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Birth Setting , COVID-19/psychology , Maternal Health Services , Parturition/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Midwifery , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouses , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18959, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437695

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put massive strains on hospitals, and tools to guide hospital planners in resource allocation during the ebbs and flows of the pandemic are urgently needed. We investigate whether machine learning (ML) can be used for predictions of intensive care requirements a fixed number of days into the future. Retrospective design where health Records from 42,526 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in Denmark was extracted. Random Forest (RF) models were trained to predict risk of ICU admission and use of mechanical ventilation after n days (n = 1, 2, …, 15). An extended analysis was provided for n = 5 and n = 10. Models predicted n-day risk of ICU admission with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) between 0.981 and 0.995, and n-day risk of use of ventilation with an ROC-AUC between 0.982 and 0.997. The corresponding n-day forecasting models predicted the needed ICU capacity with a coefficient of determination (R2) between 0.334 and 0.989 and use of ventilation with an R2 between 0.446 and 0.973. The forecasting models performed worst, when forecasting many days into the future (for large n). For n = 5, ICU capacity was predicted with ROC-AUC 0.990 and R2 0.928, and use of ventilator was predicted with ROC-AUC 0.994 and R2 0.854. Random Forest-based modelling can be used for accurate n-day forecasting predictions of ICU resource requirements, when n is not too large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Intensive Care Units/trends , Area Under Curve , Computational Biology/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/trends , Denmark/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Hospitals/trends , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilators, Mechanical/trends
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