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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154983

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The psychological status of employees, especially vulnerable populations, has received considerable research attention. However, as a newly emerging and popular occupation in the gig industry, food delivery drivers have received little attention. The majority of these workers are immigrants who are already in a precarious position due to a lack of available jobs, inadequate medical care, poor diets, and communication and acculturation difficulties even before they take these jobs, which involve long working hours and exposure to the elements. (2) Methods: To examine the anxiety and depression symptoms of these workers and possible influencing factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of food delivery drivers working for the Meituan Company (one of the largest e-platform companies in China). Anxiety and depression scales were adapted from the GAD-7, and the PHQ-9 was used to assess participants' related symptoms. Differences were compared in terms of sociodemographic, work situation, and lifestyle variables. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the effects of various factors on the two psychological dimensions. (3) Results: Among the 657 participants, the proportions of participants reporting anxiety and depression symptoms were 46.0% and 18.4%, respectively. Lack of communication with leaders (ORAN = 2.620, 95% CI: 1.528-4.493, p < 0.001; ORDE = 1.928, 95% CI: 1.039-3.577, p = 0.037) and poor sleep quality (ORAN = 2.152, 95% CI: 1.587-2.917, p < 0.001; ORDE = 2.420, 95% CI: 1.672-3.504, p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for both anxiety and depression symptoms. Women (OR = 2.679, 95% CI: 1.621-4.427, p < 0.001), those who climbed ≥31 floors per day (OR = 2.415, 95% CI: 1.189-4.905, p = 0.015), and those with a high frequency of breakfast consumption (OR = 3.821, 95% CI: 1.284-11.369, p = 0.016) were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Participants who earned less than 5000 RMB (OR = 0.438, 95% CI: 0.204-0.940, p = 0.034), were unwilling to seek medical help (OR = 3.549, 95% CI: 1.846-6.821, p < 0.001), or had a high frequency of smoking (OR = 5.107, 95% CI: 1.187-21.981, p = 0.029) were more likely to be depressive. (4) Conclusion: The existence of communication channels with leaders and good sleep quality are protective factors for anxiety and depression symptoms. Participants who were female, climbed ≥31floors per day, and had a high frequency of eating breakfast were more likely to have anxiety symptoms, while earning less, unwillingness to seek medical help, and a high frequency of smoking were risk factors for depression symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 904550, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154831

ABSTRACT

Objective: After the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the health status of the general population has suffered a huge threat, and the mental health of front-line healthcare providers has also encountered great challenges. Therefore, this study aims to: (1) investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among healthcare providers, and (2) verify the moderating role of self-efficacy in the influence of PTSD on mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey of 1993 participants. The presence of depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and PTSD was evaluated using screening tests from March 1. Sociodemographic and COVID-19-related data were also collected. A data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression. Results: The prevalence of PTSD among healthcare providers was 9.3%. PTSD was negatively correlated with self-efficacy (r = -0.265, P < 0.01), anxiety (r = -0.453, P < 0.01), and depression (r = 0.708, P < 0.01). Profession, daily working hours, maximum continuous working days, and daily sleep time were influencing factors of PTSD. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that physicians (OR = 2.254, 95% CI = 1.298, 3.914) and nurses (OR = 2.176, 95% CI = 1.337, 3.541) were more likely to experience PTSD than other healthcare providers. Conclusion: Self-efficacy has a moderating effect on the influence of PTSD on anxiety and depression. This suggests that health managers need to respond to the current psychological crisis of healthcare providers, implement appropriate psychological interventions, and minimize the psychological harm caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154411

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
4.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 30(12): 1327-1329, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149967
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143133

ABSTRACT

Depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) among adolescents have become a public health concern. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and measure an IMB-based health education intervention module for reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. A single-blinded cluster randomised control trial (RCT) was conducted among students with abnormal DASS-21 scores. They were divided into an intervention group (three schools, 62 participants) and a control group (three schools, 57 participants). Participants in the intervention group received IMB-based health education, while participants in the control group underwent the standard care session. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, the Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis was conducted. A total of 119 students participated in this study, and no loss to follow-up was reported. Both intervention and control groups showed significantly reduced DAS scores (p < 0.005). However, the reduction of these scores was greater in the intervention group. The GLMM analysis revealed that the intervention was effective in reducing depression (ß = -2.400, t = -3.102, SE = 0.7735, p = 0.002, 95% CI = -3.921, -0.878), anxiety (ß = -2.129, t = -2.824, SE = 0.7541, p = 0.005, 95% CI = -3.612, -0.646), and stress (ß = -1.335, t = -2.457, SE = 0.536, p = 0.015, 95% CI = -2.045, -0.266) among adolescents. The IMB-based health education module was effective in reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools.


Subject(s)
Depression , Motivation , Humans , Adolescent , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Schools , Health Education , Anxiety/prevention & control
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 999795, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142336

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study explores the inter-relationship between emotional distress in adults and gender, quarantine experiences, pandemic duration, and employment. Methods: An online cross-sectional online survey comprised 943 Israelis. The link to the survey was distributed via different personal and academic social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter). The survey was administered using the online survey portal Google Forms. Participants addressed questions about their socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, family status, employment, and quarantine experiences) and ranked their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression using the Hebrew version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-DASS-21. Results: The majority of the respondents (72%) were women, 39% experienced quarantine, and 55% were unemployed. About 42% experienced a short-term pandemic (one lockdown), and the rest experienced a continuous pandemic (two lockdowns). The MANCOVA results, controlling for family status, indicated that women and unemployed participants reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels than men and employed participants. Participants who experienced individual quarantine reported higher anxiety and depression. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between gender, employment, and pandemic duration. The experience of individual quarantine intensified the stress, anxiety, and depression for both employed and unemployed women. Conversely, the quarantine intensified stress, anxiety, and depression only for unemployed men, whereas the quarantine did not affect stress, anxiety, and depression among employed men. Conclusions: Employment is a critical factor regarding men's emotional state during such stressful situations as the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, individual quarantine and long-term pandemics are associated with opposite outcomes regarding individual mental health. The individual quarantine is associated with increased anxiety and depression, while a long-term, continuous pandemic is associated with decreased stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , Female , Male , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Employment
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e40719, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression has a high prevalence among young adults, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, mental health services remain scarce and underutilized worldwide. Mental health chatbots are a novel digital technology to provide fully automated interventions for depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness and nonclinical performance of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based mental health chatbot (XiaoE) for young adults with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In a single-blind, 3-arm randomized controlled trial, participants manifesting depressive symptoms recruited from a Chinese university were randomly assigned to a mental health chatbot (XiaoE; n=49), an e-book (n=49), or a general chatbot (Xiaoai; n=50) group in a ratio of 1:1:1. Participants received a 1-week intervention. The primary outcome was the reduction of depressive symptoms according to the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 1 week later (T1) and 1 month later (T2). Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted under analysis of covariance models adjusting for baseline data. Controlled multiple imputation and δ-based sensitivity analysis were performed for missing data. The secondary outcomes were the level of working alliance measured using the Working Alliance Questionnaire (WAQ), usability measured using the Usability Metric for User Experience-LITE (UMUX-LITE), and acceptability measured using the Acceptability Scale (AS). RESULTS: Participants were on average 18.78 years old, and 37.2% (55/148) were female. The mean baseline PHQ-9 score was 10.02 (SD 3.18; range 2-19). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed lower PHQ-9 scores among participants in the XiaoE group compared with participants in the e-book group and Xiaoai group at both T1 (F2,136=17.011; P<.001; d=0.51) and T2 (F2,136=5.477; P=.005; d=0.31). Better working alliance (WAQ; F2,145=3.407; P=.04) and acceptability (AS; F2,145=4.322; P=.02) were discovered with XiaoE, while no significant difference among arms was found for usability (UMUX-LITE; F2,145=0.968; P=.38). CONCLUSIONS: A CBT-based chatbot is a feasible and engaging digital therapeutic approach that allows easy accessibility and self-guided mental health assistance for young adults with depressive symptoms. A systematic evaluation of nonclinical metrics for a mental health chatbot has been established in this study. In the future, focus on both clinical outcomes and nonclinical metrics is necessary to explore the mechanism by which mental health chatbots work on patients. Further evidence is required to confirm the long-term effectiveness of the mental health chatbot via trails replicated with a longer dose, as well as exploration of its stronger efficacy in comparison with other active controls. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100052532; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=135744.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Young Adult , Female , Adolescent , Male , Depression/therapy , Single-Blind Method , Pandemics
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 700, 2022 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are topical concerns worldwide, especially among adolescents. Besides, biological rhythm disorder as a candidate mechanism for mood disorders is highly prevalent, but relevant research among adolescents in China is presently limited. We conducted the present study to investigate the distribution of multi-dimensional self-rating biological rhythm disorder and the association of self-rating biological rhythm disorders with depression and anxiety symptoms among Chinese adolescents in different academic stages. METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, 3693 students aged 11-23 from Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China were included. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) were used to evaluate symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Additionally, the Self-Rating of Biological Rhythm Disorder for Adolescents (SBRDA) was used to assess status of biological rhythm disorders. Multivariate logistic regression was developed to explore factors potentially associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety stratified by academic stages. RESULTS: Among all participants, 44.14 and 36.15% suffered from depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. On average, participants scored 74.66 ± 19.37 on the measure of total biological rhythm disorder. Adjusted for demographic confounding factors, the logistic regression analysis showed higher scores of total biological rhythm disorder were associated with more severe depression (OR = 14.38, 95%CI: 11.38-18.16) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 11.63, 95%CI: 9.14-14.81). The similar results were also found in the stratified analysis by academic stages. CONCLUSIONS: Self-rating biological rhythm disorders are significantly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Discrepancy across academic stages should also be taken into account in establishing public health strategies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Adolescent , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Anxiety/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Periodicity
10.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 43(4): 495-501, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133999

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has negative and sometimes irreversible effects on infertile women. This study aimed to investigate hopelessness and depression in infertile women whose treatment has been delayed due to COVID-19. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted online on 172 infertile women. The case group included infertile women under treatment whose treatment was delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the control group was selected from infertile women who were not under infertile treatment. This study was conducted between April and December 2021 in Jahrom, Iran. Beck hopelessness standard questionnaire (BHS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to collect data, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean score of hopelessness in women in the case group was 9.48 ± 1.80 compared to the control group 8.66 ± 1.34 (OR = 1.39 95% CI = 1.13-1.71), and its areas (OR = 1.33 95% CI = 1.003-2.43), Emotions and expectations score (OR = 1.59 95% CI = 1.07-2.37), Motivation loss score (OR = 2.02 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), Hope score, and depression in women in the case group was 40.33 ± 10.87to 36.72 ± 11.40 compared to the control (OR = 1.17 95% CI = 1.11-1.23). All these variables showed an increase in the case group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results showed that infertile women whose treatment was delayed were more frustrated and depressed than women in the control group. COVID-19 epidemic and discontinuation of infertile treatments in infertile women seem to have negative psychological effects. Therefore, the psychological effects of this epidemic on infertile women should not be ignored, so planners should put social and family support at the top of the program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infertility, Female , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Infertility, Female/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Case-Control Studies
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20346, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133603

ABSTRACT

To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the variables of sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in healthy Brazilian women. Longitudinal observational study conducted through an online questionnaire with women in 2020 and 2021. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. The data were analyzed descriptively and the comparison between the data obtained in the first and second evaluation was performed using the McNemar test. A logistic regression was applied to test the association between the variables that showed a significant difference. A total of 235 women responded to the questionnaires. There was a significant increase in fatigue between the two moments (p < 0.05). In the first assessment, depression (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-4.99), anxiety (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.37-5.22) and sleep quality (OR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.71-9.67) were associated with fatigue. In the second assessment, depression (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.19-7.18) and anxiety (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.27-5.71) were associated with fatigue. There was an impact on biopsychosocial aspects during the COVID-19 pandemic, with worsening of fatigue symptoms within a 6-month interval. In addition, fatigue was associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and worse sleep quality in the first year of the pandemic, remaining associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in the second year of the pandemic in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Sleep Quality , Depression/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Fatigue/psychology
12.
J Affect Disord ; 310: 422-428, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether resilience modulates the levels of depression, anxiety, stress and the impact of events in physiotherapists who work with COVID-19 patients with those who do not. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 up to October 2020. A total of 519 physiotherapists were enrolled and divided according to resilience and whether they worked with COVID-19 patients. Volunteers answered sociodemographic questionnaires, rating their depression, anxiety, and stress on a scale (DASS-21). The impact of event scale revised (IES-R) and 14-item resilience scale (14-RS) were also used. RESULTS: Physiotherapists with low resilience present scores significantly high of depression, anxiety, stress and impact of event compared to the high resilience group (P < .001). Additionally, working with COVID-19 patients also resulted in increased levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and impact of event compared with the NO COVID-19 group (P < .001). These responses were modulated by age, sex, number of absences from work, whether or not personal protective equipment was received, host leadership, and the practice and maintenance of regular physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The responses to the questionnaires were anonymous and self-administered. We cannot assess whether these people had a previous diagnosis of depression, anxiety and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Low resilience and work with COVID-19 patients were associated with high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and worse psychological impacts of events. Several aspects modulate these responses and can contribute to improving the resilience and mental health of physiotherapists who are responsible for the care of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(10): 421-430, 2022 10 12.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146154

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study explores the relationship between emotional support, perceived risk and mental health outcomes among health care workers, who face high rates of burnout and mental distress since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicentred online survey of health care workers in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic evaluated coping strategies, confidence in infection control, impact of previous work during the 2003 SARS outbreak and emotional support. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Of 3852 participants, 8.2% sought professional mental health services while 77.3% received emotional support from family, 74.0% from friends and 70.3% from colleagues. Those who felt unsupported in their work had higher odds ratios of experiencing moderate and severe symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.69), PTSD (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.58-2.25) and depression (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.57-2.25). Nearly 40% were afraid of telling family about the risks they were exposed to at work. Those who were able to share this information demonstrated lower risk of anxiety (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.48-0.69), PTSD (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.41-0.56) and depression (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.47-0.65). CONCLUSION: Informal sources of support, including family, friends and colleagues, play an important role in mitigating distress and should be encouraged and utilized more by health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(11): 1560-1571, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To what extent the COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures influenced mental health in the general population is still unclear. PURPOSE: To assess the trajectory of mental health symptoms during the first year of the pandemic and examine dose-response relations with characteristics of the pandemic and its containment. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles were identified from the living evidence database of the COVID-19 Open Access Project, which indexes COVID-19-related publications from MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase via Ovid, and PsycInfo. Preprint publications were not considered. STUDY SELECTION: Longitudinal studies that reported data on the general population's mental health using validated scales and that were published before 31 March 2021 were eligible. DATA EXTRACTION: An international crowd of 109 trained reviewers screened references and extracted study characteristics, participant characteristics, and symptom scores at each timepoint. Data were also included for the following country-specific variables: days since the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the stringency of governmental containment measures, and the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths. DATA SYNTHESIS: In a total of 43 studies (331 628 participants), changes in symptoms of psychological distress, sleep disturbances, and mental well-being varied substantially across studies. On average, depression and anxiety symptoms worsened in the first 2 months of the pandemic (standardized mean difference at 60 days, -0.39 [95% credible interval, -0.76 to -0.03]); thereafter, the trajectories were heterogeneous. There was a linear association of worsening depression and anxiety with increasing numbers of reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increasing stringency in governmental measures. Gender, age, country, deprivation, inequalities, risk of bias, and study design did not modify these associations. LIMITATIONS: The certainty of the evidence was low because of the high risk of bias in included studies and the large amount of heterogeneity. Stringency measures and surges in cases were strongly correlated and changed over time. The observed associations should not be interpreted as causal relationships. CONCLUSION: Although an initial increase in average symptoms of depression and anxiety and an association between higher numbers of reported cases and more stringent measures were found, changes in mental health symptoms varied substantially across studies after the first 2 months of the pandemic. This suggests that different populations responded differently to the psychological stress generated by the pandemic and its containment measures. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Swiss National Science Foundation. (PROSPERO: CRD42020180049).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(3): S703-S706, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146944

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a viral infection that spreads through different mediums and has a high rate of mortality. At its initial stages, there is no particular medicine that can cure patients of COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to understand the COVID-19 knowledge, perception, and its effects in terms of anxiety and depression among frontline health care workers of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from June to July 2021 in which data was collected from 200 hospital healthcare workers who have performed duties in COVID isolation wards through standard questionnaire. SPSS version 24.0 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of 200 participants in the study 100 (50.0%) were male. Regarding safety measures taken during COVID -19, 144 (72.0%) individuals reported that they have not been given training to handle known or suspected cases of COVID-19. Moderate anxiety and depression was found in 153 (76.5%) healthcare workers, mild in 25 (12.5%) and 22 (11.0%) had severe anxiety and depression at the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: This study revealed that a significant anxiety and depression was found in frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, a more extensive study should be conducted which involves many other hospitals like Ayub Teaching Hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Teaching , Anxiety/epidemiology , Perception
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 996386, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123474

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses are at high risk for depression and anxiety symptoms after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to assess the network structure of anxiety and depression symptoms among Chinese nurses in the late stage of this pandemic. Method: A total of 6,183 nurses were recruited across China from Oct 2020 to Apr 2021 through snowball sampling. We used Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7 (GAD-7) to assess depression and anxiety, respectively. We used the Ising model to estimate the network. The index "expected influence" and "bridge expected influence" were applied to determine the central symptoms and bridge symptoms of the anxiety-depression network. We tested the stability and accuracy of the network via the case-dropping procedure and non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. Result: The network had excellent stability and accuracy. Central symptoms included "restlessness", "trouble relaxing", "sad mood", and "uncontrollable worry". "Restlessness", "nervous", and "suicidal thoughts" served as bridge symptoms. Conclusion: Restlessness emerged as the strongest central and bridge symptom in the anxiety-depression network of nurses. Intervention on depression and anxiety symptoms in nurses should prioritize this symptom.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Humans , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology
18.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(6)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119338

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between boredom proneness, loneliness, and smartphone addiction among Lebanese young adults and examine the mediating role of depression, anxiety, and stress in this association.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2020 during the lockdown period of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. An online survey was completed by 461 young adults aged 18 to 29 years.Results: The results showed that 66 of 134 males (49.3%, scores ≥ 31) and 143 of 327 females (43.7%, scores ≥ 33) had smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was significantly associated with higher boredom proneness (P < .001), anxiety (P = .012), and loneliness (P = .025). Anxiety mediated the association between boredom proneness and smartphone addiction and between loneliness and smartphone addiction, whereas depression and stress did not mediate the association between boredom/loneliness and smartphone addiction.Conclusions: Smartphone addiction is highly associated with psychological disorders, and screening strategies are needed to minimize addiction. This study emphasizes the importance of investigating the relation between smartphone addiction and psychological disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Male , Female , Young Adult , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Boredom , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
19.
Behav Neurosci ; 136(6): 528-540, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119281

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing stressor that has resulted in the exacerbation of mental health problems worldwide. However, longitudinal studies that identify preexisting behavioral and neurobiological factors associated with mental health outcomes during the pandemic are lacking. Here, we examined associations between prepandemic coping strategy engagement and frontolimbic circuitry with internalizing symptoms during the pandemic. In 85 adults (71.8% female; age 18-30 years), we assessed prototypically adaptive coping strategies (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity (FC) of frontolimbic circuitry, and depression and anxiety symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders-Adult, respectively). We conducted general linear models to test preregistered hypotheses that (1) lower coping engagement prepandemic and (2) weaker frontolimbic FC prepandemic would predict elevated symptoms during the pandemic; and (3) coping would interact with FC to predict symptoms during the pandemic. Depression and anxiety symptoms worsened during the pandemic (ps < .001). Prepandemic adaptive coping engagement and frontolimbic FC were not associated with depression or anxiety symptoms during the pandemic (uncorrected ps > .05). Coping interacted with insula-rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) FC (p = .003, pFDR = .014) and with insula-ventral ACC FC (p < .001, pFDR < .001) to predict depression symptoms, but these findings did not survive FDR correction after removal of outliers. Findings from our preregistered study suggest that specific prepandemic factors, particularly adaptive coping and frontolimbic circuitry, are not robustly associated with emotional responses to the pandemic. Additional studies that identify preexisting neurobehavioral factors implicated in mental health outcomes during global health crises are needed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Male , Depression , Longitudinal Studies , Anxiety/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277684, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Significant concerns about mental health were raised during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms among the participants of the United Arab Emirates Healthy Future Study (UAEHFS); a national cohort study. We further explored the change in the prevalence of depression symptoms among those with comparable pre-pandemic data. METHODS: A sample of UAEHFS participants were invited to complete a COVID-19 online questionnaire during the first wave of the pandemic. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale (GAD-7) respectively. Unpaired analyses were done to examine the effect of COVID-19 on depression and anxiety symptoms during the pandemic. Paired analysis was conducted to examine the change in depression symptoms. RESULTS: During the pandemic, we reported a prevalence of 32.8% (95% CI: 27.0, 39.1) for depression and 26.4% (95% CI: 21.0, 32.6) for anxiety symptoms. Younger people reported higher levels of depression (40.4%) and anxiety (34.5%) symptoms. Females reported higher levels of depression (36.5%) and anxiety (32.7%) symptoms. In paired analysis, the prevalence of depression symptoms during the pandemic was 34% (95% CI: 26.5, 42.4) compared to 29.9% (95% CI: 22.7, 38.1) before the pandemic. No statistically significant difference was observed, p-value = 0.440. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models for PHQ-8 and GAD-7 during the pandemic showed that participants, who were experiencing flu-like symptoms, had higher odds of reporting depression symptoms compared to those without symptoms. Additionally, age was significantly negatively associated with anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that depression and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent among young people and females. However, we did not find a significant change in the prevalence of depression symptoms among those with comparable pre-pandemic data. Identifying vulnerable groups and understanding trajectories through longitudinal studies would help with planning for effective mental health interventions for the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis
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