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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 845, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has recently become the most important issue in the world. Very few reports in Japan have examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on peripartum mental health. We examined the status of postpartum mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic from a consecutive database in a metropolitan area of Japan. METHODS: The subjects were women who had completed a maternity health check-up at a core regional hospital in Yokohama during the period from April 1, 2017, to December 31, 2020. We collected the subjects' scores for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) at 1 month postpartum. The subjects were divided into four groups (three Before COVID-19 groups and a During COVID-19 group). MANOVA and post-hoc tests were used to determine mental health changes in the postpartum period among the four groups. RESULTS: The Before and During COVID-19 groups contained 2844 and 1095 mothers, respectively. There were no significant difference in the total scores of the EPDS and MIBS among the four groups. However, the EPDS items related to anxiety factors were significantly higher and the EPDS items related to anhedonia and depression factors (excluding thoughts of self-harm) were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: The EPDS scores changed in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety, which represent hypervigilance, was significantly higher and anhedonia and depression were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. Our results may reflect COVID-19-related health concerns and a lack of social support caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Mothers/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adult , Anhedonia , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Retrospective Studies
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 828, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early postpartum period is recognized cross-culturally as being important for recovery, with new parents receiving increased levels of community support. However, COVID-19-related lockdown measures may have disrupted these support systems, with possible implications for mental health. Here, we use a cross-sectional analysis among individuals who gave birth at different stages of the pandemic to test (i) if instrumental support access in the form of help with household tasks, newborn care, and care for older children has varied temporally across the pandemic, and (ii) whether access to these forms of instrumental support is associated with lower postpartum depression scores. METHODS: This study used data from the COVID-19 And Reproductive Effects (CARE) study, an online survey of pregnant persons in the United States. Participants completed postnatal surveys between April 30 - November 18, 2020 (n = 971). Logistic regression analysis tested whether birth timing during the pandemic was associated with odds of reported sustained instrumental support. Linear regression analyses assessed whether instrumental support was associated with lower depression scores as measured via the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression survey. RESULTS: Participants who gave birth later in the pandemic were more likely to report that the pandemic had not affected the help they received with household work and newborn care (p < 0.001), while access to childcare for older children appeared to vary non-linearly throughout the pandemic. Additionally, respondents who reported that the pandemic had not impacted their childcare access or help received around the house displayed significantly lower depression scores compared to participants who reported pandemic-related disruptions to these support types (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The maintenance of postpartum instrumental support during the pandemic appears to be associated with better maternal mental health. Healthcare providers should therefore consider disrupted support systems as a risk factor for postpartum depression and ask patients how the pandemic has affected support access. Policymakers seeking to improve parental wellbeing should design strategies that reduce disease transmission, while facilitating safe interactions within immediate social networks (e.g., through investment in COVID-19 testing and contact tracing). Cumulatively, postpartum instrumental support represents a potential tool to protect against depression, both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Care , Depression, Postpartum , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Care/methods , Child Care/psychology , Child Care/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , /trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services/trends , Needs Assessment , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
4.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211059348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571725

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating worldwide effect on mental health. Recent studies correlate the spreading of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with symptoms of depression, most prominent in postpartum women. Our systematic literature review scope is to identify the risk factors and predictors for postpartum depression (PPD) and describe the steps that should be taken to help postpartum women. This study will help clinicians, researchers, and policymakers to elucidate the predictors of PPD during this pandemic and prevent these adverse outcomes in future crises. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search by employing databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Embase to identify articles published before March 2021. About 463 publications were generated during our search process and from those, 36 were reviewed, summarized, and synthesized. Studies qualified the criteria if they (1) utilized qualitative or quantitative design, (2) explored the risk factors for PPD, and (3) were written in English. Quality evaluation of each study was achieved by using criteria set by Lincoln and Guba. RESULTS: Prevalence of depression symptoms ranged from 7% to 80.8% in postpartum women during the SARS-COV 2 pandemic. The risk factors for PPD were classified into 6 major categories: socio-demographic, psychological, pre-existing pathology, metabolic factors, previous events of miscarriage, and media misinformation. CONCLUSION: It is extremely vital to care for women's mental health during pregnancy and after childbirth during these unprecedented times. This review urges the need to design adequate interventions for this vulnerable population to prevent negative consequences of PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(4)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518675

ABSTRACT

Objective: The conditions created by the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression, anxiety, and mother-infant bonding among women seeking treatment for postpartum depression (PPD).Methods: Baseline data collected in two separate randomized controlled trials of a psychoeducational intervention for PPD in the same geographic region, one prior to COVID-19 (March 2019-March 2020) and one during the COVID-19 pandemic (April-October 2020), were compared. Eligible participants had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥ 10, were ≥ 18 years of age, had an infant < 12 months old, and were fluent in English. Outcomes included PPD (EPDS), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]), and mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ]). All were measured continuously and dichotomized at accepted clinical cutoffs.Results: Of the 603 participants (305 pre-COVID-19; 298 during COVID-19), mothers enrolled during the COVID-19 pandemic reported higher levels of symptoms of PPD (B = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.64 to 2.06; Cohen d = 0.31) and anxiety (B = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.32; Cohen d = 0.30). During COVID-19, women had 65% higher odds of clinically significant levels of depression symptoms (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.31) and 46% higher odds of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in mother-infant bonding.Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that rates and severity of PPD and anxiety symptoms among women seeking treatment for PPD have worsened in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, treatment-seeking mothers have consistently maintained good relationships with their infants. Considering the difficulties women with PPD face when accessing treatment, it is important that strategies are developed and disseminated to safely identify and manage PPD to mitigate potential long-term adverse consequences for mothers and their families.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT03654261 and NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259474, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496540

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant and postpartum women face major psychological stressors that put them at higher risk of developing common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Yet, their limited access to and uptake of traditional mental health care is inequitable, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mobile interventions emerged as a potential solution to this discontinued healthcare access, but more knowledge is needed about their effectiveness and impact on health equity. This equity-focused systematic review examined the effectiveness and equity impact of mobile interventions targeting common mental disorders among pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and 3 other databases, from date of database inception and until January 2021, for experimental studies on mobile interventions targeting pregnant and postpartum women. We used pooled and narrative synthesis methods to analyze effectiveness and equity data, critically appraised the methodological rigour of included studies using Cochrane tools, and assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Our search identified 6148 records, of which 18 randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included. Mobile interventions had a clinically important impact on reducing the occurrence of depression (OR = 0.51 [95% CI 0.41 to 0.64]; absolute risk reduction RD: 7.14% [95% CI 4.92 to 9.36]; p<0.001) and preventing its severity perinatally (MD = -3.07; 95% CI -4.68 to -1.46; p<0.001). Mobile cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was effective in managing postpartum depression (MD = -6.87; 95% CI -7.92 to -5.82; p<0.001), whereas other support-based interventions had no added benefit. Results on anxiety outcomes and utilization of care were limited. Our equity-focused analyses showed that ethnicity, age, education, and being primiparous were characteristics of influence to the effectiveness of mobile interventions. CONCLUSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for virtual mental health care, mobile interventions show promise in preventing and managing common mental disorders among pregnant and postpartum women. Such interventions carry the potential to address health inequity but more rigorous research that examines patients' intersecting social identities is needed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum , Pandemics , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470875

ABSTRACT

Breastfeeding is the best form of feeding for premature infants. However, mothers with premature delivery are frequently reported to be depressed, and this has been especially the case during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to measure the level of breastfeeding attitude and its association with postpartum depression among mothers with premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 248 mothers with a premature infant were observed in this cross-sectional study from the chosen NICUs of government hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score (IIFAS) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, along with sociodemographic questionnaires, were used to obtain information on the mothers' attitudes towards breastfeeding and the risk of postpartum depression. A higher percentage of mothers had a positive attitude towards breastfeeding (64.9%), with a mean IIFAS score of 66.30 ± 6.92. Meanwhile, about 27% of mothers with premature infants were reported to have high risk of depressive symptoms. Mothers with a high risk of depression were less likely to have a positive attitude towards breastfeeding (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.199, 0.675) as compared to mothers with a low risk of depression (p < 0.01). We found that there is an association between the risk of depression and the attitude towards breastfeeding. Early identification of maternal mental health problems should be addressed to ensure the willingness of mothers to continue breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Mothers , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1566-1574, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450738

ABSTRACT

Acute stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on maternal health and increase the risk for postpartum depression and impaired mother-infant bonding. The COVID-19 pandemic represents an acute environmental stressor during which it is possible to explore risk and resilience factors that contribute to postpartum outcomes. To investigate prenatal risk and resilience factors as predictors of postpartum depression and impaired mother-infant bonding, this study recruited a diverse cohort of 833 pregnant women from an urban medical center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and assessed them once during pregnancy in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-July 2020) and again at approximately twelve weeks postpartum. Adverse childhood experiences, prenatal depression and anxiety, and COVID-19-related distress predicted a greater likelihood of postpartum depression. Prenatal depression was the only unique predictor of impaired maternal-infant bonding after postpartum depression was controlled for. Women reporting greater emotion regulation, self-reliance, and nonhostile relationships had healthier postpartum outcomes. Policies to increase the number of nonspecialty providers providing perinatal mental health services as well as reimbursement for integrated care and access to mental health screening and care are needed to improve lifelong outcomes for women and their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Child , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 577-586, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to concerns about its potential impact on the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women as the general postpartum depression rates increased. METHODS: Three postpartum questionnaires (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale - EPDS; Anxiety and Depression Scale - HAD; and a demographic questionnaire about isolation and information acquisition) were used to evaluate the mental health of women with and without COVID-19 and determine the factors associated with depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 12). RESULTS: Data from 184 participants with a mean of 56 postpartum days were analyzed. The rate of symptoms compatible with postpartum depression (PPD) was 38.8%, with a 14.3% positive response to item 10 on the EPDS (suicidal ideation - SI). Listening to the news about COVID-19 averaged 4.45 hours a day. Factors related to PPD were concerns about lack of hospital beds (OR = 2.45), absence of a partner (OR = 2.70), and anxiety symptoms (OR = 10). Factors related to SI were anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.56) and friends as a source of information (OR = 5.60). LIMITATIONS: Considering the rapidly changing epidemiological conditions of this pandemic, this study may only be the photograph of an instant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of PPD in the Brazilian population are related not only to anxiety but also to an inadequate family environment, kind of information acquisition and concerns about the lack of hospital beds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(11): 1200-1207, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396818

ABSTRACT

Importance: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects as many as 20% of mothers, yet just 1 in 10 of these women receives evidence-based treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased PPD risk, reduced treatment access, and shifted preferences toward virtual care. Objective: To determine whether an online 1-day cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based workshop added to treatment as usual improves PPD, anxiety, social support, mother-infant relationship quality, and infant temperament more than treatment as usual alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 403 women with PPD who were recruited across Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 20 to October 4, 2020). Women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores of at least 10 who were 18 years or older and had an infant younger than 12 months were eligible. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive a live, interactive online 1-day CBT-based workshop delivered by a registered psychotherapist, psychiatrist, or clinical psychology graduate student in addition to treatment as usual (n = 202) or to receive treatment as usual and wait-listed to receive the workshop 12 weeks later (n = 201). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in PPD (EPDS scores) in experimental and wait list control groups 12 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes included maternal anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire [GAD-7]), social support (Social Provisions Scale), quality of the mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire), and infant temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form). Results: Participants all identified as women with a mean (SD) age of 31.8 (4.4) years. The workshop led to significant mean (SD) reductions in EPDS scores (from 16.47 [4.41] to 11.65 [4.83]; B = -4.82; P < .001) and was associated with a higher odds of exhibiting a clinically significant decrease in EPDS scores (odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.66-6.46). The mean (SD) GAD-7 scores decreased from 12.41 (5.12) to 7.97 (5.54) after the workshop (B = -4.44; 95% CI, -5.47 to -3.38; P < .001) and participants were more likely to experience a clinically significant change (odds ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.99-4.81). Mothers also reported improvements in bonding (B = -3.22; 95% CI, -4.72 to -1.71; P < .001), infant-focused anxiety (B = -1.64; 95% CI, -2.25 to 1.00; P < .001), social support (B = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.57; P < .001), and positive affectivity/surgency in infants (B = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.56; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, an online 1-day CBT-based workshop for PPD provides an effective, brief option for mothers, reducing PPD and anxiety as well as improving social support, the mother-infant relationship, and positive affectivity/surgency in offspring. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depression, Postpartum/therapy , Internet-Based Intervention , Mother-Child Relations , Psychotherapy, Brief , Social Support , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior/physiology , Object Attachment , Ontario , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Temperament/physiology
11.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused considerable stress throughout the world. Little is known about how postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the pandemic were impacted. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the associations between potential risk, protective factors, and psychological distress among postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Postpartum women over the age of 18 years who gave birth in the US hospitals between March and July of 2020 and spoke English completed a survey about their experiences. Demographic and health variables were measured via self-report. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale-10. Mastery was measured with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Resilience was measured with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. RESULTS: This study included 885 women. Participants had higher stress and lower resilience relative to pre-pandemic norms. Participants had high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Women who had an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit had more stress. Income, full-time employment, and partnered relationships were associated with lower stress. Resilience and mastery were related to lower stress, depression, and anxiety. Black, Indigenous, or People of Color women showed higher stress and lower resiliency. Single women were likely to report lower levels of mastery than partnered women. CONCLUSION: Stress, depression, and anxiety were high in postpartum women in this study. Income, partnered relationships, and employment security, along with protective traits such as mastery and resilience, may reduce the impact of stress on postpartum women in a pandemic. Care models should be modified to support women during a pandemic. Health disparities exist in postpartum stress. Future interventions should focus on building resiliency and mastery and ensuring appropriate resources are available to postpartum women in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Psychological Distress , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
12.
Child Dev ; 92(5): e749-e763, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373801

ABSTRACT

This study sought to advance understanding of the potential long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for child development by characterizing trajectories of maternal perinatal depression, a common and significant risk factor for adverse child outcomes. Data came from 393 women (86% White, 8% Latina; mean age = 33.51 years) recruited during pregnancy (n = 247; mean gestational age = 22.94 weeks) or during the first year postpartum (n = 146; mean child age = 4.50 months; 55% female). Rates of depression appear elevated, relative to published reports and to a pre-pandemic comparison group (N = 155). This study also provides evidence for subgroups of individuals who differ in their depressive symptom trajectories over the perinatal period. Subgroup membership was related to differences in maternal social support, but not to child birth outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155(3): 490-495, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting isolation measures on the risk of postpartum depression (PPD) after preterm birth. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of mothers of extreme and early preterm infants who completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the standardized 3-6 months follow-up consultation for preterm infants. Mothers assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 34; from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021) were compared with an antecedent control group (n = 108; from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between the pandemic and the risk of PPD (EPDS score ≥13). RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in the COVID-19 study group (26% versus 12%, P = 0.043). The multivariable logistic regression model showed a significant association between the COVID-19 pandemic and the risk of PPD (adjusted odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 1.06-12.59, P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: Among mothers of extreme and early preterm infants, the COVID-19 pandemic was independently associated with a higher risk of PPD. This confirms the need for a close and long-term follow up of maternal psychological health after preterm birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Premature Birth , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(10): 3524-3531, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301527

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aims to examine the prevalence of postpartum depression and its relationship with social support adjusted for self-perceived impact of COVID-19 in parturient women admitted to a perinatal medical center in Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 513 women who underwent a 1-month postpartum checkup between August 3 and November 27, 2020. Postpartum depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Social support was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the score was dichotomized using the Youden index. Nineteen demographic and obstetric characteristics were also assessed. RESULTS: Postpartum depression was observed in 35 (7.6%) of 461 women: 25 (26.6%) and 10 (2.7%) in the low- and high-support groups, respectively. Women in the low-support group were significantly more likely to have postpartum depression than those in the high-support group (odds ratio [OR], 11.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4-27.3; p < 0.001). Furthermore, no interaction was observed between social support and the impact of COVID-19 for postpartum depression (p = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postpartum depression in the study institution was lower than that reported by previous studies in Japan. Moreover, social support was an important predictive factor for postpartum depression during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 327, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and relevant prevention and control measures may affect the mental health and induce depressive symptoms in fathers with concurrent partner delivery exposure. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of depression in fathers with simultaneous exposure to COVID-19 pandemic and the effects of family functions on paternal perinatal depression (PPD) risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the perinatal fathers recruited in a large tertiary hospital in Wuhan across the whole pandemic period from 31 December 2019 to 11 April 2020. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and APGAR family function scale were used to evaluate PPD and family function, respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model were applied for data analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1187 participants, the prevalence of PPD was 13.82% throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with that in the time period before the announcement of human-to-human transmission on 19 January 2020, the depression risk was significantly lower during the traffic restriction (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.86) and public transportation reopening periods (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.59). Poor/fair family functions was associated with elevated depression risk (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.90, 4.52). Individuals reporting a low family income and smoking had high depression risks. CONCLUSIONS: A declined risk of PPD was observed over the traffic restriction period of the COVID-19 pandemic. An improved family function may help alleviate the risk of PPD during the pandemic. Health authorities are recommended to formulate targeted prevention and control strategies to handle PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Fathers , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155(3): 466-474, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the postpartum psychopathological symptoms of women who gave birth before the pandemic with those who gave birth during the pandemic. METHODS: A total of 212 women participated in the study, of which 96 gave birth before the pandemic and 116 during the pandemic. Psychopathological symptoms, postpartum depression, perceived stress, and resilience were evaluated. RESULTS: Women who gave birth during the pandemic had higher scores on somatization, obsessions and compulsions, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and psychoticism. In addition, perceived stress was the common predictor of an increase in these symptoms. CONCLUSION: Postpartum is a complicated period in a woman's life. Many psychological adaptations take place and women may be subject to psychological alterations during this period. In addition, women who gave birth during the COVID-19 crisis may show greater psychological vulnerability, due to the specific situation experienced during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic may have played a role in the increase in psychopathological symptoms after childbirth. Detecting possible symptoms postpartum plays a crucial role, because it allows intervening and preventing the development of psychopathologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Midwifery ; 102: 103072, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) required strict confinement measures that differentially impacted the individual's daily life. Thus, this work aimed to study postpartum women's mental health in Argentina during mandatory social isolation. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2020, which included five validated questionnaires to assess postpartum depression (Postpartum Depression Screening Scale-Short Form), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), memory complaints (Memory Complaint Scale), metacognition (Brief Metamemory and Metaconcentration Scale), and breastfeeding self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form). Sociodemographic variables, social isolation characteristics, and breastfeeding practices were also collected. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Statistical analysis included zero-order correlations, multiple logistic regressions, and a set of structural equation models (SEM) to test direct and indirect effects. Goodness-of-fit indices were calculated for SEM. SETTING: Postpartum women were recruited from public hospitals, private health clinics, and online community recruitment in the Cordoba province (Argentina). PARTICIPANTS: 305 postpartum women from Argentina. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: 37% of women reported postpartum depression, 46% insomnia, 42% memory impairment, 60% low metaconcentration, 50% low metamemory, and 23% low breastfeeding efficacy. Also, significant associations were found demonstrating that social isolation promoted postpartum depression and insomnia were reciprocally related, which compromised female cognition and efficacy. This situation was aggravated in women during late postpartum, with previous children, and by low social support (e.g., family, health professionals), with non-exclusive breastfeeding being increased. KEY CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study addressing postpartum women's mental status during social isolation in Argentina, which was a promoting factor for postpartum depression and insomnia that were reciprocally related. This situation was also aggravated by reproductive factors, such as late postpartum, multiparity, breastfeeding frequency, and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Additionally, breastfeeding self-efficacy depended on mental health status, and euthymia therefore favoured the practice of exclusive breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
19.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(9): 2990-3000, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276734

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate psychological stress among pregnant and puerperal women in Japan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited pregnant women and puerperal women who delivered between January and September 2020 in Japan, using an online questionnaire. Participants were divided into low, middle, and high groups according to the degree of the epidemic in their region of residence. Related factors were analyzed using the chi-squared test. The relationship between COVID-19 epidemic regions and depression risks and anxiety using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Kessler 6 scale (K6) was evaluated using a univariate and multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 7775 cases, including 4798 pregnant and 2977 puerperal women, were analyzed. The prevalence of high EPDS and K6 scores was significantly increased in pregnant women in the high than those in the low epidemic regions (EPDS: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.453, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.205-1.753; K6: aOR 1.601, 95% CI 1.338-1.918). There was no difference in EPDS score, but the prevalence of high K6 scores was significantly increased in puerperal women in the high than those in the low epidemic regions (aOR 1.342, 95% CI 1.066-1.690). Further, restriction on going to their hometown for delivery increased the prevalence of high EPDS scores among pregnant (aOR 1.663, 95% CI 1.296-2.133) and puerperal women (aOR 1.604, 95% CI 1.006-2.557). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased support due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected the psychological status of pregnant and puerperal women; hence, investing medical resources in their healthcare essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
20.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e34, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New recommendations regarding the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during delivery have changed the maternal birth experience. In this study, we investigated the mental perceived impact of PPE use during delivery on the development of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study concerning women who delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic first lockdown period in Israel. Postpartum women were approached and asked to complete a comprehensive online questionnaire. Impact of PPE was graded on a scale of 1-5, and Impact of PPE ≥4 was considered high. PPD and PTSS were assessed using the EPDS and City BiTS questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 421 parturients, 36 (9%) reported high Impact of PPE. Parturients with high Impact of PPE had significantly higher PPD and PTSS scores)EPDS 8.4 ± 5.8 vs. 5.7 ± 5.3; City BiTS 9.2 ± 10.3 vs. 5.8 ± 7.8, p < 0.05 for both). Following adjustment for socio-demographic and delivery confounders and fear of COVID-19 (using Fear of COVID19 scale), Impact of PPE remained positively correlated with PPD symptoms (ß = 0.103, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.029-1.006, p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: When examining the risk factors for developing postpartum PTSS-experiences during labor and PPE were found to be significant variables. As the use of PPE is crucial in this era of COVID-19 pandemic in order to protect both parturients and caregivers, creative measures should be taken in order to overcome the communication gap it poses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Postpartum Period/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Israel , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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