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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(5): 1060-1065, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080693

ABSTRACT

Previous coronavirus epidemics were associated with increased maternal morbidity, mortality, and adverse obstetric outcomes. Reports for SARS-CoV-2 indicate that the obstetric population is at increased risk for severe illness, although there are still limited data on mild COVID-19 infection during pregnancy. To determine the association between mild COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes, we performed a prospective cohort study among pregnant women with COVID-19 and a control group. Postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We recruited 84 pregnant women with mild COVID-19 and 88 pregnant women without COVID-19. All participants were unvaccinated. The most common acute COVID-19 symptoms were headache (82.1%), loss of smell (81%), and asthenia (77.4%). The median duration of long COVID symptoms was 60 days (interquartile range, 130). Pregnant women with a COVID-19 diagnosis were at greater risk for obstetric ultrasound abnormalities-mainly, fetal growth restriction (relative risk [RR], 12.40; 95% CI, 1.66-92.5), premature birth (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.07-6.43), and postpartum depression (RR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.24-4.21). Our results alert clinicians to the consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy, even in mild cases, given the increased risk of ultrasound abnormalities, premature birth, long COVID symptoms, and postpartum depression. National guidelines on preventive measures and treatments should be based on scientific evidence, including attention to the impact on health and family needs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Premature Birth/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
2.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 44(10): 1067-1075, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the psychological and behavioural effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on a Canadian cohort of individuals during pregnancy and the postpartum period. METHODS: In 2020, individuals between 20 weeks gestation and 3 months postpartum receiving maternity care from an urban Canadian clinic were invited to complete a questionnaire. The purpose-built questionnaire used validated scales including the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and questions from a SARS study. RESULTS: One hundred nine people completed the questionnaire (response rate, 55%) of whom 57% (n = 62) were postpartum. Most respondents (107, 98%) were married and had completed post-secondary education (104, 95%). Despite these protective factors, moderate to severe levels of depression (22%), anxiety (19%) and stress (27%), were recorded using the DASS-21, and 25% of participants (26) had depression (score ≥11) using the EPDS. Despite high social support in all MOS domains (median scores 84-100), a majority of participants reported loneliness (69, 67%) and were nearly or totally housebound (65, 64%). About half of participants worried about themselves (50, 46.3%) or their baby (59, 54%) contracting COVID-19, while the majority postponed (80, 74.1%) and cancelled (79, 73.2%) prenatal appointments. Being homebound or feeling lonely / lacking support were significant risk factors for psychological distress (P = 0.02) whereas exercise and strong social support were protective (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum individuals experienced moderate to severe depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exercise and strong social support were protective. Health care provider enquiry of home circumstances and activity may identify individuals needing enhanced supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Maternal Health Services , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
3.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(4)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066794

ABSTRACT

Objective: The conditions created by the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression, anxiety, and mother-infant bonding among women seeking treatment for postpartum depression (PPD).Methods: Baseline data collected in two separate randomized controlled trials of a psychoeducational intervention for PPD in the same geographic region, one prior to COVID-19 (March 2019-March 2020) and one during the COVID-19 pandemic (April-October 2020), were compared. Eligible participants had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥ 10, were ≥ 18 years of age, had an infant < 12 months old, and were fluent in English. Outcomes included PPD (EPDS), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]), and mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ]). All were measured continuously and dichotomized at accepted clinical cutoffs.Results: Of the 603 participants (305 pre-COVID-19; 298 during COVID-19), mothers enrolled during the COVID-19 pandemic reported higher levels of symptoms of PPD (B = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.64 to 2.06; Cohen d = 0.31) and anxiety (B = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.32; Cohen d = 0.30). During COVID-19, women had 65% higher odds of clinically significant levels of depression symptoms (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.31) and 46% higher odds of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in mother-infant bonding.Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that rates and severity of PPD and anxiety symptoms among women seeking treatment for PPD have worsened in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, treatment-seeking mothers have consistently maintained good relationships with their infants. Considering the difficulties women with PPD face when accessing treatment, it is important that strategies are developed and disseminated to safely identify and manage PPD to mitigate potential long-term adverse consequences for mothers and their families.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT03654261 and NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 227, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression and maternal-infant attachment scores were examined in uninfected women during the COVID 19 pandemic in Kutahya, a rural province in Turkey's North Aegean region. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted in the Kutahya Health Sciences University Hospital obstetrics unit between April 2021 and August 2021. 178 low-risk term pregnant women who gave birth were given the surveys Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBQ) 6 weeks after birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was used to determine postpartum depression and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale was used to determine maternal attachment. RESULTS: In this study, the postpartum depression rate was calculated as 17.4%. When depressed and non-depressed patients were compared, education level, maternal age, BMI, MIBQ score, history of previous pregnancies, route of delivery, previous operation history, economic status, employment status and pregnancy follow-up information were found to be similar (p > 0.05). The ratings on the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale were found to be similar in depressed and non-depressed patients (p > 0.05). The odds of maternal depression for patients who received guests at home was 3.068 (95%CI [1.149-8.191]) times the odds of patients who did not receive guests at home. CONCLUSIONS: Although a relationship has been found between accepting guests in the postpartum period and postpartum depression, it is necessary to investigate in further studies whether there is a causal relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Object Attachment , Pregnancy , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Rural Population , Social Determinants of Health , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273176, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993516

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vulnerability for depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms due to perceived traumatic birth increase during the postpartum period. Traumatic birth has been defined as an event occurring during labour and birth that may be a serious threat to the life and safety of the mother and/or child. However, the comorbidity and multimorbidity of depression, anxiety and PTSD with their direct and indirect predictors is not well investigated in the postpartum period. In addition, the longitudinal directional association of depression, anxiety and PTSD with their comorbidities is not studied in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of postnatal comorbid and multimorbid anxiety, depression and PTSD. It also aimed to determine the directional association of postnatal anxiety, depression and PTSD with the comorbidity and multimorbidity of these mental health problems over time and to explore the factors that are directly or indirectly associated with comorbidity and multimorbidity of anxiety, depression and PTSD. METHODS: A total of 775 women were included at the first, second and third follow-up of the study (6th, 12th and 18th week of postpartum period) during October, 2020 -March, 2021. A cross-lagged autoregressive path analysis was carried out using Stata 16.0 software in order to determine the autoregressive and cross-lagged effects of depression, anxiety and PTSD with their comorbidities. In addition, a linear structural equation modelling was also carried out to determine the direct and indirect effects of independent variables on the comorbidities of depression, anxiety and PTSD. RESULTS: Comorbidity of anxiety with depression was the most common (14.5%, 12.1% and 8.1%) at the 6th, 12th and 18th week of postnatal period respectively. With regard to the direction of association, comorbidity of PTSD (due to perceived traumatic birth) with depression, PTSD with anxiety, depression with anxiety and triple comorbidity predicted depression and anxiety in subsequent waves of measurement. Direct and indirect maternal morbidity, fear of childbirth and perceived traumatic childbirth were found to have a direct and indirect positive association with comorbidities of depression, anxiety and PTSD. In contrast, higher parity, higher family size and higher social support had a direct and indirect negative association with these mental health disorders. CONCLUSION: Postnatal mental health screening, early diagnosis and treatment of maternal morbidities, developing encouraging strategies for social support and providing adequate information about birth procedures and response to mothers' needs during childbirth are essential to avert comorbidity of anxiety, depression and PTSD in the postpartum period.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Comorbidity , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Parturition/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
6.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 221, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental health disorder after childbirth, notably during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, PPD is known to have a long-term influence on the mother and the newborn, and the role of social support network is crucial in early illness recognition. This study aims to evaluate the social support networks' level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding PPD and examine their sociodemographic variables and exposure to the public information relating to PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted via an online Google Form disseminated to people in Klang Valley through WhatsApp, Email, Facebook, Instagram and other available social media among postpartum women's social support networks aged 18 years and living in the Klang Valley area (N = 394). Data were collected from 1 March to 5 July 2021 and analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and generalised linear mixed models. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 epidemic in Klang Valley, most participants had good knowledge, negative attitudes and awareness of PPD. Marital status, gender and parity all had significant correlations with the amount of awareness regarding PPD. Ethnicity, gender, parity and educational level showed significant association with attitude towards PPD. No significant relationship was noted between sociodemographic variables and PPD beliefs. Public awareness of PPD was also associated with knowledge and attitude towards it. CONCLUSIONS: A significant positive knowledge, negative attitude and negative awareness level of PPD exist among social support networks for postnatal women. However, no significant effect of belief on PPD awareness level was noted. IMPLICATIONS: Insight campaigns and public education about PPD should be conducted to enhance postnatal mothers' awareness and knowledge. Postnatal care, mental check-ups and counselling sessions for the new mothers are recommended. In future studies, a closer assessment of postpartum social support, variances and similarities across women from diverse racial/ethnic origins is critical. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional study is one of the early studies on the area of PPD in the Malaysian region during COVID-19. Numerous data have been collected using low-cost approaches using self-administered surveys through Google Forms in this research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Malaysia , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Social Support , Tuberculin
7.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221110421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fast spread of COVID-19 can cause some psychological disorders for men. One of the psychological disorders is paternal postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of the present research was to review studies that have investigated paternal postpartum depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this narrative review, databases such as Google Scholar, Scientific Information Databases (SID), Magiran, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for the full texts of published studies in the Persian and English languages in the period of 2019 to 2021. Finally, 3 articles were selected and reviewed in this study. RESULTS: The results of this review study were classified into 3 main categories such as (1) The psychological status of men during the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) The effect of paternal PPD on children's development and family psychological status during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (3) The role of healthcare providers in the management of paternal PPD. The findings of the studies showed that paternal PPD increases the rate of child maltreatment, maternal depression, and domestic violence. The promotion of the interpersonal skills of healthcare providers with fathers suffering from depression or psychological problems is the determinant factor of successful results. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that paternal PPD has a wide range of consequences in this pandemic. Therefore, it would be recommended that healthcare staff have close contact with families and screen fathers for paternal PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Fathers/psychology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Risk Factors , Tuberculin
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892858

ABSTRACT

Perinatal anxiety affects an estimated 15% of women globally and is associated with poor maternal and infant outcomes. Identifying women with anxiety is essential to prevent these adverse associations, but there are a number of challenges around measurement. We used data from England's 2020 National Maternity Survey to compare the prevalence of anxiety symptoms at six months postpartum using three different measures: the two-item Generalised Anxiety Disorders Scale (GAD-2), the anxiety subscales of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-3A) and a direct question. The concordance between each pair of measures was calculated using two-by-two tables. Survey weights were applied to increase the representativeness of the sample and reduce the risk of non-response bias. The prevalence of postnatal anxiety among a total of 4611 women was 15.0% on the GAD-2, 28.8% on the EPDS-3A and 17.1% on the direct question. Concordance between measures ranged between 78.6% (95% CI 77.4-79.8; Kappa 0.40) and 85.2% (95% CI 84.1-86.2; Kappa 0.44). Antenatal anxiety was the strongest predictor of postnatal anxiety across all three measures. Women of Black, Asian or other minority ethnicity were less likely to report self-identified anxiety compared with women of White ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 0.44; 95% CI 0.30-0.64). Despite some overlap, different anxiety measures identify different groups of women. Certain population characteristics such as women's ethnicity may determine which type of measure is most likely to identify women experiencing anxiety.


Subject(s)
Depression, Postpartum , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818129

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted perinatal mental health globally. We determined the maternal factors and pandemic-related experiences associated with clinically significant perinatal (pregnant and post-partum) depressive symptoms in Australian women. Participants (n = 2638; pregnant n = 1219, postnatal n = 1419) completed an online survey (August 2020 through February 2021) and self-reported on depression, social support, and COVID-19 related experiences. We found elevated depressive symptoms amongst 26.5% (pregnant) and 19% (postnatal) women. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed higher likelihood of elevated depression associated with residence in Victoria, lower education, past/current mental health problems, greater non-pandemic prenatal stress, age ≥ 35 years (pregnant women) and existing physical health issues or disability in self or others (postnatal women). Greater family stress/discord and lower social support (friends) was associated with higher odds of elevated perinatal depression, while lower social support (family) was significantly associated with elevated depressive symptoms in pregnant women. Greater depression was associated with social distancing, pandemic-related news exposure and changes to prenatal care (pregnant women). Single postnatal women showed lower odds of elevated depression than partnered women. Our findings underscore the importance of universal screening for depression and targeted support during a pandemic for perinatal women displaying vulnerability factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Pregnant Women/psychology , Social Support , Adult , Anxiety , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(1): 148-156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Past studies provide crucial evidence that pregnancy and childbirth increase the risk of emotional vulnerability and instability. Current research intends to explore the role of early maladaptive schemas and mindfulness as determinants of postpartum depression for expecting mothers during COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: The data was collected from 170 expecting mothers who conceived and gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, the young schema questionnaire-SF 75 items, and the Kentucky inventory for mindfulness scale were administered. RESULTS: Results discovered that mindfulness partially mediated the relationship between three kinds of early maladaptive schemas and postpartum depression. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness-based control techniques can be considered to buffer the impact of the early maladaptive schemas on postpartum depression, for mothers who give birth during any challenging time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Mindfulness , Adaptation, Psychological , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 151: 108-112, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) in individuals in the United States. Further analyses explored how these changes related to state-level measures of pandemic severity, economic hardship, and social isolation. METHODS: Data were collected from users of the Flo mobile health application who completed a survey about their mood within 90 days of giving birth. Analyses assessed changes in national and state-level self-reported PDS from a pre-pandemic period (N = 159,478) to a pandemic period (N = 118,622). Linear regression determined which state-level pandemic severity or economic factors were associated with changes in PDS. RESULTS: National rates of PDS increased from 6.5% (pre-pandemic) to 6.9% (pandemic). There was a significant increase in PDS over the course of the pandemic timeframe. Linear regressions revealed a negative association between percent change in PDS across states and COVID-19 deaths per 100 K residents as well as 2020 women's unemployment rate. There was no association between change in PDS and COVID-19 cases per 100 K residents, percent job loss, percent change in women's unemployment rate, or percentage of population staying at home. CONCLUSIONS: There was a national increase in PDS that worsened over the course of a year following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. States with a greater increase in PDS tended to show overall fewer deaths from COVID-19 and lower women's unemployment rates. Further work is needed to identify what individual-level factors may be driving these differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Self Report , United States/epidemiology
14.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(6): 600-609, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787626

ABSTRACT

Importance: The intersection of endemic structural racism and the global health crisis secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic represents a syndemic, defined as the aggregation of 2 or more endemic and epidemic conditions leading to adverse repercussions for health. Long-standing inequities have placed Black individuals at disproportionate risk for negative postpartum mental health outcomes. Studies are urgently needed to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has added to this risk (eg, syndemic associations). Objective: To examine the association between the syndemic and the postpartum mental health of Black birthing individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal cohort of Black birthing individuals were followed up from pregnancy (April 17 to July 8, 2020) through the early postpartum period (August 11, 2020, to March 2, 2021) from urban university medical center prenatal clinics. Pregnant Black participants were recruited via email and completed 2 online surveys. Main Outcomes and Measures: Composite variables capturing negative experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic and racism (structural racism [general], structural racism [neighborhood], and interpersonal racism) were created. Logistic regressions examined main and interactive associations between these variables and postpartum depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale). Results: The mean (SD) age of 151 Black participants was 30.18 (5.65) years. The association between higher negative COVID-19 pandemic experiences and postpartum depression may be influenced by experiences of interpersonal racism and general systemic racism. Negative COVID-19 pandemic experiences were associated with greater likelihood of screening positive for depression only at higher levels of systemic racism (odds ratio, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.38-4.60) and interpersonal racism (odds ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.04-3.48) but not at lower levels of systemic or interpersonal racism. Similarly, negative COVID-19 experiences were associated with anxiety only at higher levels of interpersonal racism (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 0.86-4.01) but not at lower levels of interpersonal racism. Overall, 44 (29%) met screening criteria for postpartum depression and 20 (13%) for postpartum anxiety. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study of Black birthing individuals, the experience of the syndemic was associated with negative postpartum mental health. Associations between interpersonal racism, structural racism, and negative COVID-19 pandemic experiences were associated with greater risk for postpartum depression and anxiety. Research is needed to address how systemic racism perturbs biobehavioral pathways to magnify associations between acute stressors and mental health. Such research can inform the creation of effective, culturally informed preventive interventions to improve the postpartum mental health of Black individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Racism , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Systemic Racism
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 149: 83-86, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783593

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to ask whether a substantial external stressor, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, affects the association between postpartum depression (PPD) and mother-infant bonding. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether worry regarding such an external threat differentially affected PPD and bonding by analyzing a longitudinal sample of postpartum women assessed before and during the pandemic. One-hundred forty women responded to online questionnaires at (T1) Pre-COVID-19: Six months postpartum (February 2018 to December 2019), and (T2) During COVID-19: Twenty-one months postpartum (April 2020 to January 2021). The strength of correlation between mother-infant bonding and PPD significantly declined from before (T1: R = 0.64, p < 0.00) to during the pandemic (T2: R = 0.44, p < 0.001; Difference = 0.20, p = 0.05). Furthermore, only PPD correlated with the worry due to the pandemic; thus the PPD-bonding association was weaker among women who were less concerned about the pandemic (F(3, 136) = 15.4, R2 = 0.25). The study suggests that emotions and cognitions related to motherhood, such as mother-infant bonding, may be more resilient to external pressures such as a pandemic than affective states such as PPD. (174 words).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(3): 100611, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, our institution turned to telehealth as the primary method of postpartum care delivery. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the impact of telehealth on completion of postpartum care goals. STUDY DESIGN: In a single-center retrospective cohort study, we compared a 14-week period, March to June 2019, before implementation of telehealth, with the same calendar months after implementation during 2020. Patients with a postpartum visit scheduled at our institution during the study period were included. To demonstrate a 10% difference in attendance to the postpartum visit in the postimplementation compared with the preimplementation group, a power analysis calculation resulted in a requirement of at least 356 subjects per group. Our primary outcome was attendance to the postpartum visit. Secondary outcomes included completion of postpartum depression screening, contraception selection, breastfeeding status at postpartum visit, completion of 2-hour glucose tolerance test postpartum for those with gestational diabetes mellitus, and cardiology follow-up when recommended. Multivariable logistic regression with backward elimination was used to control for confounders. RESULTS: Of the 1579 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 780 were in the preimplementation group and 799 in the postimplementation group. Subjects in the postimplementation group were at 90% increased odds of attending a postpartum visit compared with those in the preimplementation group, even when controlling for race, prenatal care provider, parity, gestational age at delivery, and insurance status (82.9% vs 72.4%; P<.001; adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.46). Patients in the postimplementation group were also more likely to be screened for postpartum depression (86.3% vs 65.1%; P<.001). Although subjects in both groups were equally likely to choose contraception, those in the postimplementation group were less likely to select long-acting reversible contraception or permanent sterilization (26.2% vs 33.2%; P=.03). There was no significant difference in breastfeeding status, postpartum 2-hour glucose tolerance test completion, or cardiology follow-up between groups. CONCLUSION: Availability of telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with increased postpartum visit attendance and postpartum depression screening. However, telehealth was also associated with a decrease in use of long-acting reversible contraception or permanent sterilization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Telemedicine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 102, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe postpartum depression and associated risk factors among postpartum patients in the United States (US) between February and July 2020. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design to collect survey data from a convenience sample of postpartum patients who lived in the US and delivered a live infant after the US declared COVID-19 a public health emergency. RESULTS: Our sample included 670 postpartum patients who completed an online survey inclusive of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and selected demographic items (e.g. NICU admission status, infant gestational age, infant feeding method). In our sample, 1 in 3 participants screened positive for postpartum depression and 1 in 5 had major depressive symptoms. Participants who fed their infants formula had 92% greater odds of screening positive for postpartum depression and were 73% more likely to screen positive for major depressive symptoms compared to those who breastfed or bottle-fed with their own human milk. Participants with infants admitted to a NICU had 74% greater odds of screening positive. Each 1 week increase in weeks postpartum increased the odds of screening positive by 4%. Participants who worried about themselves and their infants contracting COVID-19 had 71% greater odds of screening positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Depressive Disorder, Major , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Risk Factors
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Owing to the high prevalence and detrimental consequences, postpartum depression (PPD) has been identified as one of the severe global public health issues in the last decade. Prior research found that during disasters or events, the prevalence rates of mental disorders among postpartum women are significantly high. However, the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on PPD and its risk factors remained unclear for postpartum women. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of PPD and to summarize risk factors for PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Three electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched for articles from their commencements until 1 November 2021. Quality assessment of included studies, random-effects meta-analysis, and sensitivity analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of eight studies with 6480 postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic were included, and most studies were conducted in developed countries. The pooled prevalence of PPD was 34% (95% CI: 21-46%) during the COVID-19 pandemic, much higher than the incident of previous research during the non-pandemic period. Risk factors for PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, stress and anxiety, lack of various supports, and the COVID-19 related factors. CONCLUSION: The research findings indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic could make detrimental effects on maternal mental wellbeing among women after childbirth. Investigating the prevalence and risk factors of PPD among postpartum women could shed some light on their mental and emotional states; so that support measures and tailored interventions from health professionals and policymakers could be offered to improve the maternal and infant outcomes, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Much more research on maternal psychological wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic was strongly recommended to undertake in the middle and low-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Health Commun ; 37(12): 1488-1495, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692390

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdown has posed unique challenges to postpartum women, but its association with postpartum depression is not well understood in the Global South. This study aims to evaluate the association between COVID-19 lockdown and postpartum depression in rural areas of western China. A multi-stage random cluster sampling method was used to select a cohort of pregnant and postpartum women with infants aged 0-6 months. We conducted an in-person survey before the COVID-19 lockdown and a phone survey right after the lockdown ended. We used multivariate regression models to evaluate the association between lockdown and postpartum depression. Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the role of social support. The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 13.3%. Postpartum women who experienced the lockdown were less likely to be depressed than those who did not (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = .43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.27, .70]). Lockdown was negatively associated with postpartum depression among postpartum women with low level of social support (aOR = .30, 95% CI = [.18, .51]). COVID-19 lockdown was associated with lower likelihood of postpartum depression, potentially due to increased support from family. Future research is needed to explore targeted interventions to prevent postpartum depression among women from migrant worker families in rural China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy
20.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(3)2022 02 15.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected postnatal women in Norway. We therefore wanted to investigate their depressive symptoms and birthing experiences during the pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In April 2021, a total of 3 642 postnatal women participated in an online survey. Depressive symptoms were measured using a short matrix version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-4), and standardised questions about the ante-, peri- and post-natal periods were used to record birthing experiences. The questions were the same as those used ten years ago in the Ahus Birth Cohort study, which is the reference population here. The women were also asked questions related to the pandemic and mental health care. RESULTS: Twenty-nine per cent of the mothers indicated that the pandemic had had a 'large' or 'very large' impact on their mental health. Thirty-two per cent reported high scores for depressive symptoms (EPDS-4 scores ≥ 6), while the corresponding figure in the reference population was 10 %. The proportion of mothers who were dissatisfied with their pregnancy experience was almost the same in both cohorts, while the proportion that reported poor care in the maternity ward during the pandemic was higher than for the reference population (34 % vs. 13 %). Of those who had mental health problems during the pandemic, 54 % stated that they had not received appropriate help. INTERPRETATION: One in three postnatal women reported high scores for depressive symptoms during the pandemic. The study revealed significant dissatisfaction with the care provided in maternity wards and inadequate follow-up of the mothers' mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Cohort Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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