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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266260, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between the presence of chronic physical conditions and depressive symptoms among hospital workers at a national medical institution designated for COVID-19 treatment in Tokyo, Japan. We also accounted for the combined association of chronic physical conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection risk at work in relation to depressive symptoms, given that occupational infection risk might put additional psychological burden among those with chronic physical conditions with risk of severe COVID-19 outcome. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 2,440 staff members who participated in a health survey conducted at the national medical institution during period between October 2020 and December 2020. Participants who reported at least one chronic physical condition that were deemed risk factors of severe COVID-19 outcome were regarded as having chronic physical conditions. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We performed logistic regression analysis to assess the association between chronic physical conditions and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Our results showed that the presence of chronic physical conditions was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-2.02). In addition, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among healthcare workers with chronic physical conditions who were at a higher occupational infection risk (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.04-3.16). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the importance of providing more assistance to those with chronic physical conditions regarding the prevention and control of mental health issues, particularly among frontline healthcare workers engaging in COVID-19-related work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): 869-874, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated COVID-19 risk and burden among people with HIV (PWH) in a US city with high rates of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 transmissions and examined the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and COVID-19 risk and burden. SETTING: Participants were drawn from an existing consent to contact database of PWH. Database candidates were PWH, adults older than 18 years, people who had received HIV care at the University of Miami HIV clinics, people who spoke English or Spanish, and people who had agreed to be contacted for future research. METHODS: An adapted version of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study COVID-19 survey was telephonically administered, requiring 15-30 minutes. RESULTS: Psychological stress was a predictor of COVID-19 burden (financial and social burden) and COVID-19 risk (health factors associated with an increased risk of severe health outcomes due to infection with COVID-19). Having a history of traumatic events was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, and stress was associated with increased COVID-19 burden and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics may be most profound among those who have experienced traumatic events; and traumatic events may be associated with heightened vigilance regarding illness and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cost of Illness , Depression/complications , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Stress, Psychological/complications
3.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 16(3): 254-261, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851908

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between COVID-19 impact and clinical outcomes of an integrated collaborative care intervention for adults with obesity and comorbid depression. METHODS: Latent class analysis identified clusters of self-reported COVID-19 impact. Cluster characteristics were examined using Fishers' least significant difference method and canonical discriminant analysis. Intervention vs. usual care effects on primary (body mass index [BMI], depressive symptoms) and secondary (anxiety symptoms and other psychosocial) outcomes stratified by cluster were examined using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Three clusters were identified: mental health and sleep impact (cluster 1, n = 37), economic impact (cluster 2, n = 18), and less overall impact (cluster 3, n = 20). Clusters differed in age, income, diet, and baseline coping skills. The intervention led to improvements across several health outcomes compared with usual care, with medium to large effects on functional impairments (standardized mean difference, -0.7 [95% CI: -1.3, -0.1]) in cluster 1, depressive symptoms (-1.1 [95% CI: -2.0, -0.1]) and obesity-related problems (-1.6 [95% CI: -2.8, -0.4]) in cluster 2, and anxiety (-1.1 [95% CI: -1.9, -0.3]) in cluster 3. CONCLUSIONS: People with obesity and comorbid depression may have varied intervention responses based on COVID-19 impact. Interventions tailored to specific COVID-19 impact clusters may restore post-pandemic health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adult , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/therapy , Quality of Life
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261874, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of mood disorders (MD) during pregnancy is challenging and may bring negative consequences to the maternal-fetal binomial. The long waitlist for specialized psychiatric evaluation in Brazil contributes to the treatment omission. Almost 20.0% of women treated with antidepressants have a positive screening for bipolar disorder. Therefore, it has been recommended the investigation of depressive and bipolar disorder during prenatal care. Unfortunately, the screening for mood disorders is not a reality in Brazil and many childbearing women remain undiagnosed. The objective of this study is to observe the frequency of MD and the effectiveness of screening scales for routine use by health professionals during prenatal care in high-risk pregnancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study included 61 childbearing women in their second trimester who were interviewed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). The cut-off point was EPDS ≥ 13 and MDQ ≥ 7 and the SCID-5 was the gold standard diagnosis. MD were diagnosed in 24.6% of the high-risk pregnancies. EDPS was positive in 19.7% and the frequency of major depression was 8.2%. 16.4% of the childbearing women were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, while MDQ was positive in 36.1%. 11.5% of the women had EPDS and MDQ positive. EPDS sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity 92.1%, whereas MDQ presented a sensitivity of 70.0% and specificity of 70.6%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high prevalence of MD in high-risk pregnancies. The routine use of EPDS simultaneously to MDQ during antenatal care is effective and plays an important role in early diagnosis, counselling, and promotion of perinatal mental health.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/complications , Bipolar Disorder/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Adult , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/complications , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mania/complications , Mania/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prenatal Care , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 219, 2022 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the substantial burden of mental health disorders at an individual and population level, including consequent demand on mental health services. Lifestyle-based mental healthcare offers an additional approach to existing services with potential to help alleviate system burden. Despite the latest Royal Australian New Zealand College of Psychiatrists guidelines recommending that lifestyle is a 'first-line', 'non-negotiable' treatment for mood disorders, few such programs exist within clinical practice. Additionally, there are limited data to determine whether lifestyle approaches are equivalent to established treatments. Using an individually randomised group treatment design, we aim to address this gap by evaluating an integrated lifestyle program (CALM) compared to an established therapy (psychotherapy), both delivered via telehealth. It is hypothesised that the CALM program will not be inferior to psychotherapy with respect to depressive symptoms at 8 weeks. METHODS: The study is being conducted in partnership with Barwon Health's Mental Health, Drugs & Alcohol Service (Geelong, Victoria), from which 184 participants from its service and surrounding regions are being recruited. Eligible participants with elevated psychological distress are being randomised to CALM or psychotherapy. Each takes a trans-diagnostic approach, and comprises four weekly (weeks 1-4) and two fortnightly (weeks 6 and 8) 90-min, group-based sessions delivered via Zoom (digital video conferencing platform). CALM focuses on enhancing knowledge, behavioural skills and support for improving dietary and physical activity behaviours, delivered by an Accredited Exercise Physiologist and Accredited Practising Dietitian. Psychotherapy uses cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by a Psychologist or Clinical Psychologist, and Provisional Psychologist. Data collection occurs at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms (assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 8 weeks. Societal and healthcare costs will be estimated to determine the cost-effectiveness of the CALM program. A process evaluation will determine its reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance. DISCUSSION: If the CALM program is non-inferior to psychotherapy, this study will provide the first evidence to support lifestyle-based mental healthcare as an additional care model to support individuals experiencing psychological distress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12621000387820 , Registered 8 April 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adult , Anxiety , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Humans , Life Style , Psychotherapy , Telemedicine/methods , Victoria
6.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e16, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764107

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Several diseases are linked to increased risk of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Our aim was to investigate whether depressive and anxiety symptoms predict subsequent risk of COVID-19, as has been shown for other respiratory infections. METHODS: We based our analysis on UK Biobank participants providing prospective data to estimate temporal association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and COVID-19. We estimated whether the magnitude of these symptoms predicts subsequent diagnosis of COVID-19 in this sample. Further, we evaluated whether depressive and anxiety symptoms predicted (i) being tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and (ii) COVID-19 in those tested. RESULTS: Based on data from N = 135 102 participants, depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.052; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.017-1.086; absolute case risk: (moderately) severe depression: 493 per 100 000 v. minimal depression: 231 per 100 000) but not anxiety (OR = 1.009; 95% CI 0.97-1.047) predicted COVID-19. While depressive symptoms but not anxiety predicted (i) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 1.039; 95% CI 1.029-1.05 and OR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.978-1.002), (ii) neither predicted COVID-19 in those tested (OR = 1.015; 95% CI 0.981-1.05 and OR = 1.021; 95% CI 0.981-1.061). Results remained stable after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, multimorbidity and behavioural factors. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms were associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis, irrespective of multimorbidities. Potential underlying mechanisms to be elucidated include risk behaviour, symptom perception, healthcare use, testing likelihood, viral exposure, immune function and disease progress. Our findings highlight the relevance of mental processes in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Depression/complications , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760576

ABSTRACT

Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomised controlled trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol, aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the single-case experimental design with time series analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Six people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided, whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT fidelity scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants' depression, anxiety, quality of life, loneliness, carers' burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will effectively result in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Gestalt Therapy , Quality of Life , Aged , Caregivers , Dementia/complications , Dementia/therapy , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Research Design
8.
Nurs Womens Health ; 26(2): 152-160, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693059

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia is a condition of pregnancy that is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Individuals diagnosed with preeclampsia have an increased chance of developing depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This ultimately increases the risk for negative physical and emotional outcomes. A review of the etiology, pathophysiology, symptomatology, and risk factors for preeclampsia and depression, as well as the impact of COVID-19, can improve outcomes by helping nurses provide evidence-based holistic care. This article focuses on providing enhanced knowledge to help nurses identify the psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia and advocate for appropriate mental health assessment and intervention for affected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Pre-Eclampsia , COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pre-Eclampsia/psychology , Pregnancy
9.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 187: 107575, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595264

ABSTRACT

The threatening context of the COVID-19 pandemic provided a unique setting to study the effects of negative psychological symptoms on memory processes. Episodic memory is an essential function of the human being related to the ability to store and remember experiences and anticipate possible events in the future. Studying this function in this context is crucial to understand what effects the pandemic will have on the formation of episodic memories. To study this, the formation of episodic memories was evaluated by free recall, recognition, and episode order tasks for an aversive and neutral content. The results indicated that aversive episodic memory is impaired both in the free recall task and in the recognition task. Even the beneficial effect that emotional memory usually has for the episodic order was undermined as there were no differences between the neutral and aversive condition. The present work adds to the evidence that indicates that the level of activation does not modify memory processes in a linear way, which also depends on the type of recall and the characteristics of the content to be encoded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Memory, Episodic , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/complications , Depression/etiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Recall , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0256323, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to a mental health crisis on a global scale. Epidemiological studies have reported a drastic increase in mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety, increased loneliness and feelings of disconnectedness from others, while resilience levels have been negatively affected, indicating an urgent need for intervention. The current study is embedded within the larger CovSocial project which sought to evaluate longitudinal changes in vulnerability, resilience and social cohesion during the pandemic. The current second phase will investigate the efficacy of brief online mental training interventions in reducing mental health problems, and enhancing psychological resilience and social capacities. It further provides a unique opportunity for the prediction of intervention effects by individual biopsychosocial characteristics and preceding longitudinal change patterns during the pandemic in 2020/21. METHODS: We will examine the differential effects of a socio-emotional (including 'Affect Dyad') and a mindfulness-based (including 'Breathing Meditation') intervention, delivered through a web- and cellphone application. Participants will undergo 10 weeks of intervention, and will be compared to a retest control group. The effectiveness of the interventions will be evaluated in a community sample (N = 300), which is recruited from the original longitudinal CovSocial sample. The pre- to post-intervention changes, potential underlying mechanisms, and prediction thereof, will be assessed on a wide range of outcomes: levels of stress, loneliness, depression and anxiety, resilience, prosocial behavior, empathy, compassion, and the impact on neuroendocrine, immunological and epigenetic markers. The multi-method nature of the study will incorporate self-report questionnaires, behavioral tasks, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches, and biological, hormonal and epigenetic markers assessed in saliva. DISCUSSION: Results will reveal the differential effectiveness of two brief online interventions in improving mental health outcomes, as well as enhancing social capacities and resilience. The present study will serve as a first step for future application of scalable, low-cost interventions at a broader level to reduce stress and loneliness, improve mental health and build resilience and social capacities in the face of global stressors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been registered on May 17, 2020 with the ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04889508 registration number (clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04889508).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Mindfulness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Meditation , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Autism Res ; 15(1): 93-102, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460149

ABSTRACT

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high rates of both unemployment and depression. Though job loss predicts increased risk of depression in the general population, studies have yet to directly examine this relationship among individuals with ASD. With the backdrop of rising unemployment due to COVID-19, we used a longitudinal design to examine whether employment changes predicted increasing depressive symptoms among young adults with ASD. Online surveys were collected from young adults with ASD at two times: just before widespread social distancing measures were adopted in the United States, and again 10 weeks later. Both time points included measurement of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-2). At Time 2, COVID-related employment changes and the perceived impact of those changes on well-being were collected. Of the young adults who were employed at Time 1 (n = 144), over one-third (37.5%) reported employment changes during the first 2 months of COVID-19. Most of this change was job loss or reductions in hours or pay ("job loss/reduction"). Controlling for Time 1 depressive symptoms, young adults who experienced job loss/reduction had significantly higher depressive symptoms at Time 2 than those without an employment change. Individuals' perceived impact of employment change also predicted depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that losing a job or experiencing reductions in hours or pay leads to worsening depressive symptoms among adults with ASD. Better supporting autistic adults in the workplace may not only decrease the likelihood of job loss, but also combat the exceedingly high rates of depression in this group. LAY SUMMARY: Though unemployment has been linked to mental health problems in the general population, this relationship is seldom considered among adults with autism. In this study, we found that adults on the autism spectrum who lost their jobs or experienced reductions in pay or hours during the first 2 months of COVID-19 had worsening depression compared to adults who did not have job changes. Our findings suggest that increasing access to employment may help alleviate poor mental health among autistic adults.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Depression/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During health disaster events such as the current devastating havoc being inflicted on countries globally by the SARS-CoV-19 pandemic, mental health problems among survivors and frontline workers are likely concerns. However, during such health disaster events, stakeholders tend to give more precedence to the socio-economic and biomedical health consequences at the expense of mental health. Meanwhile, studies show that regardless of the kind of disaster/antecedent, all traumatic events trigger similar post-traumatic stress symptoms among survivors, families, and frontline workers. Thus, our study investigated the prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms among survivors of the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease that plagued the West African sub-region. METHODS: We systematically retrieved peer-reviewed articles published between 1970 and 2019 from seven electronic databases, including Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science on Ebola and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. A comprehensive hand search complemented this literature search. Of the 87 articles retrieved, only 13 met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. RESULTS: After heterogeneity, influence, and publication bias analysis, our meta-analysis pooled proportion effects estimates showed a moderate to a high prevalence of anxiety (14%; 99% CI: 0.05-0.30), depression (15%; 99% CI: 0.11-0.21), and insomnia (22%; 99% CI: 0.13-0.36). Effect estimates ranging from (0.13; 99% CI: 0.05, 0.28) through to (0.11; 99% CI: 0.05-0.22), (0.15; 99% CI: 0.09-0.25) through to (0.13; 99% CI: 0.08-0.21) and (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) to (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) were respectively reported for anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. These findings suggest a significant amount of EVD survivors are struggling with anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study provided the first-ever meta-analysis evidence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms among EVD survivors, and suggest that the predominant biomedical health response to regional and global health disasters should be complemented with trauma-related mental health services.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Depression/complications , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Ebolavirus/isolation & purification , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Survivors
14.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(2): 206-209, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic became a challenge to maintain care for patients with epilepsy; we aimed to find out how the pandemic affected them. METHODS: We sent an online 22-item questionnaire to patients from our outpatient clinic, a reference centre in Spain for drug-resistant epilepsy, inquiring about the effects of lockdown, from March to May 2020. RESULTS: We sent the survey to 627 patients; 312 (58% women) sent a complete response and were included. Of all respondents, 57% took >2 antiseizure medications. One-third of respondents (29%) declared an associated cognitive or motor disability. A minority had confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1.92%). Seizure frequency remained like usual in 56% of patients, while 31.2% reported an increase. Less than 10% needed emergent assistance. Almost half reported anxiety or depression, and 25% increased behavioural disorders. Mood (F: 5.40; p: 0.002) and sleep disorders (F = 2.67; p: 0.05) were associated with increase in seizure frequency. Patients were able to contact their physicians when needed and were open to a future telematic approach to follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Seizure frequency and severity remained unchanged in most patients during the lockdown. Mood and sleep disorders were common and associated with seizure worsening. Patients were open to telematic care in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy/therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/complications , Disabled Persons , Epilepsy/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Motor Disorders/complications , Outpatients , Seizures/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/classification , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
15.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(4): 756-764, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366670

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the psychological implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for father-child bonding and mental health among Italian gay fathers pursuing surrogacy in the USA or Canada? DESIGN: Between 20 March and 29 July 2020, this cross-sectional case-control study collected data on father-child bonding quality, depression, anxiety and somatization in 30 Italian gay fathers (n=15 families) who were having or successfully had a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. These fathers were compared with a sociodemographically similar group of 50 Italian gay fathers (n=25 families) who had children through cross-border surrogacy prior to the pandemic. RESULTS: Although father-child bonding quality and the mental health symptoms of fathers scored below the clinical cut-off points in both groups, fathers who had or were having a child during the COVID-19 pandemic reported poorer father-child bonding (estimate 3.04, SE 1.47, P=0.044) and more depressive (estimate -1.47, SE 0.49, P=0.005), anxious (estimate -1.96, SE 0.55, P<0.001) and somatic symptoms (estimate -2.48, SE 0.52, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings call for the development of international guidelines for cross-border surrogacy and underline the need for tailored and ongoing psychological and legal support for intended gay fathers to ease their strain and anxiety related to having a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fathers/psychology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Object Attachment , Parenting/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Canada , Case-Control Studies , Depression/complications , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surrogate Mothers , United States
18.
J Psychosom Res ; 147: 110516, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence from previous virus epidemics has shown that infected patients are at risk for developing psychiatric and mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Hence, to collect high-quality data on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 should be the immediate priority. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from January 1, 2020 to December 26, 2020 for eligible studies reporting on the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Studies meeting the following criteria were included in the analysis: (1) included patients with COVD-19; (2) recorded the prevalence of depression, anxiety, or insomnia symptom; (3) sample size ≥30; (4) with validated screening tools; and (5) passed through the international peer-review process. Data extraction and quality assessment was independently performed by two reviewers. The quality effects meta-analysis was conducted further to calculate the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included for analysis with a total of 4318 patients. The pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms was 38% (95% CI = 25-51), 38% (95% CI = 24-52), and 48% (95% CI = 11-85), respectively. Neither subgroup analysis nor sensitivity analysis can explain the source of high heterogeneity. In addition, the prevalence estimates of depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms varied based on different screening tools. CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms are prevalent in a considerable proportion of patients with COVID-19. Thus, early detection and properly intervention for mental illness in this population are of great significance. Additionally, the quality of included studies to date has been variable, and ongoing surveillance is essential.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Prevalence
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): 869-874, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated COVID-19 risk and burden among people with HIV (PWH) in a US city with high rates of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 transmissions and examined the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and COVID-19 risk and burden. SETTING: Participants were drawn from an existing consent to contact database of PWH. Database candidates were PWH, adults older than 18 years, people who had received HIV care at the University of Miami HIV clinics, people who spoke English or Spanish, and people who had agreed to be contacted for future research. METHODS: An adapted version of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study COVID-19 survey was telephonically administered, requiring 15-30 minutes. RESULTS: Psychological stress was a predictor of COVID-19 burden (financial and social burden) and COVID-19 risk (health factors associated with an increased risk of severe health outcomes due to infection with COVID-19). Having a history of traumatic events was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, and stress was associated with increased COVID-19 burden and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics may be most profound among those who have experienced traumatic events; and traumatic events may be associated with heightened vigilance regarding illness and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cost of Illness , Depression/complications , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Stress, Psychological/complications
20.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 55(5): 272-278, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze differences by age group in anxiety, depression, loneliness and comorbid anxiety and depression in young people, middle aged adults and older adults during the lock-down period at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the association between negative self-perceptions of aging and psychological symptoms controlling by age group. METHOD: Participants are 1501 people (age range 18 to 88 years). Anxiety, sadness, loneliness and self-perceptions of aging were assessed. The sample was divided according to the age group and quartiles (lower, intermediate levels, and higher) of anxiety, sadness, loneliness and self-perceptions of aging. RESULTS: Older adults reported lower levels of anxiety and sadness than middle aged adults, and middle aged adults reported lower levels than younger participants. Middle aged adults reported the lowest loneliness, followed by older adults and younger participants. For each age group, those with more negative self-perceptions of aging reported higher anxiety, sadness and loneliness. More comorbid anxiety and sadness was found in younger adults and less in older adults; more depressed participants in the middle aged group, and more older adults and less younger participants were found in the group with the lowest levels of anxiety and sadness. For all the age groups, participants with high levels of comorbid anxiety and sadness are those who report the highest scores in negative self-perceptions of aging. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults reported lower psychological anxiety, sadness and loneliness than the other age groups. Having negative self-perceptions of aging damage psychological health irrespective of the chronological age.


Subject(s)
Aging/psychology , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Self Concept , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Young Adult
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