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1.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 650, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for a severe course of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and vulnerable to mental health problems. We aimed to investigate prevalence and associated patient (demographic and clinical) characteristics of mental wellbeing (health-related quality of life [HRQoL] and symptoms of depression and anxiety) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS: An ongoing Dutch multicentre prospective cohort study enrols patients of ≥70 years with an eGFR < 20 mL/min/1.73m2 from October 2018 onward. With additional questionnaires during the pandemic (May-June 2020), disease-related concerns about COVID-19 and general anxiety symptoms were assessed cross-sectionally, and depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and emotional symptoms longitudinally. RESULTS: The 82 included patients had a median age of 77.5 years (interquartile range 73.9-82.1), 77% were male and none had tested positive for COVID-19. Cross-sectionally, 67% of the patients reported to be more anxious about COVID-19 because of their kidney disease, and 43% of the patients stated that their quality of life was reduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to pre-COVID-19, the presence of depressive symptoms had increased (11 to 22%; p = .022) and physical HRQoL declined (M = 40.4, SD = 10.1 to M = 36.1, SD = 10.4; p < .001), particularly in males. Mental HRQoL (M = 50.3, SD = 9.6 to M = 50.4, SD = 9.9; p = .913) and emotional symptoms remained similar. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease suffered from disease-related anxiety about COVID-19, increased depressive symptoms and reduced physical HRQoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on this vulnerable patient group extends beyond increased mortality risk, and awareness of mental wellbeing is important. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), trial number NL7104. Date of registration: 06-06-2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102897, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Study was aimed to assess magnitude of mental health problems among geriatric population during COVID19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: Study was a cross-sectional observational study, total of 106 participants (Age ≥60 years) of either gender included in study. Mental health variables depressive and anxiety were assessed using GDS and HAM-A. RESULTS: On GDS, 20(18.87%) patients had depressive symptoms and on HAM-A, 24(22.6%) patients were having anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Study highlight that Geriatric population have significant mental health issues during COVID19 pandemic, it should not be overlooked. It's necessary to provide elderly psychological intervention measures to improve their wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(10): e24872, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is a prevalent mental disorder that is undiagnosed and untreated in half of all cases. Wearable activity trackers collect fine-grained sensor data characterizing the behavior and physiology of users (ie, digital biomarkers), which could be used for timely, unobtrusive, and scalable depression screening. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the predictive ability of digital biomarkers, based on sensor data from consumer-grade wearables, to detect risk of depression in a working population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 290 healthy working adults. Participants wore Fitbit Charge 2 devices for 14 consecutive days and completed a health survey, including screening for depressive symptoms using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), at baseline and 2 weeks later. We extracted a range of known and novel digital biomarkers characterizing physical activity, sleep patterns, and circadian rhythms from wearables using steps, heart rate, energy expenditure, and sleep data. Associations between severity of depressive symptoms and digital biomarkers were examined with Spearman correlation and multiple regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders, including sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, self-rated health, subjective sleep characteristics, and loneliness. Supervised machine learning with statistically selected digital biomarkers was used to predict risk of depression (ie, symptom severity and screening status). We used varying cutoff scores from an acceptable PHQ-9 score range to define the depression group and different subsamples for classification, while the set of statistically selected digital biomarkers remained the same. For the performance evaluation, we used k-fold cross-validation and obtained accuracy measures from the holdout folds. RESULTS: A total of 267 participants were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 33 (SD 8.6, range 21-64) years. Out of 267 participants, there was a mild female bias displayed (n=170, 63.7%). The majority of the participants were Chinese (n=211, 79.0%), single (n=163, 61.0%), and had a university degree (n=238, 89.1%). We found that a greater severity of depressive symptoms was robustly associated with greater variation of nighttime heart rate between 2 AM and 4 AM and between 4 AM and 6 AM; it was also associated with lower regularity of weekday circadian rhythms based on steps and estimated with nonparametric measures of interdaily stability and autocorrelation as well as fewer steps-based daily peaks. Despite several reliable associations, our evidence showed limited ability of digital biomarkers to detect depression in the whole sample of working adults. However, in balanced and contrasted subsamples comprised of depressed and healthy participants with no risk of depression (ie, no or minimal depressive symptoms), the model achieved an accuracy of 80%, a sensitivity of 82%, and a specificity of 78% in detecting subjects at high risk of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Digital biomarkers that have been discovered and are based on behavioral and physiological data from consumer wearables could detect increased risk of depression and have the potential to assist in depression screening, yet current evidence shows limited predictive ability. Machine learning models combining these digital biomarkers could discriminate between individuals with a high risk of depression and individuals with no risk.


Subject(s)
Depression , Fitness Trackers , Adult , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480771

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are among those most affected by the COVID-19 health emergency, with many presenting symptoms of anxiety and depression. Research shows that one of the factors involved in mitigating the impact of stressful situations is the use of cognitive emotional regulation mechanisms. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the functional and dysfunctional cognitive emotional regulation mechanisms (FRMs and DRMs) by gender, (b) to screen the main group of healthcare professionals who are candidates to receive psychological assistance based on FRMs and DRMs, and (c) to determine the HCP profile of candidates for psychological assistance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Data were obtained from an adhoc questionnaire-the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-18), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The representative sample comprised 1452 HCPs. The results revealed significant differences between men and women in the use of DRMs. Women showed a higher use of catastrophizing (≤0.001) and rumination (0.008). The screening procedure detected that 7.5% (109 cases) of the HCPs were candidates to receive psychological support. According to the results of this study, age group (30-39 years old), professional activity (being a nurse or nursing assistant), and having psychological symptoms of anxiety and depression are variables that independently increase the probability of requiring psychological assistance. The gender variable was not found to be an independent factor when it comes to receiving psychological support. In conclusion, it is necessary to consider the influence of cognitive emotional regulation strategies employed by HCPs in the screening of candidates for psychological assistance and design effective interventions to reverse the emotional distress caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 189-198, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 537, 2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hip fracture and depression are less likely to recover functional ability. This review sought to identify prognostic factors of depression or depressive symptoms up to 1 year after hip fracture surgery in adults. This review also sought to describe proposed underlying mechanisms for their association with depression or depressive symptoms. METHODS: We searched for published (MEDLINE, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL and Web of Science Core Collection) and unpublished (OpenGrey, Greynet, BASE, conference proceedings) studies. We did not impose any date, geographical, or language limitations. Screening (Covidence), extraction (Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies, adapted for use with prognostic factors studies Checklist), and quality appraisal (Quality in Prognosis Studies tool) were completed in duplicate. Results were summarised narratively. RESULTS: In total, 37 prognostic factors were identified from 12 studies included in this review. The quality of the underlying evidence was poor, with all studies at high risk of bias in at least one domain. Most factors did not have a proposed mechanism for the association. Where factors were investigated by more than one study, the evidence was often conflicting. CONCLUSION: Due to conflicting and low quality of available evidence it is not possible to make clinical recommendations based on factors prognostic of depression or depressive symptoms after hip fracture. Further high-quality research investigating prognostic factors is warranted to inform future intervention and/or stratified approaches to care after hip fracture. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospero registration: CRD42019138690 .


Subject(s)
Depression , Hip Fractures , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Prognosis , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458302

ABSTRACT

Short and effective tools for measuring depression, anxiety and their resulting impairments are lacking in the Czech language. The abbreviated versions of the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) and the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) show very good psychometric properties in English and other languages, and can be used in different settings for research or clinical purposes. The aim of this study was the psychometric evaluation and validation of the Czech versions of the abbreviated forms of both tools in the general population. A nationally representative sample of 2912 participants (age = 48.88, SD = 15.56; 55% female) was used. The non-parametric testing of the differences between sociodemographic groups revealed a higher level of anxiety and depression in students, females and religious respondents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested a good fit for the unidimensional model of the OASIS: x2(4) = 38.28; p < 0.001; TLI = 0.999; CFI = 0.997; RMSEA = 0.078; SRMR = 0.027 and the ODSIS: x2(4) = 36.54; p < 0.001; TLI = 0.999; CFI = 0.999; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.021 with the data. Both scales had an excellent internal consistency (OASIS: Cronbach's alpha = 0.95, McDonald's omega = 0.95 and ODSIS: Cronbach's alpha = 0.95, McDonald's omega = 0.95). A clinical cut-off of 15 was identified for the OASIS and a cut-off of 12 for the ODSIS. The study showed good validity for both scales. The Czech versions of the abbreviated OASIS and ODSIS were short and valid instruments for measuring anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Depression , Language , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044888, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a global health priority. People with diabetes are more likely to experience mental health problems relative to people without diabetes. Diabetes guidelines recommend assessment of depression and diabetes distress during diabetes care. This systematic review will examine the effect of routinely assessing and addressing depression and diabetes distress using patient-reported outcome measures in improving outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycInfo, The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be searched using a prespecified strategy using a prespecified Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes, Setting and study design strategy. The date range of the search of all databases will be from inception to 3 August 2020. Randomised controlled trials, interrupted time-series studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and analytical cross-sectional studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language will be included. Two review authors will independently screen abstracts and full texts with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer, if required, using Covidence software. Two reviewers will undertake risk of bias assessment using checklists appropriate to study design. Data will be extracted using prespecified template. A narrative synthesis will be conducted, with a meta-analysis, if appropriate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this review of published studies. Presentation of results will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020200246.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
Nursing ; 51(10): 50-54, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Recommendations for social distancing and avoidance of mass gatherings during the COVID-19 pandemic have correlated with increased depressive symptoms in some individuals, such as loss of interest in daily activities, sleeplessness, or sadness. Perinatal depression screening using established, validated tools can aid with early diagnosis, guide management strategies, and optimize outcomes for pregnant women and their families. Identifying at-risk patients early in pregnancy and implementing a plan of care with appropriate mental health resources such as counseling or therapy have been shown to decrease clinical depression by more than 40%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Mass Screening/nursing , Perinatal Care , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Nursing Diagnosis , Nursing Evaluation Research , Pregnancy , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438622

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman's correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.001; CFI = 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). The DASS-8 expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from each other or from other psychiatric conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Mental Health , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(4): e107-e115, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435924

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related mental health status on chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) has not been addressed before. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the depression, anxiety and stress levels, and the fear of COVID-19 in patients with mild-to-moderate CSU and to determine their impact on urticaria activity during the pandemic. Methods: A total of 509 patients with mild-to-moderate CSU were prospectively evaluated with validated scales, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) during the lockdown period (LP) and the return to normal period (RTNP). CSU activity was determined with the urticaria activity score summed over 7 days (UAS7) and medication scores (MS). UAS7 and MS before the pandemic were retrospectively collected from medical records. Results: The median UAS7 and MS were both significantly higher in the LP than in the median of related scores during the prepandemic period (p < 0.0001) and the RTNP (p < 0.0001). The mean FCV-19S and DASS-21 scores were both significantly higher in the LP than in the RTNP (p < 0.0001). The FCV-19S and the DASS-21 anxiety and stress subscales were significantly higher in women. The UAS7s were positively correlated with the FCV-19S and depression, anxiety, and stress subscale scores. Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19, anxiety, depression, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially when strict isolation measures are taken, have a significant impact on mental health and urticaria activity in patients with mild-to-moderate CSU, even though they are not infected. Psychological support for patients with CSU seems to be important to control disease activity during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Urticaria/psychology , Cost of Illness , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Chronic Urticaria/diagnosis , Chronic Urticaria/epidemiology , Chronic Urticaria/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 214-224, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused feelings of anxiety, confusion, and panic among the world population. Due to these psychological changes resulting from the stress produced by the disease, we sought to investigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on the university student community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1,283 students were surveyed, of which 1,149 students were selected. The majority of the subjects were female, and the overall average age was of 20 years. They were provided with an 82-question online questionnaire divided into four sections; looking for the prevalence of significant symptomatology of major depression and generalised anxiety using the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales; and factors that potentially affect the mental health of our university population. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of significant depression (47.08%) and anxiety (27.06%) symptomatology, considering a score of 10 or more as cut-off point. There was no significant difference in depression and anxiety symptomatology between the health-care students and non-health-care students. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, together with what is observed in the literature, allow us to conclude that the college student population has a high risk of mental illness, and these should be taken into consideration for the search of effective strategies for detection and control of mental health illnesses. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is a red flag that shows the need to upgrade mental health programmes in universities and to validate virtual instruments.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Students/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Occupations/education , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Social Determinants of Health , Universities , Young Adult
15.
Workplace Health Saf ; 69(2): 92, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406688

ABSTRACT

Suicide prevention begins with understanding depression and mental health protection.


Subject(s)
Depression/diagnosis , Occupational Health Nursing/methods , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Suicide/psychology
16.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 27(1): 184-190, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) in family medicine (FM) in Croatia work in a demanding environment caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Besides particular circumstances in healthcare, an unknown virus, social distancing, and homeschooling, the capital was hit with the earthquake during the lockdown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of demographic characteristics, professional differences, medical history, and specific stressors on the psychological outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the online questionnaire containing the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was conducted from 1st to 15 May 2020 in FM. RESULTS: HCPs (534, 35% response rate), predominantly female (84.5%), participated in the research. High prevalence of stress (30.9%), anxiety (33.1%), depression (30.7%), and PTSD (33.0%) were found. Female participants had higher results in the anxiety subscale of DASS-21 and IES-R scores. Pre-existing conditions were associated with higher levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and PTSD. The IES-R score for PTSD showed borderline correlation (p = 0.053) with working in regions with the highest incidence of COVID-19. Having schoolchildren made a difference on a stress subscale in DASS-21 (p < 0.043), but the earthquake did not have an impact. CONCLUSION: Family physicians and nurses in FM in Croatia are under a great mental load during the COVID-19 outbreak. Results suggest that HCPs of the female sex, with pre-existing chronic conditions, work in regions with a high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 or have schoolchildren at greater risk of the poor psychological outcome.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Physicians, Family/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Disasters , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Earthquakes , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Stress/diagnosis , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
J Anxiety Disord ; 83: 102455, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Events from spring to fall 2020, including the COVID-19 pandemic, hate crimes, and social unrest, may have impacted mental health, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. This study compares rates of positive screens for anxiety and depressive disorders in separate U.S. national samples from 2019 and April to September 2020. The analysis includes trends within demographic groups, which have received scant attention. METHODS: Nationally representative probability samples of U.S. adults administered by the U.S. Census Bureau (n = 1.3 million) completed the PHQ-2 screening for depressive disorder and the GAD-2 screening for anxiety disorder. RESULTS: U.S. adults in 2020 were four times more likely to screen positive for depressive and anxiety disorders than in 2019, with the largest increases among males, 18- to 29-year-olds (for depression), Asian Americans, and parents with children in the home. Anxiety and depression rose and fell in tandem with the number of COVID-19 cases in the U.S., as well as increasing during the early June weeks of racial justice protests. CONCLUSIONS: Screens for mood and anxiety disorders remained at elevated levels in spring, summer, and fall 2020, especially among certain groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adult , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Censuses , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 949-956, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many Americans have experienced mental distress, which may be partially characterized by a rise in mental illnesses. However, COVID-19 specific psychological distress may also be separate from diagnosable conditions, a distinction that has not been well established in the context of the pandemic. METHODS: Data came from an online survey of US adults collected in March 2020. We used factor analysis to assess the relationship between COVID-19 related mental distress and depressive symptoms. Using four questions on psychological distress modified for COVID-19 and eight depressive symptoms, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify the factor structure and then estimated a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). RESULTS: The EFA model indicated a two-factor solution, where the COVID-19 distress items loaded onto the first factor and depression items loaded onto the second. Only two items cross-loaded between factors: feeling fearful and being bothered by things that do not usually bother the participant. The CFA indicated that this factor structure fit the data adequately (RMSEA=0.106, SRMR=0.046, CFI=0.915, TLI=0.890). LIMITATIONS: It is possible that there are additional important symptoms of COVID-19 distress that were not included. Depression symptoms were measured via the CES-D-10, which while validated is not equivalent to a clinician diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: As COVID-19 related mental distress appears to be distinct from, though related to, depression, public health responses must consider what aspects of depression treatment may apply to this phenomenon. For COVID-related distress, it may be more appropriate to treat symptomatically and with supportive psychotherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 489-495, May 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1319537

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: 2020 was a challenging year for all healthcare professionals worldwide. In São Paulo, Brazil, the virus SARS-CoV-2 took 47,222 lives up to December 29, 2020. The front line of medical professionals in São Paulo was composed of many residents, who were transferred from their rotations to cover the needs of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify medical residents' mental health and clinical issues, regarding symptoms of burnout, depression and anxiety during the pandemic, and to compare them among specialties. DESIGN AND SETTING: Quantitative study using a convenience sample of medical resident volunteers who responded to an anonymous online survey that was available during April 2020. METHODS: This investigation collected sociodemographic information and used the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) to measure burnout, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to measure depression and the General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale to measure anxiety symptoms. This study also developed a COVID-19 Impact Questionnaire (CIQ-19) to assess the residents' beliefs and clinical practices relating to COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The sample comprised 1,392 medical residents in São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical specialty physicians showed the highest rates of anxiety symptoms (52.6%) and burnout (51.2%), among the specialties. CONCLUSION: Clinical specialty residents are at higher risk of anxiety, depression and burnout. The symptoms of anxiety and depression have worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a general need for mental health support interventions for medical resident physicians, which requires reinforcement during this worldwide crisis.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(8): 915-926, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent depression is increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly related to dramatic social changes. Individual-level factors that contribute to social functioning, such as temperament and neural reactivity to social feedback, may confer risk for or resilience against depressive symptoms during the pandemic. METHODS: Ninety-three girls (12-17 years) oversampled for high shy/fearful temperament were recruited from a longitudinal study for a follow-up COVID-19 study. During the parent study (2016-2018), participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task eliciting neural activity to performance-related social feedback. Depressive symptoms were assessed during the parent study and COVID-19 follow-up (April-May 2020). In 65 participants with complete data, we examined how interactions between temperament and neural activation to social reward or punishment in a socio-affective brain network predict depressive symptoms during COVID-19. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms increased during COVID-19. Significant interactions between temperament and caudate, putamen, and insula activation to social reward were found. Girls high in shy/fearful temperament showed negative associations between neural activation to social reward and COVID-19 depressive symptoms, whereas girls lower in shy/fearful temperament showed positive associations. CONCLUSIONS: Girls high in shy/fearful temperament with reduced neural activation to social reward may be less likely to engage socially, which could be detrimental during the pandemic when social interactions are limited. In contrast, girls lower in shy/fearful temperament with heightened neural reactivity to social reward may be highly motivated to engage socially, which could also be detrimental with limited social opportunities. In both cases, improving social connection during the pandemic may attenuate or prevent depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adolescent , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Reward , SARS-CoV-2
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