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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 527-535, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adolescents' anxiety and depression during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak cannot be ignored. In public health crisis events, adolescents are prone to negative psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression. Hence, this research focuses on the use of reasonable and efficient methods to intervene in adolescents' psychological problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From February to April 2020, we conducted an anonymous online survey on a total of 1,200 adolescents in the provinces of Hunan and Guangxi in China. Moreover, we randomly divided a total of 150 middle school students with anxiety scores greater than 50 and volunteered to participate in the intervention experiment into control and intervention groups, with 75 members in each group. On the basis of the proposed routine treatment, we conducted 8 weeks of model 328-based peer education intervention in the intervention group. RESULTS: After the intervention, the self-rating anxiety scale scores (SAS) of the intervention group are better than those of the control group (P<0.001). Moreover, the self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of both groups are reduced, but the effect is more significant on the intervention group (P<0.001) than on the control group. Finally, the total Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores of both groups are reduced, but the effect is more significant on the intervention group than on the control group (P=0.001 and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Model 328-based peer education intervention can significantly reduce the level of anxiety and depression in adolescents and improve their sleep quality.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , China , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Surveys , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210421, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize and identify depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress associated with the COVID-19 Infodemic in the elderly from São Paulo. METHOD: Exploratory and cross-sectional study with the elderly in the capital of São Paulo who had internet access. The sociodemographic profile, the COVID-19 infodemic, depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 411 older people participated in the study. There was a predominance of women (76.4%), with higher education (57.9%), using private health services, and with little income variation. Older people were more exposed to news or information about COVID-19 on the internet (45.3%), followed by television (34.5%), and radio (11.4%). The average stress was 19.96 points; 33.1% had anxiety, and 39.7% had depressive symptoms. The greater the number of people living with the elderly, the greater the stress (p = 0.001) and anxiety (p = 0.02). The hours of exposure to information on the internet led to stress (p = 0.001), depressive symptoms (p = 0.02), and anxiety (p = 0.02) in the elderly. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, exposure to information on the internet triggered anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms in the elderly. The findings highlight the need for multi and interdisciplinary interventions to mitigate such repercussions on the elderly's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infodemic , Male , Mental Health
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 751, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: A physical therapist may become infected while treating a patient since they are in direct contact with them or within a two-meter radius. In addition, physical therapists may feel that they are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection when applying rehabilitation practices, which often involve direct contact with patients. The physical therapist were surveyed on their level of anxiety and depression due to the Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). METHODS: The physical therapists were asked to complete two reliable and validated scales, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), to identify the presence of anxiety and depression in the participants. In addition, logistic regression models were used to determine the general characteristics of anxiety or depression. RESULTS: Among the 117 physical therapists who completed and participated in the study, 74 (63%) and 65 (55.5%) physical therapists reported having symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. The prevalence of overall anxiety levels was higher; mild (OR = 2.09; P = 0.08), moderate (OR = 2.26; P = 0.15), and severe levels six times as high (OR = 6.28; P = 0.1) in females compared to male physical therapists. Females, younger age, unmarried individuals, not having children, and not living with family showed a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. Binary logistic regression analysis also revealed that the female gender, a single individual, and having no children were associated with anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of physical therapists reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, especially among females, younger age, single individuals, not having children, and not living with family. Thus, the mental health of physical therapists is suggested to be constantly and cautiously monitored, especially for those at high risk of developing psychological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology
6.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 412-422, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092246

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess whether fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with depression, anxiety, and psychosis and to evaluate if these variables are correlated with the interaction between spirituality and fear of COVID-19. METHODS: Between September and November 2020, this cross-sectional study enrolled 118 chronic schizophrenia patients. The interview with patients included Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Lebanese Anxiety Scale-10, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being-12. The results were analyzed by using linear regressions (Enter method), with anxiety, depression, total PANSS score, positive PANSS, negative PANSS, and general psychopathology PANSS subscales as dependent variables. Spirituality, fear of COVID-19, and the interaction of spirituality with fear of COVID-19 were independents variables. RESULTS: Fear of COVID-19 was positively correlated with increased total PANSS scores (Beta=0.90, P=0.030). Higher spirituality was significantly associated with lower anxiety (Beta=-0.14, P=0.009), lower depression (Beta=-0.21, P=0.001), lower total PANSS score (Beta=-0.90, P=0.004), lower negative PANSS score (Beta=-0.23, P=0.009), and lower general psychopathology PANSS score (Beta=-0.61, P=0.001). In patients with high fear of COVID-19, having low spirituality was significantly associated with higher anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a positive correlation between fear of COVID-19 and higher psychosis among inpatients with schizophrenia. The interaction of spirituality with fear of COVID-19 was correlated with reduced anxiety, depression, and psychosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Humans , Spirituality , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety , Fear
7.
Psicothema ; 34(4): 518-527, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim was to estimate the rate of PIU in Spanish university students during the lockdown, taking sex and age into account, and to analyze its relationship with depression and suicidal ideation. METHOD: 921 university students (55% women) from 18 to 30 years old (M = 24.8 years; SD = 3) participated. RESULTS: The results showed that 21% of the participants presented PIU, 25.1% moderate depression, 2.1% severe depression, and 6.6% suicidal ideation. The 18 to 21-year-old age group presented the highest rate of PIU (37.8%). A positive correlation was observed between PIU and depression (r = .38; p (241.813) = -8.21; < d = .78) in university students with PIU (M = 9.8; SD = 5.1) than those without it (M = 6.4; SD = 4.1). The rate of severe depression was six times greater (χ2 (3) = 73.25; p < .001) in undergraduates with PIU (6.2%) than those without PIU (0.8%). Moreover, 3.6% of university students with PIU presented suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish the association between PIU and depression and suicidal ideation in the university population, providing novel contributions for prevention policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Universities , Internet Use , Communicable Disease Control , Students , Internet , Depression/epidemiology
8.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604553, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089970

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterize the evolution of healthcare workers' mental health status over the 1-year period following the initial COVID-19 pandemic outbreak and to examine baseline characteristics associated with resolution or persistence of mental health problems over time. Methods: We conducted an 8-month follow-up cohort study. Eligible participants were healthcare workers working in Spain. Baseline data were collected during the initial pandemic outbreak. Survey-based self-reported measures included COVID-19-related exposures, sociodemographic characteristics, and three mental health outcomes (psychological distress, depression symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms). We examined three longitudinal trajectories in mental health outcomes between baseline and follow-up assessments (namely asymptomatic/stable, recovering, and persistently symptomatic/worsening). Results: We recruited 1,807 participants. Between baseline and follow-up assessments, the proportion of respondents screening positive for psychological distress and probable depression decreased, respectively, from 74% to 56% and from 28% to 21%. Two-thirds remained asymptomatic/stable in terms of depression symptoms and 56% remained symptomatic or worsened over time in terms of psychological distress. Conclusion: Poor mental health outcomes among healthcare workers persisted over time. Occupational programs and mental health strategies should be put in place.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 564-571, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has put enormous stress on the health care workers, threatening not only their physical health but also their mental well-being. No mental health support program (MHSP) addressing depression and anxiety in healthcare workers (HCWs), has been shown to be effective in Turkey previously. We aimed to measure the effect of our MHSP among healthcare workers who applied for psychological help associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An MHSP has been created for healthcare professionals working in a pandemic hospital during the COVID-19 period. Health workers were recruited between July and September 2020. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia levels were evaluated with HAM-A (Hamilton Anxiety Scale), HDRS (Hamilton Depression Scale), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) before and after the intervention. Sexual complaints were questioned by a consultant psychiatrist. MHSP (n=31), and treatment as usual (TAU, n=27) groups were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Sociodemographic data, medical history of COVID-19, and psychiatric diagnoses were similar between the groups. There was no difference in baseline HAM-A, HDRS, and ISI scores (p>0.05). At the end of the study, there was a significant difference between study groups regarding anxiety scores (For post-treatment, MHSP=8.0±2.6 vs. TAU=17.9±3.1, p<0.001) and depression symptoms (For post-treatment, MHSP=8.8±2.7 vs. TAU=20.0±2.4, p<0.001) but not in insomnia levels (For post-treatment, MHSP=6.5±2.4 vs. TAU=7.3±2.4, p=0.499). Likewise, both groups reported similar levels of improvement in reduced sexual drive. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results suggest that the MHSP effectively alleviates the psychiatric complaints of healthcare professionals. It is recommended to have mental support teams for healthcare professionals in hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Depression/psychology , Turkey/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
10.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 25(3): 271-284, 2022 07 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determine the factors associated with psychological manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress in healthcare workers in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in health facilities in Peru during the month of May 2020. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted out in healthcare workers of hospital establishments in Peru. To evaluate the outcome of interest, we administered a structured questionnaire that asked about type of healthcare personnel; sociodemographic characteristics; Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7); Patient Health Questionnaire scale (PHQ-9); and the Revised Stressor Impact scale (IES-R). We used generalized linear Poisson models, with a logarithmic link function and robust variance. RESULTS: Out of 258 respondents, 254 completed the survey; 61.8% were women; the most common work area was emergency department or hospitalization (inpatient) services (62.2%). The median PHQ-9 score was 4 points (IQR: 2-7); for the GAD-7, it was 6 points (IQR: 4-8), and for the IES-R, 16 points (IQR: 8-24). The multivariate analysis showed that being a physician was associated with less anxiety (PR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62-0.94), whereas living alone was associated with a greater risk of depression (PR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.92). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare personnel are at risk of manifesting psychological alterations, mainly associated with the female gender, non-medical personnel and living alone.


OBJETIVO: Describir las características sociodemográficas y determinar los factores asociados a manifestaciones psicológicas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés en trabajadores sanitarios en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en los establecimientos de salud del Perú durante mayo de 2020. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en trabajadores sanitarios de establecimientos hospitalarios del Perú. Se elaboró un cuestionario estructurado que incluía las características sociodemográficas, la profesión, área y lugar de trabajo, y cuestionarios validados para trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (GAD-7), Salud del paciente (PHQ-9) y la Escala de impacto del estresor revisada (IES-R). Para el análisis se utilizó modelos lineales generalizados de Poisson, función de enlace logarítmico y varianzas robustas. Se calculó el rango intercuartílico (RIC) y la razón de prevalencia ajustada (RPa) y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS: De un total de 258 encuestados, 254 (98%) completaron al cuestionario, siendo el 61,8% mujeres y el área de trabajo más común emergencia u hospitalización (62,2%). La puntuación mediana del PHQ-9 fue 4 (RIC:2-7), del GAD-7 fue 6 (RIC:4-8) y para el IES-R fue 16 (RIC:8-24). El análisis multivariado mostró que ser médico se asocia con una menor prevalencia de ansiedad (RPa: 0,77; IC 95%: 0,62-0,94), mientras que vivir solo se asoció con una mayor prevalencia de depresión (RPa: 1,46; IC 95%: 1,11-1,92). Conclusión: El personal sanitario manifestó alteraciones psicológicas, asociado principalmente al personal no médico y vivir solo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care
11.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(11): 833-839, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies have been conducted on the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how the mental health of health workers will be affected among the number of peaks during the pandemic has not been evaluated yet. The study aims to investigate the effects of the first, second, and third peaks of COVID-19 on anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in healthcare workers. METHODS: The current study included 4031 healthcare workers, 1051 during the first peak period, 1409 during the second peak period, and 1571 during the third peak period. The Depression-anxiety-stress scale-21(DASS-21) was used to assess the participants' levels of anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 33.74 ± 7.95, and 2634 (66.3 %) were female. 36.9 %(n = 1486) of the participants were physicians, 41.1 % (n = 1655) were nurses and 22.1 % (n = 890) were other healthcare workers. A statistically significant difference was documented in the DASS-21 anxiety (F(2:4028) = 502.893, p 2. Peak > 1. Peak), DASS-21 depression (F(2:4028) = 46.034, p 2. Peak > 1. Peak), DASS-21 stress (F(2:4028) = 65.548, p 1. Peak), and DASS-21 total scores (F(2:4028) = 156.860, p 2. Peak > 1. Peak) of healthcare workers during all three peak periods. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that as the peak number rises, so do the levels of anxiety and depression among healthcare workers. As a result, it is possible to assert that prolongation of the COVID-19 pandemic worsens mental problems (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 35).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 984691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080293

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced mental health professionals to adapt quickly. The pandemic has created multiple new tasks for the psychologist. In addition to the various stressors closely linked to the COVID-19 pandemic, psychologists were forced to make their services more flexible. Teleworking was a way of continuing to work. Objective: This study aimed to identify the impact of working pattern on the levels of burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on an online questionnaire applied to eighty-three Portuguese psychologists. Data were collected from May 9 to June 8, 2020, a period comprising the declaration of a national calamity and then state of emergency, and the subsequent ease of lockdown measures. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory Scale and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale were used. Univariate multiple linear regression models were estimated for each mental health outcome. Results: Significant differences were found between psychologists working in the workplace and in teleworking at the personal burnout, work-related burnout, client-related burnout, depression, and stress. In multiple linear regression, teleworking, not working, and being unmarried was significantly associated with higher levels of depression. Teleworking was significantly associated with higher stress scores and client-related and work burnout. Conclusions: This exceptional time of sudden, mandatory, and high-intensity teleworking, required rapid adaptation, giving rise to new stressors that might have been responsible for burnout levels in psychologists.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Teleworking , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 938156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080286

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has dramatically impacted people's health, especially mental health. This study aimed to compare the psychological status of pregnant women before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Participants were recruited (from September 29, 2019, to November 5, 2020) and screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The study participants were categorized into three groups based on two turning-points: January 23, 2020, when China initiated a locked-down strategy, and May 11, 2020, when Shanghai started to ease the COVID-19 measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with depression and anxiety in pregnant women. We used enter method for variable selection; only variables with P <0.10 were included in the final model. Results: We recruited 478 pregnant women. After the outbreak, the depression rate (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) increased by 12.3% (from 35.4 to 47.7%), and the anxiety rate (GAD-7 ≥ 5) was stable (13.3 vs. 16.2%). The multivariable logistic regression results further confirmed that the odds of depression in pregnant women increased 81% after the outbreak (aOR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.16-2.84). However, the median depression scale score was still statistically higher after the pandemic situation was stable (5.0 vs. 4.0) compared to the outbreak period. Conclusion: The depression rate increased among pregnant women after the outbreak and was not recovered after the ease of COVID-19 measures in Shanghai. Health institutes should pay attention to the long-term influence of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , China/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276552, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most studied mental health disorders, with varying prevalence rates reported across study populations in Uganda. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine the pooled prevalence of depression and the prevalence of depression across different study populations in the country. METHODS: Papers for the review were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, African Journal OnLine, and Google Scholar databases. All included papers were observational studies regarding depression prevalence in Uganda, published before September 2021. The Joanna Briggs Institute Checklist for Prevalence Studies was used to evaluate the risk of bias and quality of the included papers, and depression pooled prevalence was determined using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 127 studies comprising 123,859 individuals were identified. Most studies were conducted among individuals living with HIV (n = 43; 33.9%), and the most frequently used instrument for assessing depression was the Depression sub-section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (n = 34). The pooled prevalence of depression was 30.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.7-34.1, I2 = 99.80, p<0.001). The prevalence of depression was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the pre-pandemic period (48.1% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.021). Refugees had the highest prevalence of depression (67.6%; eight studies), followed by war victims (36.0%; 12 studies), individuals living with HIV (28.2%; 43 studies), postpartum or pregnant mothers (26.9%; seven studies), university students (26.9%; four studies), children and adolescents (23.6%; 10 studies), and caregivers of patients (18.5%; six studies). LIMITATION: Significantly high levels of heterogeneity among the studies included. CONCLUSION: Almost one in three individuals in Uganda has depression, with the refugee population being disproportionately affected. Targeted models for depression screening and management across various populations across the country are recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Protocol registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022310122).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Child , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Female , Prevalence , Depression/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271824, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079702

ABSTRACT

Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare workers has been established, linking workplace factors with high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia and burnout. Less established is how COVID-19 affects both work, home and social life of nurses and midwives concurrently. This study describes the prevalence and severity of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia and examines their associations with stressors within the work, home and social environment, among nurses and midwives. A longitudinal, mixed-methods, online survey explored the psychological health of public sector nurses and midwives during the COVID-19 pandemic first year. Surveys were conducted in April (initial) and June 2020 (3-month), and April 2021 (12-month) and consisted of psychological tests including the Patient Health Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder, Insomnia Severity Index, and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised; workplace and lifestyle questions, together with free-text comments. The relative strengths of the associations between predictor and outcome variables were estimated using repeated measures ordered logistic regression, and free text responses were themed. Data show diagnostic levels of anxiety (23%, 18%, 21%) at surveys one, two and three respectively, depression (26%, 23% and 28%), PTSD (16%, 12% and 10%) and insomnia (19%, 19% and 21%). The strongest predictors of psychological distress were current home and family stress and poor clinical team support. Factors which will help preserve the mental health of nurses and midwives include strong workplace culture, reducing occupational risk, clear communication processes, and supporting stable and functional relationships at home. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the visibility of mental distress on nurses and midwives and established they are pivotal to healthcare. The health service has a duty-of-care for the welfare of nurses and midwives who have entered this psychologically taxing profession to future proof service delivery and safeguard its service-response capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Midwifery , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Public Sector , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Tasmania
16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27: 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of the prolonged coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on the mental health of nursing students is unclear. This study assesses the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia among nursing students in Japan during the pandemic and determines the risk factors associated with such symptoms. METHODS: An online survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 16 to October 16, 2021. Participants were first- to fourth-year nursing students enrolled in undergraduate programs at the eight universities in Japan. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Insomnia Severity Index-7, respectively. We calculated descriptive statistics for each measurement item and performed univariate and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the potential risk factors. RESULTS: We received responses from 1,222 of 3,056 nursing students (response rate: 40.0%). After 25 participants were excluded due to missing outcome values, 1,197 students (valid response rate: 98.0%) were included in the analysis. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia was 4.8%, 12.4%, and 18.0%, respectively. The risk of anxiety was lower among participants who did not have any relatives or friends who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 than among those who did (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.94). The risk of depression was higher among participants whose financial status had worsened during the pandemic than among those whose financial status had not changed (aOR 3.44; 95% CI 1.98-5.96). Common factors that increased the risk of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were life satisfaction and fear of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Mental health-related symptoms among nursing students in Japan have not necessarily worsened with the spread of COVID-19 but were exacerbated by the intensity of changes in daily living and fear, which are psychosocial effects associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(3): 261-268, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of social distancing on health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in older people with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: HIV-positive and HIV-negative AGEhIV Cohort Study participants. METHOD: In September-November 2020, participants completed questionnaires on social distancing, change in substance use, health-related quality of life (EQ-6D, including EQ-VAS), and depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). Associations between social distancing and (1) EQ-VAS or (2) PHQ-9 score ≥10 (clinically relevant depressive symptoms) were analyzed using fractional and binomial logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen HIV-positive and 285 HIV-negative participants were analyzed. 77.4% found social distancing important and 66.9% reported good adherence to these measures, without significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. In both groups, &lt;5% reported increased smoking or recreational drug use, but more HIV-positive (12.2%) than HIV-negative (4.9%) participants (P = 0.005) reported increased/more frequent alcohol use. Median EQ-VAS was slightly lower in HIV-positive (80 IQR = 73-90) than HIV-negative (84 IQR = 75-90) participants (P = 0.041). The prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was similar (HIV-positive, 8.4% and HIV-negative, 8.8%). Worrying about contracting COVID-19 and having ≥3 (vs no) comorbidities were associated with lower EQ-VAS and finding social distancing easy with higher EQ-VAS. Worrying about contracting COVID-19 and younger than 60 years (vs ≥65) were associated with higher odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms. HIV status was associated with neither outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Initially during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, a similar majority of HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants reported adhering to social distancing. Irrespective of HIV status, concerns about contracting COVID-19 negatively affected participants' perceived current health and increased risk of depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Quality of Life , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
18.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 44(10): 1067-1075, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the psychological and behavioural effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on a Canadian cohort of individuals during pregnancy and the postpartum period. METHODS: In 2020, individuals between 20 weeks gestation and 3 months postpartum receiving maternity care from an urban Canadian clinic were invited to complete a questionnaire. The purpose-built questionnaire used validated scales including the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and questions from a SARS study. RESULTS: One hundred nine people completed the questionnaire (response rate, 55%) of whom 57% (n = 62) were postpartum. Most respondents (107, 98%) were married and had completed post-secondary education (104, 95%). Despite these protective factors, moderate to severe levels of depression (22%), anxiety (19%) and stress (27%), were recorded using the DASS-21, and 25% of participants (26) had depression (score ≥11) using the EPDS. Despite high social support in all MOS domains (median scores 84-100), a majority of participants reported loneliness (69, 67%) and were nearly or totally housebound (65, 64%). About half of participants worried about themselves (50, 46.3%) or their baby (59, 54%) contracting COVID-19, while the majority postponed (80, 74.1%) and cancelled (79, 73.2%) prenatal appointments. Being homebound or feeling lonely / lacking support were significant risk factors for psychological distress (P = 0.02) whereas exercise and strong social support were protective (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum individuals experienced moderate to severe depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exercise and strong social support were protective. Health care provider enquiry of home circumstances and activity may identify individuals needing enhanced supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Maternal Health Services , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
19.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(75): 351-355, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073782

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. The number of cases and dramatic loss of human life worldwide created psychological problems among general public, including health care workers. Objective To determine the burden of anxiety, depression, and functional impairment among health care workers in the early days of lockdown during the first wave of COVID-19 outbreak in Nepal. Method A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out among all the employees of Hospital for Children Eye ENT and Rehabilitation Services, Bhaktapur during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from April 3, 2020 to May 2, 2020 using an online questionnaire. The tools used were adopted from Nepali version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) and Nepali version of WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). Result The mean age (SD) of the participants (n=86) was 32.53 (7.92) years. Male and female participants were equal in number. The point prevalence of anxiety and depression was 25.6% and 14.0%, respectively. Females had a higher prevalence of both anxiety (39.5% vs 11.6%, p < 0.01) and depression (18.6% vs 9.3%, p=0.351). Clinical and nonclinical staff both had a higher prevalence of both anxiety (31.0% and 20.5%, p=0.265) and depression (16.7% and 11.4%, p=0.478). The mean functional impairment score (WHODAS 2.0) among all participants and participants with anxiety and depression was 19.47 (95% CI: 18.13-20.80), 21.27 (95% CI: 18.08-24.46), and 19.92 (95% CI: 15.28- 24.56), respectively. Conclusion Anxiety and depression during the first lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic were highly prevalent in clinical and non-clinical employees. Besides controlling the outbreak, special consideration should be given to mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E61, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Given their central role in supporting children's development, childcare professionals' overall physical and mental health is important. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic diseases, depression, and stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic among US childcare professionals. METHODS: Data were obtained from US childcare professionals (N = 81,682) through an online survey from May 22, 2020, through June 8, 2020. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to assess the association of sociodemographic characteristics with 4 physical health conditions (asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity), depression, and stress weighted to national representativeness. RESULTS: For physical health conditions, 14.3% (n = 11,717) reported moderate to severe asthma, 6.5% (n = 5,317) diabetes, 4.9% (n = 3,971) heart disease, and 19.8% (n = 16,207) obesity. For mental health, 45.7% (n = 37,376) screened positive for depression and 66.5% (n = 54,381) reported moderate to high stress levels. Race, ethnicity, and sex/gender disparities were found for physical health conditions but not mental health of childcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlighted that childcare professionals' depression rates during the pandemic were higher than before the pandemic, and depression, stress, and asthma rates were higher than rates among US adults overall during the pandemic. Given the essential work childcare professionals provided during the pandemic, policy makers and public health officials should consider what can be done to support their physical and mental health.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adult , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Care , Chronic Disease , Depression/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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