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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22227, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread dramatically worldwide, raising considerable concerns and resulting in detrimental effects on the psychological health of people who are vulnerable to the disease. Therefore, assessment of depression in members of the general public and their psychological and behavioral responses is essential for the maintenance of health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and the associated factors among the general public during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression.aA cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic was 182/1342 (13.6%). Regression analysis indicated that feeling stressed, feeling helpless, persistently being worried even with support, never feeling clean after disinfecting, scrubbing hands and items repeatedly, hoarding food, medicine, or daily supplies, and being distracted from work or study were positively associated with depression, while social support and being calm were negatively associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The general public suffered from high levels of depression during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, COVID-19-related mood management and social support should be provided to attenuate depression in the general public.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Self Report , Smartphone
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21662, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733319

ABSTRACT

The first case of atypical pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Since then, cases of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP) have been reported throughout China as well as in 25 other countries. With the rapid growth of this global outbreak, psychological disorders or impact among the healthcare nurses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is of great importance and worth to be evaluated. Here, we aimed to determine the levels of stress and psychological disorders of nurses who provided nursing care during the COVID-19 outbreak. A total of 159 nurses who provided healthcare work for COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. The psychological disorders and stress level were assessed via a questionnaire implemented by the mobile app. The results showed that the nurses who worked in the non-critical care ward (general ward in which the invasive medical procedure such as mechanical ventilation is absent) scored significantly higher on the traumatization condition (P < .05) and stress level (P < .01) as well as the impact of event scale -revised level (P < .01) compared with those worked in the critical care ward. In contrast to the previous report, our findings revealed that the future intervention for preventing the mental crisis among the healthcare nurses needs to be focusing on the individuals in the non-critical care ward instead of those in the critical care ward under the spreading of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Workplace/psychology
3.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e77, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND.: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), people are under the dual pressure of interpersonal isolation and concerns about infection. An evaluation of people's psychological status and risk factors is needed to conduct target interventions. METHODS.: This was a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study using quota and snowball sampling methods during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Participants' characteristics and experiences were obtained by an online questionnaire and telephone review. Psychological distress and sleep problems were measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Insomnia Severity Index. RESULTS.: A total of 23,500 participants were recruited, and 19,372 valid questionnaires were received from 11 centers. Overall, 11.0-13.3% of the participants had anxiety, depression, or insomnia symptoms, and 1.9-2.7% had severe symptoms. The prevalence of psychological and sleep problems has increased. Working as frontline medical staff (Odds Ratio OR = 3.406), living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.237), close contacts with COVID-19 (OR = 1.808), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.310) were risk factors for anxiety symptoms; no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 2.167) and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.198) were risk factors for depression symptoms; and living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.376), no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 1.927), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.262) were risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Only 1.9% of participants received counseling during the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS.: Psychological and sleep problems increased during interpersonal isolation due to COVID-19. Current psychological interventions are far from sufficient.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238416, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732991

ABSTRACT

Fangcang shelter hospitals were established in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as a countermeasure to stop the spread of the disease. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted on mental health problems among patients in Fangcang shelter hospitals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and major influencing factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among COVID-19 patients admitted to Fangcang shelter hospitals. From February 23, 2020, to February 26, 2020, we obtained sociodemographic and clinical characteristics information of COVID-19 patients in Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital (Wuhan, China) and assessed their mental health status and sleep quality. Data were obtained with an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a set of items on demographic characteristics, a set of items on clinical characteristics, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Three hundred seven COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital participated in this study. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 18.6% and 13.4%, respectively. Poor sleep quality and having ≥ two current physical symptoms were independent risk factors for anxiety symptoms. Female sex, having a family member with confirmed COVID-19, and having ≥ two current physical symptoms were independent risk factors for depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were found to be common among COVID-19 patients in Fangcang Shelter Hospital, with some patients being at high risk.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238162, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731086

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Bangladeshi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also aimed at identifying the determinants of depression and anxiety. A total of 476 university students living in Bangladesh participated in this cross-sectional web-based survey. A standardized e-questionnaire was generated using the Google Form, and the link was shared through social media-Facebook. The information was analyzed in three consecutive levels, such as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. Students were experiencing heightened depression and anxiety. Around 15% of the students reportedly had moderately severe depression, whereas 18.1% were severely suffering from anxiety. The binary logistic regression suggests that older students have greater depression (OR = 2.886, 95% CI = 0.961-8.669). It is also evident that students who provided private tuition in the pre-pandemic period had depression (OR = 1.199, 95% CI = 0.736-1.952). It is expected that both the government and universities could work together to fix the academic delays and financial problems to reduce depression and anxiety among university students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
6.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(4): 8-13, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729276

ABSTRACT

One of the most pernicious side effects of the COVID-19 pandemic is a steep rise in stress and mental health problems. According to a poll by the Kaiser Family Foundation, nearly half of American adults say that worry and stress about the pandemic is hurting their mental health [1]. There are plenty of factors feeding into this phenomenon. People are anxious about getting sick, grieving lost loved ones, and experiencing financial stress, parental stress, and loneliness. The pandemic places additional burdens on essential workers and people of color, both of whom are at greater risk of dying from the disease. COVID-19 itself has been linked to neurological problems as well as anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders [2].


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Wake Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/economics , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/economics , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 417, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the resilience of non-local medical workers sent to support local medical workers in treating the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: In February 2020, non-local medical workers who had been sent to Wuhan as support staff to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak were asked to complete an online survey composed of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). RESULTS: Survey responses from 114 non-local medical workers were analyzed. CD-RISC scores were high (67.03 ± 13.22). The resilience level was highest for physicians (73.48 ± 11.49), followed by support staff, including health care assistants, technicians (67.78 ± 12.43) and nurses (64.86 ± 13.46). Respondents differed significantly in the levels of education, training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital (where he or she normally works), and in their feelings of being adequately prepared and confident to complete tasks (P < 0.05). Resilience correlated negatively with anxiety (r = -.498, P < 0.01) and depression (r = -.471, P < 0.01) but positively with active coping styles (r = .733, P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that active coping (ß = 1.314, p < 0.05), depression (ß = -.806, p < 0.05), anxiety (ß = - 1.091, p < 0.05), and training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital (ß = 3.510, p < 0.05) were significant associated with resilience. CONCLUSION: Our data show that active coping, depression, anxiety, and training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital are associated with resilience. Managers of medical staff should use these data to develop psychosocial interventions aimed at reinforcing the resilience of medical workers during highly stressful and prolonged medical emergencies, as seen during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 291, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724023

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is a global calamity posing an unprecedented opportunity to study resilience. We developed a brief resilience survey probing self-reliance, emotion-regulation, interpersonal-relationship patterns and neighborhood-environment, and applied it online during the acute COVID-19 outbreak (April 6-15, 2020), on a crowdsourcing research website ( www.covid19resilience.org ) advertised through social media. We evaluated level of stress (worries) regarding COVID-19: (1) contracting, (2) dying from, (3) currently having, (4) family member contracting, (5) unknowingly infecting others with (6) experiencing significant financial burden following. Anxiety (GAD7) and depression (PHQ2) were measured. Totally, 3042 participants (n = 1964 females, age range 18-79, mean age = 39) completed the resilience and COVID-19-related stress survey and 1350 of them (mean age = 41, SD = 13; n = 997 females) completed GAD7 and PHQ2. Participants significantly endorsed more distress about family contracting COVID-19 (48.5%) and unknowingly infecting others (36%), than getting COVID-19 themselves (19.9%), p < 0.0005 covarying for demographics and proxy COVID-19 exposures like getting tested and knowing infected individuals. Patterns of COVID-19 related worries, rates of anxiety (GAD7 > 10, 22.2%) and depression (PHQ2 > 2, 16.1%) did not differ between healthcare providers and non-healthcare providers. Higher resilience scores were associated with lower COVID-19 related worries (main effect F1,3054 = 134.9; p < 0.00001, covarying for confounders). Increase in 1 SD on resilience score was associated with reduced rate of anxiety (65%) and depression (69%), across healthcare and non-healthcare professionals. Findings provide empirical evidence on mental health associated with COVID-19 outbreak in a large convenience sample, setting a stage for longitudinal studies evaluating mental health trajectories following COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(4): 298-305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719925

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic can have important psychosocial consequences in the population. Objective: To determine the levels of anxiety, depression and self-care symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Method: Online survey distributed over three weeks using a non-probability sampling. The PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, the GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and Visual analog scale for self-care behaviors were used. Between-group (anxiety and depression) descriptive and comparison analyses were carried out. Results: Out of 1508 included participants, 20.8% had symptoms of severe anxiety, while 27.5% showed symptoms of severe depression. Being a woman, being single, having no children, having medical comorbidities and a history of mental health care were risk factors for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression; 66 to 80 % of the population complied with self-care recommendations. A need for receiving mental health care was identified in our study population. Conclusion: A larger number of individuals with moderate to severe anxiety and depression symptoms were observed than in other pandemics. COVID-19 pandemic psychological effects are considered an emerging public health problem, and implementation of programs for their care is therefore recommended.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Surveys , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717732

ABSTRACT

It seems that the medical personnel in contact with patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at an especially high risk of adverse psychological effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the mental health factors among healthcare workers by quantifying the severity of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders during the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, while taking into account coexisting diseases. The study involved 441 healthcare professionals including 206 healthcare workers at emergency wards, infectious wards, and intensive care units. The control group consisted of 235 healthcare workers working in wards other than those where individuals from the study group worked. Regression adjusted by age, gender, the occurrence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and cigarette smoking showed the elevated risk of anxiety on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale (OR = 1.934; p < 0.001), depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale (OR = 2.623; p < 0.001), and sleep disorders on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale (OR = 3.078; p < 0.001). Our study showed that healthcare workers who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2-infected patients at emergency wards, infectious wards, and intensive care units are at a much higher risk of showing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders than healthcare workers working in other wards.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
13.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 79-85, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714533

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the psychological impact and mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, and insomnia during COVID-19 crisis among ophthalmologists. METHODS: This was a simple random study in which ophthalmologists practicing in Saudi Arabia were asked to fill in a self-administered online survey during the period from March 28, 2020, to April 04, 2020. Four validated psychiatric assessment tools were used to detect symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and stress perception. RESULTS: One hundred and seven participants successfully completed the survey with a response rate of 30.6%. Males constituted 56.1% (n = 60). Ophthalmology residents constituted the majority (n = 66, 61.7%). About half of the physicians exhibited symptoms of depression (n = 56, 50.5%), anxiety (n = 50, 46.7%), and insomnia (n = 48, 44.9%). Symptoms of stress ranged between low (28%), moderate (68.2%), and high (3.7%). According to the cutoff values for severe symptoms, 29% were identified as having depression, 38.3% had anxiety, and 15% had insomnia.Depression was found to be more common among female ophthalmologists (P = 0.06), those living with an elderly (P = 0.003), and fellows (P = 0.006). Female ophthalmologists suffering from anxiety were significantly more than male ophthalmologists (P = 0.046). There was a trend toward suffering from anxiety in frontline health-care providers (P = 0.139) and in ophthalmologists who are living with an elderly (P = 0.149). Female participants exhibited significantly more moderate-to-high symptoms of stress (P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists' psychological needs, females in particular, should be addressed appropriately during the COVID-19 pandemic. Establishing psychological support units, especially for high-risk individuals, should be considered to minimize psychological adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Ophthalmologists/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Needs Assessment , Ophthalmologists/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 402, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused serious psychological problems, including panic attack, anxiety, stress, and depression. The main objective of this study was to measure the prevalence and compare the severity of this psychological distress among four groups of an Iranian population. METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey, the mental health status of four groups of an Iranian society including community population, patients with COVID-19, medical staff, and medical students were investigated by the self-report questionnaire of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). DASS-21 questionnaire and the demographic data sheet were filled out by the participants. All statistical analyses were done using R version 3.6.1 software. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. ANOVA test was used to compare the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression between the four study groups. RESULTS: Of the 886 participants in this survey, 554 (62.5%) were men and 332 (37.5%) were women, and the mean ± standard division of age was 40.91 ± 10.7 years. Among these participants, 241 (27.2%) were selected from community population, 221 (24.9%) were patients with COVID-19, 217 (24.5%) were medical staff, and 207 (23.4%) were medical students. The mean score of stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students and patients with COVID-19 was significantly higher than in medical staff and community population (P < 0.05). Overall, the anxiety score in men was higher than that in women (27.4 ± 4.6 vs. 26.48 ± 4.8, P = 0.006), and unmarried participants had a significantly higher depression score compared with the married group (27.5 ± 4.8 vs. 26.7 ± 4.6, P = 0.023). In addition, the score of depression was higher in female medical staff (27.08 ± 4.6 vs. 25.33 ± 4.3, P = 0.011) and community population (26.6 ± 4.3 vs. 25.3 ± 4.3, P = 0.02) than in male. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients and medical students in contact with these patients were at a high risk for mental illness due to lower experience compared with professional medical staff and community population. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of psychological distress for outbreaks should become a routine part of preparedness efforts worldwide.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 327-334, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699417

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, 414,179 cases of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. As a result of the rapid increase in confirmed cases and deaths, population and health personnel, have experienced psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, and stress. Although scientific information on COVID-19 is constantly increasing, it mainly focuses on genetic, epidemiological aspects, and public health measures, leaving aside possible effects on mental health. In order to summarize the current evidence, we present a narrative review of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. So far, the presence of anxiety, depression, and stress has been reported mostly in general population. Nonetheless, mental health issues have also been reported in health care workers, especially among female professionals, nurses, and those who work directly with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. In efforts to reduce the spread of the disease, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues. We believe that addressing them adequately will empower Peru to contain and eradicate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peru/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(15)2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693562

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and worldwide spread of COVID-19 has resulted in a high prevalence of mental health problems in China and other countries. This was a cross-sectional study conducted using an online survey and face-to-face interviews to assess mental health problems and the associated factors among Chinese citizens with income losses exposed to COVID-19. The degrees of the depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress symptoms of our participants were assessed using the Chinese versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the Insomnia Severity Index-7 (ISI-7), and the revised 7-item Impact of Event Scale (IES-7) scales, respectively, which found that the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress caused by COVID-19 were 45.5%, 49.5%, 30.9%, and 68.1%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes among workers with income losses during COVID-19. Participants working in Hubei province with heavy income losses, especially pregnant women, were found to have a high risk of developing unfavorable mental health symptoms and may need psychological support or interventions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Income , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(15)2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693471

ABSTRACT

Research identifying adults' mental health during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic relies solely on demographic predictors without examining adults' health condition as a potential predictor. This study aims to examine individuals' perception of health conditions and test availability as potential predictors of mental health-insomnia, anxiety, depression, and distress-during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey of 669 adults in Malaysia was conducted during 2-8 May 2020, six weeks after the Movement Control Order (MCO) was issued. We found adults' perception of health conditions had curvilinear relationships (horizontally reversed J-shaped) with insomnia, anxiety, depression, and distress. Perceived test availability for COVID-19 also had curvilinear relationships (horizontally reversed J-shaped) with anxiety and depression. Younger adults reported worse mental health, but people from various religions and ethnic groups did not differ significantly in reported mental health. The results indicated that adults with worse health conditions had more mental health problems, and the worse degree deepened for unhealthy people. Perceived test availability negatively predicted anxiety and depression, especially for adults perceiving COVID-19 test unavailability. The significant predictions of perceived health condition and perceived COVID-19 test availability suggest a new direction for the literature to identify the psychiatric risk factors directly from health-related variables during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236562, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690898

ABSTRACT

The acute and long-term mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. The current study examined the acute mental health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in 5070 adult participants in Australia, using an online survey administered during the peak of the outbreak in Australia (27th March to 7th April 2020). Self-report questionnaires examined COVID-19 fears and behavioural responses to COVID-19, as well as the severity of psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), health anxiety, contamination fears, alcohol use, and physical activity. 78% of respondents reported that their mental health had worsened since the outbreak, one quarter (25.9%) were very or extremely worried about contracting COVID-19, and half (52.7%) were worried about family and friends contracting COVID-19. Uncertainty, loneliness and financial worries (50%) were common. Rates of elevated psychological distress were higher than expected, with 62%, 50%, and 64% of respondents reporting elevated depression, anxiety and stress levels respectively, and one in four reporting elevated health anxiety in the past week. Participants with self-reported history of a mental health diagnosis had significantly higher distress, health anxiety, and COVID-19 fears than those without a prior mental health diagnosis. Demographic (e.g., non-binary or different gender identity; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status), occupational (e.g., being a carer or stay at home parent), and psychological (e.g., perceived risk of contracting COVID-19) factors were associated with distress. Results revealed that precautionary behaviours (e.g., washing hands, using hand sanitiser, avoiding social events) were common, although in contrast to previous research, higher engagement in hygiene behaviours was associated with higher stress and anxiety levels. These results highlight the serious acute impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of respondents, and the need for proactive, accessible digital mental health services to address these mental health needs, particularly for those most vulnerable, including people with prior history of mental health problems. Longitudinal research is needed to explore long-term predictors of poor mental health from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21279, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682425

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The article presents a protocol of a cross-sectional study of mental health of pregnant women in relation to the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The primary aim is to compare differences in anxiety and depression scores of pregnant women between countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary aim is to assess demographic, economic, and social aspects affecting maternal anxiety and depression scores among pregnant women worldwide in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we will be able to compare differences in perception of the different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic (social distancing, restrictions related to delivery) between countries and according to the epidemic status (number of infected patients, number of reported deaths). The comparisons will also be done according to the COVID-19 status of the participants. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: It is a web-based anonymous survey of pregnant women living in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey is comprised of 3 sections:Web-based recruitment for health research has proven to be cost-effective and efficient. At current times with the COVID-19 pandemic, limited resources and social distancing restrictions, performing a mental health study involving pregnant women on a large international scale cannot be safely conducted without involving social-media.The fears of pregnant women fall into 3 categories: the medical condition, the economic status and the organization of daily activity.The study has received approval of the medical ethics committee and has been registered on Clinicaltrials.gov. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and made public through all available media.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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