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1.
Prev Med ; 153: 106852, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525993

ABSTRACT

Limited research has been conducted on the mental health concerns of frontline and essential workers and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (U.S.). This study examined the association between working on the frontlines in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic (March to July 2020) and personal crisis text concerns (e.g., self-harm, suicidal thoughts, anxiety/stress, and substance abuse) for frontline essential workers and the children of frontline workers. We used a novel data set from a crisis texting service, Crisis Text Line (CTL), that is widely used throughout the U.S. Generalized Estimating Equations examined the individual association between eight specific crisis types (Depression, Stress/Anxiety, Self-Harm, Suicidal Thoughts, Substance Abuse, Isolation, Relationship Issues, and Abuse) and being in frontline work or being a child of a frontline worker during the early phase of the pandemic. Using CTL concerns as a proxy for the prevalence of mental health issues, we found that children of workers, specifically the youngest demographic (13 years and under), females, and non-conforming youth had a higher risk of specific crisis events during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, Hispanic children of workers reported higher rates of stress/anxiety, whereas African American children of workers had higher rates of abuse and depression. Frontline workers had a higher risk of suicidal thoughts, and the risk of crisis events was generally highest for non-binary, transgender, and male users. Increases in CTL usage among frontline workers were noted across 7-28 days after spikes in local COVID-19 cases. The research to date has focused on the mental health of frontline essential workers, but our study highlights troubling trends in psychological stress among children of these workers. Supportive interventions and mental health resources are needed not only for frontline essential workers, but for their children too.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 464-470, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is growing concern about the effect of lockdown and social distancing on mental health. Subjective feelings related to social relationships such as detachment have shown a strong effect on mental health, whereas objective factors might have a moderating role in that association. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether social support and living situation have a moderating effect on the association between detachment and affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: 3,305 Spanish adults were interviewed by phone at the end of the COVID-19 lockdown (May-June 2020). Detachment during confinement was assessed with a single-item frequency question. Anxiety symptoms were measured through GAD-7, depressive symptoms through PHQ-9, and social support through the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS). Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were tested through Tobit regression models. Interactions of detachment with living situation and social support were tested as independent variables. RESULTS: People living alone showed significantly lower levels of anxiety whereas people living with another (but not as a couple) showed higher levels of depression. Detachment was strongly associated with both affective disorders. Social support had a statistically significant moderating effect on that association. Those with a low level of social support and a high level of detachment reported means of depression and anxiety above major depression (10.5 CI 95% 9.6, 11.4 at OSSS=10) and generalized anxiety disorders (10.1 CI 95% 9.2, 11.0 at OSSS=9) cut offs CONCLUSION: Interventions centered on improving social support could alleviate feelings of detachment and prevent affective disorders during lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Adult , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
3.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 270-275, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about tremendous social and economic turmoil, which has been associated with increased levels of depression and anxiety. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Healthy Minds Study (Fall Semester Cohort 2020), a non-probability sample of students across multiple colleges who completed an online survey between September - December 2020. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the associations between COVID-19 dimensions (concern, racial/ethnic discrimination, financial distress, infection, illness of loved one, death of loved one, caregiving) and mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety), adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and international student status. RESULTS: Nearly a fifth of the sample reported moderately severe or severe depression, and nearly a third reported moderately severe or severe anxiety over the past two weeks. When accounting for all COVID-19 dimensions in the same model, COVID-19 concern, racial/ethnic discrimination, financial distress, and infection were significantly associated with moderately severe or severe depression; COVID-19 concern, financial distress, and infection were significantly associated with moderately severe or severe anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic may have shaped mental health through a range of potential social and environmental dimensions. Interventions are required that consider multiple dimensions of COVID-19 to improve mental health during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
4.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 242-254, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of COVID-19 has brought huge changes to people's lifestyles, college students have also been affected seriously. Evidence about these significant changes indicated that college students were more prone to feel anxious and depressed. To derive a precise assessment of the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom among college students worldwide, we conducted this meta-analysis. METHODS: Based on the guidance of PRISMA, literature was searched in Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycArticles (last search November 6, 2020). These articles after the screening were analyzed by a random-effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom. Also, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were performed in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the pooled anxiety symptom prevalence was 31% (95% CI: 23-39%), pooled depressive symptom prevalence was 34% (95% CI: 27-41%). Subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom among different countries' college students were different, and the pooled depressive symptom prevalence of females was higher compared with males. LIMITATIONS: The prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom in worldwide college students could be better assessed by a standard and reliable questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom during the COVID-19 pandemic is relatively high. Except for interventions that should be taken to control the pandemic urgently, mental health services are also needed to decrease the risk of anxiety and depression among college students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
5.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 89-94, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived stress and depression among medical students and the mediating role of insomnia in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to April 2020 in medical university. Levels of perceived stress, insomnia and depression were measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). The descriptive analyses of the demographic characteristics and correlation analyses of the three variables were calculated. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with SPSS PROCESS macro. RESULTS: The mean age of medical students was 21.46 years (SD=2.50). Of these medical students, 10,185 (34.3%) were male and 19,478 (65.7%) were female. Perceived stress was significantly associated with depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). Insomnia mediated the association between perceived stress and depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). The results of the non-parametric bootstrapping method confirmed the significance of the indirect effect of perceived stress through insomnia (95% bootstrap CI =0.137, 0.149). The indirect effect of insomnia accounted for 44.13% of the total variance in depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactive mechanisms underlying perceived stress and depression, and elucidating the mediating effects of insomnia on the association. This research provides a useful theoretical and methodological approach for prevention of depression in medical students. Findings from this study indicated that it may be effective to reduce depression among medical students by improving sleep quality and easing perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Medical , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 573, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510584

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly affected the mental health of both infected and uninfected people. Although most psychiatric disorders have highly overlapping genetic and pathogenic backgrounds, most studies investigating the impact of the pandemic have examined only single psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to examine longitudinal trajectories of factors that modulate psychiatric states across multiple dimensions. About 2274 Japanese citizens participated in online surveys presented in December 2019 (before the pandemic), August 2020, Dec 2020, and April 2021. These surveys included nine questionnaires on psychiatric symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Multidimensional psychiatric time-series data were then decomposed into four principal components. We used generalized linear models to identify modulating factors for the effects of the pandemic on these components. The four principal components can be interpreted as a general psychiatric burden, social withdrawal, alcohol-related problems, and depression/anxiety. Principal components associated with general psychiatric burden and depression/anxiety peaked during the initial phase of the pandemic. They were further exacerbated by the economic burden the pandemic imposed. In contrast, principal components associated with social withdrawal showed a delayed peak, with human relationships as an important risk modulating factor. In addition, being female was a risk factor shared across all components. Our results show that COVID-19 has imposed a large and varied burden on the Japanese population since the commencement of the pandemic. Although components related to the general psychiatric burden remained elevated, peak intensities differed between components related to depression/anxiety and those related to social withdrawal. These results underline the importance of using flexible monitoring and mitigation strategies for mental problems, according to the phase of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2068, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting people's mental health worldwide. Patients with diabetes are at risk for a severe course of illness when infected with SARS-CoV-2. The present study aims to retrospectively examine mental health changes in patients with diabetes in Germany before and after the initial COVID-19 outbreak, and to furthermore explore potential predictors of such changes. METHODS: Over the course of eight weeks from April to June 2020, 253 individuals diagnosed with diabetes participated in an online cross-sectional study. Participants completed an anonymous survey including demographics, depression (PHQ-2) and generalized anxiety symptoms (GAD-2), distress (DT), and health status (EQ-5D-3L). In addition, all instruments used were modified to retrospectively ask participants to recall their mental health and health status before the outbreak had started. Additionally examined factors were COVID-19-related fear, trust in governmental actions to face the pandemic, and the subjective level of information about COVID-19. RESULTS: This study shows a significant increase in prevalence of depression symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms and distress, as well as significantly decreased health statuses in diabetes patients after the initial COVID-19 outbreak. Increased depression symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms and distress were predicted by COVID-19-related fear, whereas trust in governmental actions to face COVID-19 predicted higher depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a negative impact of the initial COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and health status in patients with diabetes. In order to improve the efficacy of psychological support strategies for diabetes patients during the pandemic, possible predictors of mental health impairment such as the aforementioned should be examined more thoroughly and addressed more openly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 737223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506974

ABSTRACT

Background: The corona pandemic has forced higher education (HE) institutes to transition to online learning, with subsequent implications for student wellbeing. Aims: This study explored influences on student wellbeing throughout the first wave of the corona crisis in the Netherlands by testing serial mediation models of the relationships between perceived academic stress, depression, resilience, and HE support. Methods: The Covid-19 International Student Wellbeing Study (C19 ISWS) was used, with a total sample of 2,480 higher education students studying at InHolland Universities of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands. Student subgroups were created, so that students with low and high perceived academic stress could be assessed, in addition to depressed and non-depressed students. Predictive model fit was tested using Macro PROCESS. Results: A significant serial mediation model for the total student sample was revealed, including protective mediating effects of resilience and HE support on the positive direct effect of perceived academic stress on depression. At subgroup level, significant (partial) predictive effects of resilience on depression scores were noted. A partial serial effect between resilience and HE support was found for students with low perceived stress levels, whereas a parallel partial mediation model was present among highly academically stressed students. Regarding non-depressed students, a full parallel mediation model was found, whereas the model for depressed students inadequately explained the data. Conclusions: Overall, resilience and HE support mediate the predictive effect of academic stress on depressive symptoms among students. In addition, substantial differences in model fit arise when inspecting the students on a subgroup level. These findings contribute to the gap in knowledge regarding student wellbeing during the Covid-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, in addition to providing novel insights on student subgroup dynamics. While Covid-19 restrictions continue to demand online learning, student wellbeing may be enhanced overall by targeting resilience and increasing awareness and availability of HE support services. The current study also highlights the need for differential approaches when examining wellbeing for specific student groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 755, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the financial insecurity of women and their families globally. Some studies have explored the impact of financial strain among pregnant women, in particular, during the pandemic. However, less is known about the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a non-probability sample to examine the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic. In January 2021, 183 pregnant women living in the United States participated in an online Qualtrics panel survey. In addition to socio-demographic characteristics, individuals were asked about their finances and predictors of financial well-being, mental health symptoms, and intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences. Chi-square analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to examine whether women's experiences with material hardship and associated factors differed by income level (i.e., less than $20,000; $20,000 to $60,000; more than $60,000). Ordinary least squares regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted estimates. RESULTS: Study findings showed that the majority of women in the sample experienced at least one form of material hardship in the past year. Individuals with an annual household income less than $20,000 reported the highest average number of material hardships experienced (M = 3.7, SD = 2.8). Compared to women with household incomes less than $20,000, women with incomes of more than $60,000 reported significantly fewer material hardships, less financial strain, and higher levels of financial support, economic self-efficacy, and economic-self-sufficiency. Women with incomes of $60,000 or more also reported significantly lower levels of psychological abuse, and a smaller percentage met the cut-off for anxiety. Economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and economic abuse were all significantly associated with material hardship. CONCLUSIONS: A contribution of this study is that it highlights the significant, positive association between economic abuse, a unique form of IPV, and material hardship among pregnant women during the pandemic. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice interventions that help to ameliorate the financial insecurity experienced by some pregnant women, as well as respond to associated bidirectional vulnerabilities (e.g., mental health symptoms, experiences of IPV).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Economic Status , Income/classification , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
10.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102897, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Study was aimed to assess magnitude of mental health problems among geriatric population during COVID19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: Study was a cross-sectional observational study, total of 106 participants (Age ≥60 years) of either gender included in study. Mental health variables depressive and anxiety were assessed using GDS and HAM-A. RESULTS: On GDS, 20(18.87%) patients had depressive symptoms and on HAM-A, 24(22.6%) patients were having anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Study highlight that Geriatric population have significant mental health issues during COVID19 pandemic, it should not be overlooked. It's necessary to provide elderly psychological intervention measures to improve their wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 317-324, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1502723

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los trabajadores de la salud se encuentran sometidos a una gran tensión en el desarrollo de sus actividades, lo que genera alta frecuencia de estrés, desgaste laboral e impacto psicopatológico. La pandemia de COVID-19 podría provocar un incremento de estas entidades en los médicos. El objetivo fue describir la frecuencia de estrés, síndrome de desgaste profesional (burnout), ansiedad y depresión durante la pandemia, y analizar las asociaciones con distintas variables independientes. Métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, realizado dos meses después del inicio de la cuarentena en Argentina. Se encuestó a médicos de especialidades clínicas, quirúrgicas, solo de emergencias, y a aquellos sin contacto directo con pacientes, mediante un cuestionario sociodemográfico y tres inventarios autoadministrados: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory y la Escala de ansiedad y depresión hospitalaria. Resultados. La prevalencia de estrés fue del 93,7 % (IC95 %: 90,33-96,2), burnout 73,5 % (IC95 %: 68,2-78,4), ansiedad 44 % (IC95 %: 38,4-49,8) y depresión 21,9 % (IC95 %: 17,3-26,9). No se observó asociación entre la frecuencia y el tipo de especialidad realizada. La frecuencia de burnout, ansiedad y depresión fue significativamente mayor en los médicos residentes y en aquellos que trabajan en emergencias. Conclusiones. Los médicos residentes y quienes trabajan en emergencias en turnos de 24 horas mostraron porcentajes significativamente más altos de burnout, ansiedad y depresión, en comparación con médicos de planta y con aquellos en posiciones de liderazgo. Estos hallazgos pueden estar asociados con una mayor carga de trabajo y una menor experiencia. Es mandatorio tomar medidas preventivas y terapéuticas para preservar a quienes hacen frente a esta pandemia.


Introduction. Health care workers experience a tremendous strain while performing their activities, very frequently leading to stress, burnout syndrome, and psychopathological impact. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause physicians to suffer these effects even to a greater extent. Our objective was to describe the frequency of stress, burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression during the pandemic, and analyze the associations with different independent outcome measures. Methods. Observational, cross-sectional study conducted 2 months after the lockdown was established in Argentina. Clinical specialists, surgeons, emergency physicians, and those with no direct contact with patients were surveyed using a sociodemographic questionnaire and 3 self-administered inventories: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. The prevalence of stress was 93.7 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 90.33-96.2), burnout syndrome 73.5 % (95 % CI: 68.2-78.4), anxiety 44 % (95 % CI: 38.4-49.8), and depression 21.9 % (95 % CI: 17.3-26.9). No association was observed between the frequency and medical specialty. The frequency of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression was significantly higher among residents and physicians working in the emergency department. Conclusions. Residents and emergency physicians working 24-hour shifts showed significantly higher percentages of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression compared to staff and head physicians. These findings may be associated with a higher workload and less experience. It is compulsory to take preventive and therapeutic measures to protect those in the pandemic front line.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Teaching
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502428

ABSTRACT

To understand the mental health status of Chinese postgraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic, we used three online questionnaires: self-rating anxiety (SAS) scale, self-rating depression (SDS) scale, and social avoidance and distress (SAD) scale. A total of 3137 postgraduate students from different regions of China participated in our study. We explored the relationship between participant characteristics and mental health using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). We found that the proportions of respondents with severe, mild, and moderate depression were 1.4%, 10.48%, and 21.99%, respectively, and the corresponding proportions of respondents with anxiety were 1.56%, 4.65%, and 14.69%, respectively. A one-way ANOVA revealed that the mental health statuses of the participants were different between the subgroups based on majors, classes, degree types, and the method of communication with advisors and students. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant effects on interaction and the method of communication with advisors and peers. These findings suggest that the mental health of postgraduate students should be monitored during the pandemic, especially when they are unable to communicate directly with their advisors or peers, and targeted psychological counselling must be focused on anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 387, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the abundance of clinical data available for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), little research on the psychological well-being of breast cancer survivors has been published. We investigate the extent to which self-compassion accounted for the association between psychological well-being (depression, anxiety) and death anxiety in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was applied. Participants were recruited from three departments of oncology in Zanjan, Iran. Data were collected from 210 breast cancer patients. Participants completed self-report measures. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship among the study variables. Bootstrapping analyses were used to test the significance of indirect effects. RESULTS: Correlational analyses revealed that depression and anxiety were significantly and positively related to death anxiety (r = 0.77, p < 0.01; r = 0.85, p < 0.01, respectively) and negatively to self-compassion (r = - 0.48, p < 0.01; r = - 0.53, p < 0.01, respectively). Bootstrapping analyses revealed significant indirect effects of depression (ß = 0.065, SE = 0.35, p < 0.03, 95% CI [LL = - 0.0083, UL: - 0.1654]) and anxiety (ß = 0.089, SE = 0.09, p < 0.04, 95% CI [LL = - 0.0247, UL: - 0.1987]) on death anxiety through self-compassion. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study indicate that self-compassion may be considered as one treatment strategy to improve psychological well-being of cancer patients in the new context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Empathy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1976, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unexpected changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic related to the fear of developing the disease, and the need for social distancing and isolation have had an effect on people's mental health. These drastic changes can result in the development of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sense of loneliness. Elderly and chronically ill individuals are at a particularly high risk of developing COVID-19, suffering severe illness and dying as a result of it. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depressive symptoms, irritability and loneliness in the elderly aged 60 years and older as a group exposed to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to analyze the relationships between loneliness and mental health of the respondents and sociodemographic variables and chronic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Poland among 221 individuals aged 60+. The study material was collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-M) and a revised University of California Los Angeles loneliness scale (R-UCLA). Women accounted for 47.51% and men for 52.49% of study participants; the mean age was 65.18 (SD = 4.06). RESULTS: In total, according to HADS-M, depressive symptoms were present in 19.15% of the participants and borderline states in 14.18% of them. Based on R-UCLA, moderate and moderately high sense of loneliness was present in 58.83% of the participants. Sense of loneliness was significantly correlated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, one in five participants experienced anxiety and depressive symptoms. Two out of three participants experienced a moderate sense of loneliness. Individuals who displayed a higher level of loneliness also had a higher severity of anxiety level depressive symptoms and irritability. Elderly individuals should be under special care due to their high risk of experiencing physical and mental effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerges in China, which spreads rapidly and becomes a public health emergency of international concern. Chinese government has promptly taken quarantine measures to block the transmission of the COVID-19, which may cause deleterious consequences on everyone's behaviors and psychological health. Few studies have examined the associations between behavioral and mental health in different endemic areas. This study aimed to describe screen time (ST), physical activity (PA), and depressive symptoms, as well as their associations among Chinese college students according to different epidemic areas. METHODS: The study design is cross-sectional using online survey, from 4 to 12 February 2020, 14,789 college students accomplished this online study, participants who did not complete the questionnaire were excluded, and finally this study included 11,787 college students from China. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 20.51 ± 1.88 years. 57.1% of the college students were male. In total, 25.9% of college students reported depression symptoms. ST > 4 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.48, 95%CI 0.37-0.59). COVID-19ST > 1 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.54, 95%CI 0.43-0.65), compared with COVID-19ST ≤ 0.5 h/day. Compared with PA ≥ 3 day/week, PA < 3 day/week was positively associated with depression symptoms (ß = 0.01, 95%CI 0.008-0.012). Compared with low ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.31, 95%CI 0.26-0.36). Compared with low COVID-19ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high COVID-19ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.37, 95%CI 0.32-0.43). There were also current residence areas differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified that high ST or low PA was positively associated with depressive symptoms independently, and there was also an interactive effect between ST and PA on depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Exercise , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Time Factors , Universities , Young Adult
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(8): e549-e555, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501191

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the level of psychological distress, using validated psychology tools, among British National healthcare workers (HCW) during the first wave of the Covid-19 crisis. METHODS: A multi-centre, anonymized, all-comer staff survey across 3 hospitals in Lancashire, England during the Covid-19 first wave (April to June 2020), consisting of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Impact of Events Scale (IES-6). RESULTS: Among 1113 HCW, median (IQR) PHQ-9, GAD-7, PSS-10, and IES-6 score was 7 (3 to 11), 6 (3 to 11), 19 (13 to 24), and 9 (5 to 14), respectively. Potential predictors of higher levels of psychological distress included living alone, disabled dependents, history of depression/anxiety, and being female. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates a high prevalence of psychological distress during the acute Covid-19 period among HCW, identifies groups at risk and areas of future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e62, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the unprecedented spread of the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, primary healthcare workers (PHCWs) are having to shoulder the increasing weight of this ongoing pandemic. AIMS: This study explored the rate and covariates of depressive symptoms among PHCWs in the Muscat governorate. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from 10 May to 10 June 2020 among PHCWs working in all primary healthcares across the Muscat governorate. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors of having at least one underlying physical health condition, a psychiatric history, family history of psychiatric disorders, and direct involvement with COVID-19 positive patients were sought. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was then used to solicit the presence of depressive symptoms. Those with a cutoff point ≥10 were considered as showing depressive symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with depressive symptoms in PHCWs after adjusting for all sociodemographic factors. FINDINGS: A total of 432 (72%) out of 600 PHCWs with an average age of 39.2 years (SD = 7.8 years) ranging between 25.0 and 75.0 years responded to the survey. There were more females (n = 281, 65.3%) than males, and more than 45% (n = 195) of them were physicians. Additionally, more than 78% (n = 338) had been in contact with COVID-19 patients. There was a significant association between different age groups and profession (P < .001), having at least one underlying physical health condition (P = 0.001) and depressive symptom status (P = 0.038). A total of 78 out of the 423 subjects (18.1%) were considered to have depressive symptoms. After adjusting for all factors, the logistic regression model showed that an age of 34 years or below (OR = 2.079, P = 0.021) and having at least one underlying physical health condition (OR = 2.216, P = 0.007) were factors contributing significantly to depressive symptoms among the PHCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman , Pandemics
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(10): e24872, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is a prevalent mental disorder that is undiagnosed and untreated in half of all cases. Wearable activity trackers collect fine-grained sensor data characterizing the behavior and physiology of users (ie, digital biomarkers), which could be used for timely, unobtrusive, and scalable depression screening. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the predictive ability of digital biomarkers, based on sensor data from consumer-grade wearables, to detect risk of depression in a working population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 290 healthy working adults. Participants wore Fitbit Charge 2 devices for 14 consecutive days and completed a health survey, including screening for depressive symptoms using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), at baseline and 2 weeks later. We extracted a range of known and novel digital biomarkers characterizing physical activity, sleep patterns, and circadian rhythms from wearables using steps, heart rate, energy expenditure, and sleep data. Associations between severity of depressive symptoms and digital biomarkers were examined with Spearman correlation and multiple regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders, including sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, self-rated health, subjective sleep characteristics, and loneliness. Supervised machine learning with statistically selected digital biomarkers was used to predict risk of depression (ie, symptom severity and screening status). We used varying cutoff scores from an acceptable PHQ-9 score range to define the depression group and different subsamples for classification, while the set of statistically selected digital biomarkers remained the same. For the performance evaluation, we used k-fold cross-validation and obtained accuracy measures from the holdout folds. RESULTS: A total of 267 participants were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 33 (SD 8.6, range 21-64) years. Out of 267 participants, there was a mild female bias displayed (n=170, 63.7%). The majority of the participants were Chinese (n=211, 79.0%), single (n=163, 61.0%), and had a university degree (n=238, 89.1%). We found that a greater severity of depressive symptoms was robustly associated with greater variation of nighttime heart rate between 2 AM and 4 AM and between 4 AM and 6 AM; it was also associated with lower regularity of weekday circadian rhythms based on steps and estimated with nonparametric measures of interdaily stability and autocorrelation as well as fewer steps-based daily peaks. Despite several reliable associations, our evidence showed limited ability of digital biomarkers to detect depression in the whole sample of working adults. However, in balanced and contrasted subsamples comprised of depressed and healthy participants with no risk of depression (ie, no or minimal depressive symptoms), the model achieved an accuracy of 80%, a sensitivity of 82%, and a specificity of 78% in detecting subjects at high risk of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Digital biomarkers that have been discovered and are based on behavioral and physiological data from consumer wearables could detect increased risk of depression and have the potential to assist in depression screening, yet current evidence shows limited predictive ability. Machine learning models combining these digital biomarkers could discriminate between individuals with a high risk of depression and individuals with no risk.


Subject(s)
Depression , Fitness Trackers , Adult , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 656-663, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the public health measures introduced to control it, on mental health, is largely unknown. Research conducted during past epidemics found that pregnant women are more vulnerable psychologically. The aim of this study was to investigate antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms during this pandemic in Greece. METHODS: All women receiving routine antenatal care, during a three-month period, starting one week after the total lockdown in Greece, in a University department, were asked to fill in two questionnaires, the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: Overall, 505 women (93.3% of the eligible population) agreed to participate. The prevalence of antenatal depression (EPDS score≥13) in the population of the study was 13.5%. Unplanned pregnancy (OR: 2.447; 95% CI: 1.235-4.846), smoking (OR: 2.268; 95% CI: 1.166-4.411) and antenatal anxiety (OR: 5.074; 95% CI: 2.898-8.883) increased the risk of antenatal depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. State (current)-anxiety affected 34.1% of the participants, whereas Trait (lifetime)-anxiety affected 15.8%. The State-anxiety score (median) was significantly higher than the Trait-anxiety (median) (41 vs. 36; p<0.001), revealing an increase in the levels of anxiety in the pandemic, while there was also a positive linear correlation between the two scales (rho=0.592; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented situation of the COVID-19 pandemic has increased anxiety, but not depression levels of pregnant women in Greece. Population level interventions to address adverse effects on anxiety status in the initial phases of similar situations may be helpful in the future.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Risk Factors
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate mental health problems among international students in South Korean universities during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to identify the factors that affect their mental health. A total of 488 international students living in South Korea participated in a web-based survey. The questionnaire was created using the Google Forms platform, and a link to the questionnaire was shared through social media. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the data. The prevalence rates of sleep problems, anxiety, and depression among international students were 47.1%, 39.6%, and 49%, respectively. The prevalence of mental health problems was higher among participants who were male, living with someone, residents of a rural area, and earning a higher income. The following variables were found to contribute to the prevalence of mental health problems: undergraduate student status, good understanding of the Korean language, longer hours of media usage, and experiences related to COVID-19 infection. A collaborative effort between the government and universities to manage the mental health of international students could promote the mental health of these students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
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