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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 55, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health status and associated risk factors of public health workers have been overlooked during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used the effort-reward imbalance model to investigate the association between work-stress characteristics (effort, over-commitment, reward) and mental health problems (anxiety and depression) among front-line public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A total of 4850 valid online questionnaires were collected through a self- constructed sociodemographic questionnaire, the adapted ERI questionnaire, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the 7-item General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the association between ERI factors and mental health problems (i.e., depression and anxiety), with reward treated as a potential moderator in such associations. RESULTS: The data showed that effort and over-commitment were positively associated with depression and anxiety, while reward was negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Development and job acceptance were the two dimensions of reward buffered the harmful effect of effort/over-commitment on depression and anxiety, whereas esteem was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the harmful effects of effort and over-commitment on mental health among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Such effects could be alleviated through an appropriate reward system, especially the development and job acceptance dimensions of such a system. These findings highlight the importance of establishing an emergency reward system, comprising reasonable work-allocation mechanism, bonuses and honorary titles, a continuous education system and better career-development opportunities.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , Public Health , Reward , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(3): 104-109, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the mental health of health workers during a pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight hundred and twelve medical workers took part in a cross-sectional Internet survey. The questionnaire included a socio-demographic block, a block of questionnaires for assessing the level of symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-9 and GAD-7). The data were processed using statistical methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression among healthcare providers during the pandemic was 48.77% and 57.63% respectively. Subjectively poor quality of sleep was noted by 37.4% of respondents. Cluster analysis distinguished 4 groups of respondents: group 1 was characterized by high scores on PHQ-9 and GAD-7 and a low subjective assessment of sleep quality; group 2 had low scores on PHQ-9 and GAD-7 and a high subjective assessment of sleep quality; respondents from clusters 3 and 4 had average total scores on PHQ-9 and GAD-7, however, group 4 was characterized by significantly lower values of subjective sleep quality assessment. CONCLUSION: The division into clusters makes it possible to understand which groups of medical workers require psychological (psychotherapeutic) support in the first place. Cluster 1 respondents with high levels of anxiety and depression, as well as poor sleep quality, need priority assistance.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Russia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170242

ABSTRACT

Despite the global impact of COVID-19, studies comparing the effects of COVID-19 on population mental health across countries are sparse. This study aimed to compare anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown among adults from 11 countries and to examine their associations with country-level COVID-19 factors and personal COVID-19 exposure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (≥18 years) in 11 countries (Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, Ireland, North Macedonia, Malaysia, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, United States). Mental health (anxiety, depression, resilient coping, hope) and other study data were collected between June-August 2020. Of the 13,263 participants, 62.8% were female and 51.7% were 18-34 years old. Participants living in Brazil had the highest anxiety and depression symptoms while participants living in Singapore had the lowest. Greater personal COVID-19 exposure was associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms, but country-level COVID-19 factors were not. Higher levels of hope were associated with reduced anxiety and depression; higher levels of resilient coping were associated with reduced anxiety but not depression. Substantial variations exist in anxiety and depression symptoms across countries during the COVID-19 lockdown, with personal COVID-19 exposure being a significant risk factor. Strategies that mitigate COVID-19 exposure and enhance hope and resilience may reduce anxiety and depression during global emergencies.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Bulgaria , China , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India , Ireland , Malaysia , Male , Mental Health , Republic of North Macedonia , Singapore , Spain , Turkey , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249716, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170008

ABSTRACT

RATIONAL: During pandemics, including the most recent COVID-19 pandemic, the mental health of university healthcare students' is expected to be affected negatively, impacting the students' learning process. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the level of anxiety and depression of healthcare students living in Jordan, and the effect on their learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey completed by students studying a healthcare-oriented degree in a university in Jordan. Participants were recruited through social media (Facebook and WhatsApp). The validated previously published Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire was used as a part of the online survey to assess students' anxiety/depression scores. Students' responses regarding their learning process during the COVID-19 was also assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 21.62 (SD = 4.90), with the majority being females (67.1%). The HADs' assessment revealed that 43.8% and 40.0% of participants had normal anxiety and depression scores, while 22.4% showed borderline abnormal anxiety/depression scores (33.8%). Many students (33.8%) were classified to have abnormal anxiety scores, while a smaller proportion (26.2%) was classified to have abnormal depression scores. Smoking (p = 0.022), lower family income (p = 0.039), and use of medications (p = 0.032) were positively associated with higher (worse) anxiety scores. Ranking the learning process during COVID-19 showed that 45.8% of the participants believed it was a 'good/very good/excellent' process. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression levels amongst university healthcare students in Jordan were found to be high when assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the learning process during the pandemic was not accepted by more than half of the students. Implementing psychological interventions for healthcare students during pandemics is strongly recommended in order to optimize students' mental health and their learning process alike.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Learning Health System , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Jordan , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
5.
Anticancer Res ; 41(4): 1971-1974, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Oncological care has faced several challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, e.g. treatment delay and worsening symptoms. Patient-reported anxiety, depression and sleep quality might have changed due to these special circumstances. Therefore, we analyzed the symptom burden of patients treated with palliative radiotherapy at our center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of 50 consecutive patients and the results were compared to those obtained in a previous pre-COVID study. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale was employed to assess the preradiotherapy symptoms. RESULTS: The highest mean scores were reported for pain in activity (3.2) and dry mouth (3.1). Regarding anxiety, sadness/depression and sleep, the corresponding scores were 1.5, 1.2 and 2.7, respectively. Compared to the previous study, no significant increases were found. Most items had numerically lower mean values, e.g. anxiety (1.5 vs. 2.7). Both study populations had comparable median age (70.5 vs. 70 years), gender distribution and proportion of patients with bone metastases. However, there were two significant imbalances, namely a lower proportion of patients with prostate cancer (12 vs. 30%, p=0.02) and breast cancer (0 vs. 12%, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: In patients who showed up for radiation treatment planning, the suspected increase in anxiety, sadness/depression and sleep disturbance was not demonstrable. It is not known whether or not patients with substantial worries chose to decline referral to palliative radiotherapy. Therefore, comprehensive large-scale studies of patterns of care are needed to fully understand the impact of COVID-19-related measures.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Palliative Care/methods , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Bone Neoplasms/epidemiology , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Cancer Pain/diagnosis , Cancer Pain/epidemiology , Cancer Pain/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Norway/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Symptom Assessment
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049996, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether engagement in COVID-19-related work was associated with an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms among the staff members working in a designated medical institution for COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were obtained from a health survey conducted in July 2020 among the staff members of a designated medical institution for COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1228 hospital workers. EXPOSURE OF INTEREST: Engagement in COVID-19-related work (qualitatively (ie, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at work or affiliation to related departments) as well as quantitatively (ie, working hours)) and job categories. OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms. RESULTS: There was no significant association between depressive symptoms and engagement in work with potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 or affiliation to COVID-19-related departments. However, working for longer hours in March/April, when Japan witnessed a large number of infected cases, was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (≥11 hours/day: prevalence ratio (PR)=1.45, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.99, compared with ≤8 hours/day). Nurses were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than did doctors (PR=1.70, 95% CI=1.14 to 2.54). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at work or having an affiliation to related departments might not be linked with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among Japanese hospital workers; contrarily, long working hours appeared to increase the prevalence of depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tokyo/epidemiology
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25207, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161106

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To examine the knowledge level, behaviors, and psychological status of the Chinese population during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the differences between urban and rural areas.We carried out a cross-sectional survey of the knowledge, behaviors related to COVID-19, and mental health in a probability sample of 3001 community residents in 30 provinces or districts across China from February 16-23, 2020. Convenience sampling and a snowball sampling were adopted. We used General Anxiety Disorder (GAD), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and knowledge and behaviors questionnaire of community residents regarding COVID-19 designed by us to investigate the psychological status, disease-related knowledge, and the behavior of Chinese urban and rural residents during the pandemic.The average score of anxiety and depression among urban residents was 9.15 and 11.25, respectively, while the figures in rural areas were 8.69 and 10.57, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the levels of anxiety (P < .01) and depression (P < .01). Urban participants reported significantly higher levels of knowledge regarding COVID-19 in all aspects (transmission, prevention measures, symptoms of infection, treatment, and prognosis) (P < .01), compared to their rural counterparts. While a majority of respondents in urban areas obtained knowledge through WeChat, other apps, and the Internet (P < .01), residents in rural areas accessed information through interactions with the community (P < .01). Urban residents fared well in exchanging knowledge about COVID-19 and advising others to take preventive measures (P < .01), but fared poorly in advising people to visit a hospital if they displayed symptoms of the disease, compared to rural residents (P < .01). Regression analysis with behavior showed that being female (OR = 2.106, 95%CI = 1.259-3.522), aged 18 ≤ age < 65 (OR = 4.059, 95%CI = 2.166-7.607), being satisfied with the precautions taken by the community (OR = 2.594, 95%CI = 1.485-4.530), disinfecting public facilities in the community (OR = 2.342, 95%CI = 1.206-4.547), having knowledge of transmission modes (OR = 3.987, 95%CI: 2.039, 7.798), symptoms (OR = 2.045, 95%CI = 1.054-4.003), and outcomes (OR = 2.740, 95%CI = 1.513-4.962) of COVID-19, and not having anxiety symptoms (OR = 2.578, 95%CI = 1.127-5.901) were positively associated with affirmative behavior in urban areas. Being married (OR = 4.960, 95%CI = 2.608-9.434), being satisfied with the precautions taken by the community (OR = 2.484, 95%CI = 1.315-4.691), screening to ensure face mask wearing before entering the community (OR = 8.809, 95%CI = 2.649-19.294), and having knowledge about precautions (OR = 4.886, 95%CI = 2.604-9.167) and outcomes (OR = 2.657, 95%CI = 1.309-5.391) were positively associated with acceptable conduct in rural areas.The status of anxiety and depression among urban residents was more severe compared to those living in rural areas. There was a difference in being positively associated with constructive behaviors between rural and urban areas.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160394

ABSTRACT

Recently, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, several lockdown and stay-at-home regulations have been implemented worldwide. In this regard, loneliness has been identified as the signature mental health consequence of this pandemic. The aim of this study is to explore the associations among loneliness, hopelessness, depression, ego-resilience and life satisfaction in a random sample of young adults (N = 337) at a university in the Western Cape of South Africa. Parallel and serial mediation analysis supported the hypothesis that loneliness is associated with hopelessness, which in turn is associated with depression, and that ego-resilience mediates the association between all the negative indices of psychological well-being and life satisfaction. These findings suggest that mental health interventions that boost ego-resilience and target loneliness may help in dealing with the mental health consequences of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Ego , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , South Africa , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160297

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic increase the risk of social isolation and loneliness, which may affect mental wellbeing. Therefore, we aimed to investigate associations between social isolation and loneliness with depressive symptoms in the German old-age population during the first COVID-19 lockdown. A representative sample of randomly selected individuals at least 65 years old (n = 1005) participated in a computer-assisted standardized telephone interview in April 2020. Sociodemographic data, aspects of the personal life situation, attitudes towards COVID-19 and standardized screening measures on loneliness (UCLA 3-item loneliness scale), depression (Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI-18), and resilience (Brief Resilience Scale/BRS) were assessed. Associations were inspected using multivariate regression models. Being lonely, but not isolated (ß = 0.276; p < 0.001) and being both isolated and lonely (ß = 0.136; p < 0.001) were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Being isolated, but not lonely was not associated with depressive symptoms. Thus, the subjective emotional evaluation, i.e., feeling lonely, of the social situation during lockdown seems more relevant than the objective state, i.e., being isolated. Normal (ß = -0.203; p < 0.001) and high resilience (ß = -0.308; p < 0.001) were associated with lower depressive symptoms across groups. Therefore, strengthening coping skills may be a support strategy during lockdowns, especially for lonely older individuals.


Subject(s)
Depression , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness , Pandemics , Social Isolation
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249352, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Existing literature on how employment loss affects depression has struggled to address potential endogeneity bias caused by reverse causality. The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique natural experiment because the source of unemployment is very likely to be exogenous to the individual. This study assessed the effect of job loss and job furlough on the mental health of individuals in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA AND METHODS: The data for the study came from the first and second waves of the national survey, the National Income Dynamics-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM), conducted during May-June and July-August 2020, respectively. The sample for NIDS-CRAM was drawn from an earlier national survey, conducted in 2017, which had collected data on mental health. Questions on depressive symptoms during the lockdown were asked in Wave 2 of NIDS-CRAM, using a 2-question version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). The PHQ-2 responses (0-6 on the discrete scale) were regrouped into four categories making the ordered logit regression model the most suited for assessing the impact of employment status on depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The study revealed that adults who retained paid employment during the COVID-19 lockdown had significantly lower depression scores than adults who lost employment. The benefits of employment also accumulated over time, underscoring the effect of unemployment duration on mental health. The analysis revealed no mental health benefits to being furloughed (on unpaid leave), but paid leave had a strong and significant positive effect on the mental health of adults. CONCLUSIONS: The economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented job losses, which impaired mental wellbeing significantly. Health policy responses to the crisis therefore need to focus on both physical and mental health interventions.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/psychology , Young Adult
11.
Global Health ; 17(1): 34, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental burden due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been widely reported for the general public and specific risk groups like healthcare workers and different patient populations. We aimed to assess its impact on mental health during the early phase by comparing pandemic with prepandemic data and to identify potential risk and protective factors. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analyses, we systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from January 1, 2019 to May 29, 2020, and screened reference lists of included studies. In addition, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO for prepandemic comparative data. Survey studies assessing mental burden by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the general population, healthcare workers, or any patients (eg, COVID-19 patients), with a broad range of eligible mental health outcomes, and matching studies evaluating prepandemic comparative data in the same population (if available) were included. We used multilevel meta-analyses for main, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses, focusing on (perceived) stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and sleep-related symptoms as primary outcomes. RESULTS: Of 2429 records retrieved, 104 were included in the review (n = 208,261 participants), 43 in the meta-analysis (n = 71,613 participants). While symptoms of anxiety (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.40; 95% CI 0.15-0.65) and depression (SMD 0.67; 95% CI 0.07-1.27) were increased in the general population during the early phase of the pandemic compared with prepandemic conditions, mental burden was not increased in patients as well as healthcare workers, irrespective of COVID-19 patient contact. Specific outcome measures (eg, Patient Health Questionnaire) and older comparative data (published ≥5 years ago) were associated with increased mental burden. Across the three population groups, existing mental disorders, female sex, and concerns about getting infected were repeatedly reported as risk factors, while older age, a good economic situation, and education were protective. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis paints a more differentiated picture of the mental health consequences in pandemic situations than previous reviews. High-quality, representative surveys, high granular longitudinal studies, and more research on protective factors are required to better understand the psychological impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to help design effective preventive measures and interventions that are tailored to the needs of specific population groups.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6247-6257, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Centenarians are known to be successful agers compared to other older adults. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to compare coronavirus disease (COVID-19) symptoms and outcomes in centenarians and other residents living in nursing homes. Design-Setting-Subjects-Methods: A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted using data from 15 nursing homes in the Marseille area. Older residents with confirmed COVID-19 between March and June 2020 were enrolled. The clinical and biological characteristics, the treatment measures, and the outcomes in residents living in these nursing homes were collected from the medical records. RESULTS: A total of 321 residents were diagnosed with COVID-19 including 12 centenarians. The median age was 101 years in centenarians and 89 years in other residents. The most common symptoms were asthenia and fever. Three centenarians (25%) experienced a worsening of pre-existing depression (vs. 5.5% of younger residents; p = 0.032). Mortality was significantly higher in centenarians than in younger residents (50% vs. 21.3%, respectively; p = 0.031). A quarter of the younger residents and only one centenarian were hospitalized. However, 33.3% of the centenarians received treatment within the context of home hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Worsening of pre-existing depression seems to be more frequent in centenarians with COVID-19 in nursing homes. This population had a higher mortality rate but a lower hospitalization rate than younger residents.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Depression/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , /isolation & purification
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154416

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to mental health problems worldwide. Nurses are particularly prone to stress because they directly care for individuals with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. The aims of this study were (a) to explore the association between the mental health promotion strategies used by nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak and their symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress; (b) to compare the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress of mental health nurses to those of non-mental health nurses; and (c) to compare the frequency of use of mental health strategies of mental health nurses to those of non-mental health nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 821 nurses. Univariate and multivariate regression models were developed to identify potential protective factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. The chi-square test was also used to compare the use of strategies among mental health and non-mental health nurses. Portuguese nurses demonstrated high symptoms of depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety. Healthy eating, physical activity, rest between shifts, maintaining social contacts, verbalizing feelings/emotions, and spending less time searching for information about COVID-19 were associated with better mental health. Mental health nurses had less depression, anxiety, and stress, and used more strategies to promote mental health than other nurses. We consider it important to promote nurses' mental health literacy by encouraging them to develop skills and strategies aimed at improving their resilience and ability to deal with difficult situations while caring for the population.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154406

ABSTRACT

The presented research aimed to identify the impacts of the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on respondents' mental health state and identify variables related to the respondents' symptoms of anxiety and depression; 618 subjects participated in the research. A specially prepared survey and Polish adaptations of the following methods were used: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10), MINI-COPE Questionnaire (Brief COPE Inventory), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Scale of Death Anxiety (SDA), The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Over 24% of the respondents reported having experienced suicidal thoughts since the start of the pandemic. Almost 16% drank alcohol in a risky or harmful way. The average value of perceived stress indicated its high and very high intensity. Over 20% had symptoms of anxiety disorders, and almost 19% had anxiety and depression symptoms. It means that almost 40% of the respondents probably have mental disorders. More women, younger people, and those with disorders prior to the onset of the pandemic were among those who manifested these disorders. They also used passive and avoidance stress coping strategies more frequently. In conclusion, the second wave of the pandemic negatively affected the mental health of the respondents. A high percentage of the respondents manifested anxiety and anxiety-depressive disorders and declared having of suicidal thoughts.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Poland/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154380

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an emotional impact on healthcare professionals at different levels of care, and it is important to understand the levels of anxiety of hospital personnel (HP) compared to those of primary care personnel (PCP). The objectives herein were to assess the differences in anxiety levels between these populations and to detect factors that may influence them. The anxiety levels (measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale) of the HP and PCP groups were compared using data collected from a cross-sectional study. The secondary variables included demographic and health data, confinement factors, contact with COVID-19 patients, having suffered from COVID-19, perceptions of protection, caregiver overload, threat, and satisfaction with management. We found anxiety "case" (35.6%) and "at-risk" (21%), with statistically significant differences in the group "at risk", and higher scores in the PCP group. The factors associated with the perception of threat and protection were significant determinants of an increase in anxiety, with all of them showing statistically significant differences. There were greater symptoms of anxiety in the PCP group than the HP group (32% vs. 18%). The factors associated with the prevalence of anxiety symptoms were the perceptions of threat, protection, management, caregiver overload, and perceived degree of threat associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Primary Health Care
16.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 253(3): 203-215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154134

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is causing disruptions in the global social system. Japanese children and adolescents have had their schools closed, government-mandated activity restrictions imposed, and interactions outside the home reduced. These restrictions can have a considerable psychological impact on children and adolescents. This review aims to describe the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and psychological status of this population. The review was conducted by searching PubMed for information on the impact of COVID-19-related activity restrictions on children and adolescents. The search identified 11 articles, three of which contained data on anxiety and psychological problems due to physical inactivity. Next, a PubMed search was conducted about physical activity and psychological status in children and adolescents under psychological stress. The search identified 368 articles, 28 of which were included in the review. For children, data that revealed a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and sedentary time leading to mood disorders were included. For adolescents, there were nine studies that reported a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and four studies that reported no correlation between physical activity and psychological health. Of the studies that reported a correlation, seven reported that physical activity improves psychological health. The impact of psychologically stressful situations such as COVID-19 on children and adolescents has been experienced worldwide. Physical activity has been correlated with psychological health, and it may improve psychological status; physical activity should be recommended to better support the psychological health of children and adolescents under the influence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Child Behavior , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Exercise , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , /psychology , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Quarantine/psychology , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Sedentary Behavior , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Workforce
17.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e20, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152777

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. Herein, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on subthreshold depressive symptoms and identified potential mitigating factors. METHODS: Participants were from Depression Cohort in China (ChiCTR registry number 1900022145). Adults (n = 1722) with subthreshold depressive symptoms were enrolled between March and October 2019 in a 6-month, community-based interventional study that aimed to prevent clinical depression using psychoeducation. A total of 1506 participants completed the study in Shenzhen, China: 726 participants, who completed the study between March 2019 and January 2020 (i.e. before COVID-19), comprised the 'wave 1' group; 780 participants, who were enrolled before COVID-19 and completed the 6-month endpoint assessment during COVID-19, comprised 'wave 2'. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed at baseline and endpoint (i.e. 6-month follow-up) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Measures of resilience and regular exercise were assessed at baseline. We compared the mental health outcomes between wave 1 and wave 2 groups. We additionally investigated how mental health outcomes changed across disparate stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, i.e. peak (7-13 February), post-peak (14-27 February), remission plateau (28 February-present). RESULTS: COVID-19 increased the risk for three mental outcomes: (1) depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.62); (2) anxiety (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16-1.88) and (3) insomnia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07-1.77). The highest proportion of probable depression and anxiety was observed post-peak, with 52.9% and 41.4%, respectively. Greater baseline resilience scores had a protective effect on the three main outcomes (depression: OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19-0.37; anxiety: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.14-0.33 and insomnia: OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11-0.28). Furthermore, regular physical activity mitigated the risk for depression (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.79-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a highly significant and negative impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Mental health outcomes fluctuated as a function of the duration of the pandemic and were alleviated to some extent with the observed decline in community-based transmission. Augmenting resiliency and regular exercise provide an opportunity to mitigate the risk for mental health symptoms during this severe public health crisis.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150541

ABSTRACT

Measures implemented in many countries to contain the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a change in lifestyle with unpredictable consequences on physical and mental health. We aimed at identifying the variables associated with psychological distress during the lockdown between April and May 2020 in the Italian academic population. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional online survey (IO CONTO 2020) within five Italian universities. Among about 240,000 individuals invited to participate through institutional communications, 18 120 filled the questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured by the self-administered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The covariates collected included demographic and lifestyle characteristics, trust in government, doctors and scientists. Associations of covariates with influenza-like symptoms or positive COVID-19 test and with psychological distress were assessed by multiple regression models at the local level; a meta-analysis of the results was then performed. Severe levels of anxiety or depression were reported by 20% of the sample and were associated with being a student or having a lower income, irrespective of their health condition and worries about contracting the virus. The probability of being severely anxious or depressed also depended on physical activity: compared to those never exercising, the highest OR being for those who stopped during lockdown (1.53; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.84) and the lowest for those who continued (0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.95). Up to 21% of severe cases of anxiety or depression might have been avoided if during lockdown participants had continued to exercise as before. Socioeconomic insecurity contributes to increase mental problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic and to the measures to contain it. Maintaining or introducing an adequate level of physical activity is likely to mitigate such detrimental effects. Promoting safe practice of physical activity should remain a public health priority to reduce health risks during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , /pathogenicity
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed health care workers under psychological stress. Previous reviews show a high prevalence of mental disorders among health care workers, but these need updating and inclusion of studies written in Chinese. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide updated prevalence estimates for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, benefitting from the inclusion of studies published in Chinese. METHODS: Systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar and the Chinese databases SinoMed, WanfangMed, CNKI and CQVIP, for studies conducted between December 2019 and August 2020 on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies published in both English and Chinese were included. RESULTS: Data on the prevalence of moderate depression, anxiety and PTSD was pooled across 65 studies involving 97,333 health care workers across 21 countries. The pooled prevalence of depression was 21.7% (95% CI, 18.3%-25.2%), of anxiety 22.1% (95% CI, 18.2%-26.3%), and of PTSD 21.5% (95% CI, 10.5%-34.9%). Prevalence estimates are also provided for a mild classification of each disorder. Pooled prevalence estimates of depression and anxiety were highest in studies conducted in the Middle-East (34.6%; 28.9%). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted across covariates, including sampling method and outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis has identified a high prevalence of moderate depression, anxiety and PTSD among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Appropriate support is urgently needed. The response would benefit from additional research on which interventions are effective at mitigating these risks.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
20.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 49, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The upsurge of COVID-19 has caused numerous psycho-social challenges for healthcare professionals because of its ability to spread rapidly in the community and high mortality rate. The seriousness of the disease has led many healthcare professionals plagued by stigma as well as discrimination. In this study, depressive symptomatology, levels of anxiety, and related psychosocial and occupational factors experienced by healthcare professionals in Sri Lanka during COVID -19 were investigated. METHODS: A total of 512 healthcare professionals were surveyed using an online survey. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised-10, and psychosocial and occupational factors predictive of depression and anxiety were included in the survey questionnaire. Logistic regression determined the factors associated with the presence of depressive symptoms and anxiety. RESULTS: Results showed that elevated depressive symptoms and anxiety were experienced by 53.3% and 51.3%, respectively, of the participants. No differences in the prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms and anxiety were found between those who were exposed and non-exposed to COVID-19 confirmed or suspected patients. Having a fear of being infected with COVID-19 and spreading it among family members were associated with increased risk of depression. Among those exposed to COVID-19 confirmed or suspected patients, poor occupational safety (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.25-3.39), stigmatization (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.29-3.72), and heavy workload (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.53-3.92) were associated with increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms, whilst poor self-confidence (OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.56-4.09) and heavy workload (OR = 1.94. 95% CI 1.22-3.12) were associated with increased risk of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Fear of being infected and distress caused by fear of spreading it among family members, stigmatization, poor self-confidence, poor occupational safety and heavy workload are vital risk factors that need to be considered in future psychological support services designed for the healthcare professionals in unprecedented outbreaks like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
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