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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 123(4. Vyp. 2): 44-51, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze neurological, psychological and psychiatric aspects of COVID-19, as well as to study the current state of the problem. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 103 patients with COVID-19. The main research method was clinical/psychopathological. To study the impact of activities related to the care of patients with COVID-19 in a hospital setting, the medical and psychological state of 197 hospital workers involved in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 was assessed. The level of anxiety distress was assessed with the Psychological Stress Scale (PSM-25), distress indicators corresponded to values of more than 100 points. The severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: When considering psychopathological disorders in the context of COVID-19, it is necessary to distinguish between two main groups of disorders: mental disorders during the pandemic, and mental disorders directly caused by the causative agent SARS-CoV-2. The analysis of psychological and psychiatric aspects in various periods of the initial stage of COVID-19 showed that each of them was characterized by specific features depending on the nature of the influence of different pathogenic factors. In the structure of nosogenic mental disorders in patients with COVID-19 (103 patients), the following clinical forms were identified: acute reaction to stress (9.7%), anxiety-phobic disorders (41.7%), depressive symptoms (28.1%), hyponosognosic nosogenic reactions (20.5%). At the same time, the majority of the patients had manifestations of somatogenic asthenia (93.2%). A comparative analysis of neurological and psychological/psychiatric aspects of COVID-19 showed that the main mechanisms of the impact of highly contagious coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2, on the central nervous system are: cerebral thrombosis and cerebral thromboembolism, damage to the neurovascular unit, neurodegeneration, including that induced by cytokines, and immune-mediated demyelinating nerve damage. CONCLUSION: Neurological and psychological/psychiatric aspects of COVID-19 should be taken into account both at the stage of disease treatment and in the post-infection period due to the pronounced neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and its effect on the neurovascular unit. Along with helping patients, an important aspect is the preservation of the mental health of medical personnel working in hospitals for infectious diseases, due to special working conditions and a high level of professional stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 411, 2023 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical students have higher risk of psychological disorders due to the relatively stressful environment. Educators are becoming increasingly aware of the impact of stresses on the students general well-being. The objective of the current study was to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms among first-year and fifth-year medical students. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic has affected students' mental well-being. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at the College of Medicine at King Saud University between September 2020 and January 2021. The target population was first-year and fifth-year medical students. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), while anxiety symptoms were screened using the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder assessment (GAD-7). Students were also directly asked about the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on their mental well-being. Outcomes were compared between groups using the chi-squared test and Student's t test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 182 medical students were included. Depressive symptoms (52.9% versus 35.8%, p = 0.020) and anxiety symptoms (35.6% versus 26.3%, p = 0.176) were higher in the first-year students than in the fifth-year students. Approximately 19.2% of the students were worried about acquiring COVID-19, 49.4% were worried about academic performance, and 30.8% were feeling sad, depressed or anxious during the COVID-19 pandemic. Independent risk factors for depressive symptoms included having concomitant anxiety, being worried about acquiring COVID-19, being worried about academic performance, and feeling sad, depressed or anxious. Independent risk factors for anxiety included having a lower grade point average and having concomitant depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Medical students have an alarmingly high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms, which might have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need for a special mental health program targeting new and current medical students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Pandemics , Depression/etiology , Anxiety/psychology
3.
Lupus ; 32(8): 974-982, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate depression and anxiety in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the post-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) period and their potential association with the disease activity and related organ damage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a case-control study including 120 adult Egyptian patients with SLE: sixty patients with SLE who were proven previously to be positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and recovered during the 3 months prior to the study were included in the case group and an equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with SLE and no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the control group. Patients' clinical history was collected, and they underwent clinical evaluation, including SLE disease activity, damage assessment, and psychological assessment. RESULTS: The mean depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in cases than in the control group. Both scores showed a significant positive correlation with age, disease duration, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index for SLE (SDI), and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and a significant negative correlation with education years. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses revealed that COVID-19 infection was a predictor for severe depression and moderate-to-severe anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SLE, who are already vulnerable to physiological stressors, are especially predisposed to more risk of anxiety and depression when they are contracted with COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, anxiety and depression are associated with SLE activity and damage scores, and COVID-19 infection is a significant predictor for their severity. These results suggest that healthcare providers should give special attention to the mental health of SLE patients, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adult , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1120596, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238672

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since COVID-19, medical resources have been tight, making it inconvenient to go offline for the sequelae of diseases such as post-stroke depression (PSD) that require long-term follow-up. As a new digital therapy, VRTL began to gain popularity. Method: The research is divided into two parts: pre-test and post-test. In the pre-test, an evaluation method integrating reality-based interaction (RBI), structural equation model (SEM), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and entropy weight method is proposed. In the post-test the patients' physiological indicators (Diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart rate) are measured to verify the effectiveness of RBI-SEM model using T-test method. Results: In the pre-test, using SEM, it was confirmed that Pi physical awareness, Bi body awareness, Ei environmental awareness, and Si social awareness were significantly correlated and positively affected VRTL satisfaction (p >> F 0.217; B >> F 0.130; E >> F 0.243; S >> F 0.122). The comprehensive weight ranking based on RBI-SEM considered light environment (0.665), vegetation diversity (0.667), accessible roaming space (0.550) et al. relatively of importance. And T-tset in the post-test experiment considered that the data of the two measurements before and after the VRTL experience, systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), and blood pressure (p < 0.01) were significantly decreased; one-way ANOVA concluded that there was no significant difference in the changes of blood pressure and heart rate among participants of different ages and genders (p > 0.01). Conclusion: This research validated the effectiveness of RBI theory for VRTL design guidelines, established an RBI-SEM based VRTL evaluation model, and the output VRTL for PSD in the older adults was confirmed to have significant therapeutic benefits. This lays the foundation for designers to decompose design tasks and integrate VRTL into traditional clinical treatment systems. Contribution from the public or patients: Four public health department employees helped to improve the research's content.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Female , Male , Aged , Depression/etiology , Blood Pressure , Analysis of Variance , Stroke/complications , Patient-Centered Care
5.
Korean J Med Educ ; 35(2): 125-141, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245048

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In February 2020, the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu, South Korea, and confirmed cases increased sharply, sparking intense anxiety among residents. This study analyzed the data of a mental health survey on students enrolled at a medical school located in Daegu in 2020. METHODS: An online survey was administered to 654 medical school students (pre-medical course: 220 students, medical course: 434 students) from August to October 2020, with 61.16% (n=400) valid responses. The questionnaire included items about COVID-19-related experiences, stress, stress resilience, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: Of the survey participants, 15.5% had experienced unbearable stress, with the most significant stress factors (in descending order) being limited leisure activities, unusual experiences related to COVID-19, and limited social activities. Approximately 28.8% reported psychological distress, and their most experienced negative emotions were helplessness, depression, and anxiety (in descending order). The mean Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores were 2.44 and 6.08, respectively, both within normal ranges. Approximately 8.3% had mild or greater anxiety, and 15% had mild or greater depression. For students under psychological distress, the experience of unbearable stress before COVID-19 affected anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 0.198; p<0.05), and having an underlying condition affected depression (OR, 0.190; p<0.05). With respect to their psychological distress during August-October 2020 compared with that during February-March 2020 (2 months from the initial outbreak), anxiety stayed the same while depression increased and resilience decreased at a statistically significant level. CONCLUSION: It was found that some medical students were suffering from psychological difficulties related to COVID-19, and there were several risk factors for them. This finding suggests that medical schools need to not only develop academic management systems but also provide programs that can help students manage their mental health and emotions in preparation for an infectious disease pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e403, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study is aimed at investigating the relationships between religious practice, religious coping strategies, and mental health among Chinese Christians in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A total of 915 participants from several cities in China completed online questionnaires, including sociodemographic data, mental disorder history, and years as a Christian, as well as frequency of weekly religious practice, Religious Coping Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). RESULTS: The result of multivariate analysis indicated that during the COVID-19 pandemic, among Chinese Christians without a history of mental disorder, negative religious coping were associated with depression, and anxiety symptoms. Among Chinese Christians with a history of mental disorders, comorbidity with 1 mental disorder, comorbidity with 2 or more mental disorders, negative religious coping, and positive religious coping were associated with depression symptoms. Comorbidity with 2 or more mental disorders, negative religious coping, and positive religious coping were associated with anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Christians with a previous history of mental illness are more likely to experience anxiety during the epidemic. In the future, mental health services during disasters may put more attention on certain religious groups and provide more spiritual care to maintain their well-being accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Christianity , Pandemics , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , East Asian People
7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e410, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Frontline healthcare workers (FHCWs) exposed to COVID-19 patients are at an increased risk of developing psychological burden. This study aims to determine the prevalence of mental health symptoms and associated factors among Mexican FHCWs attending COVID-19 patients. METHODS: FHCWs, including attending physicians, residents/fellows, and nurses providing care to COVID-19 patients at a private hospital in Monterrey, Mexico, were invited to answer an online survey between August 28, and November 30, 2020. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia were evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Multivariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with each outcome. RESULTS: 131 FHCWs, 43.5% attending physicians, 19.8% residents/fellows, and 36.6% nurses were included. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia was 36%, 21%, 23%, and 24% respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that residents/fellows and nurses reported more depression and insomnia than attending physicians. Although not significant, residents/fellows were more likely to experience all symptoms than nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Mexican FHCWs, especially nurses and residents/fellows, experienced a significant psychological burden while attending to COVID-19 patients. Tailored interventions providing support to FHCWs during future outbreaks are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Prevalence , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals
8.
J Neuroinflammation ; 20(1): 110, 2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression and dysosmia have been regarded as primary neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients, the mechanism of which remains unclear. Current studies have demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) protein is a pro-inflammatory factor sensed by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), suggesting the pathological feature of E protein is independent of viral infection. In this study, we aim to ascertain the role of E protein in depression, dysosmia and associated neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: Depression-like behaviors and olfactory function were observed in both female and male mice receiving intracisternal injection of E protein. Immunohistochemistry was applied in conjunction with RT-PCR to evaluate glial activation, blood-brain barrier status and mediators synthesis in the cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb. TLR2 was pharmacologically blocked to determine its role in E protein-related depression-like behaviors and dysosmia in mice. RESULTS: Intracisternal injection of E protein evoked depression-like behaviors and dysosmia in both female and male mice. Immunohistochemistry suggested that the E protein upregulated IBA1 and GFAP in the cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, while ZO-1 was downregulated. Moreover, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MMP2 and CSF1 were upregulated in both cortex and hippocampus, whereas IL-1ß, IL-6 and CCL2 were upregulated in the olfactory bulb. Furtherly, inhibiting microglia, rather than astrocytes, alleviated depression-like behaviors and dysosmia induced by E protein. Finally, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry suggested that TLR2 was upregulated in the cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, the blocking of which mitigated depression-like behaviors and dysosmia induced by E protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that envelope protein could directly induce depression-like behaviors, dysosmia, and obvious neuroinflammation in CNS. TLR2 mediated depression-like behaviors and dysosmia induced by envelope protein, which could serve as a promising therapeutic target for neurological manifestation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Female , Male , Animals , Mice , Depression/etiology , Interleukin-6 , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Olfaction Disorders/etiology
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2312892, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318716

ABSTRACT

Importance: The long-term consequences of COVID-19 on mental health are a critical issue given the number of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 worldwide since the beginning of the pandemic. Objective: To investigate the associations between self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms or SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent depression or anxiety. Design, Setting, and Participants: This propensity score-matched cohort study began in May 2020, with follow-ups in November 2020 and July 2021. The study used data from a large, randomly selected, national population-based cohort from France, the EpiCoV (Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie) study. Of 85 074 individuals 15 years or older who completed the questionnaires at the 3 collection times, 28 568 were excluded because they did not return a blood sample for serologic testing, 1994 because of missing data on outcomes or exposures, and 9252 to respect the temporal sequence (exposure must precede the outcome). Exposures: Propensity scores based on various socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health variables were computed to match participants who experienced COVID-19-like symptoms between February and November 2020 or showed SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between these occurrences and depression or anxiety assessed in July 2021 using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scales, respectively. Results: Among the 45 260 included participants (mean [SD] age, 51.1 [18.9] years; 52.4% women; 8.0% with depression and 5.3% with anxiety in July 2021), COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with subsequent depression (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.45-1.99) and anxiety (adjusted OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.29-1.92), whereas SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was not. Furthermore, COVID-19-like symptoms, but not anosmia or dysgeusia alone, were associated with subsequent depression and anxiety in both the seropositive and seronegative subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of more than 45 000 individuals drawn from the French general population, SARS-CoV-2 infection was not found as a risk factor of subsequent depression or anxiety. Moreover, self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with depression and anxiety assessed at least 8 months later in both seropositive and seronegative subgroups, suggesting that factors other than SARS-CoV-2 infection are implied in this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Self Report , Cohort Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 261, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291257

ABSTRACT

Individuals vary in their ability to tolerate uncertainty. High intolerance of uncertainty (the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations) is a known risk factor for mental health problems. In the current study we examined the degree to which intolerance of uncertainty predicted depression and anxiety symptoms and their interrelations across the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined these associations across three time points (May 2020 - April 2021) in an international sample of adults (N = 2087, Mean age = 41.13) from three countries (UK, USA, Australia) with varying degrees of COVID-19 risk. We found that individuals with high and moderate levels of intolerance of uncertainty reported reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms over time. However, symptom levels remained significantly elevated compared to individuals with low intolerance of uncertainty. Individuals with low intolerance of uncertainty had low and stable levels of depression and anxiety across the course of the study. Network analyses further revealed that the relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms became stronger over time among individuals with high intolerance of uncertainty and identified that feeling afraid showed the strongest association with intolerance of uncertainty. Our findings are consistent with previous work identifying intolerance of uncertainty as an important risk factor for mental health problems, especially in times marked by actual health, economic and social uncertainty. The results highlight the need to explore ways to foster resilience among individuals who struggle to tolerate uncertainty, as ongoing and future geopolitical, climate and health threats will likely lead to continued exposure to significant uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Uncertainty , Pandemics , Anxiety/psychology
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 210, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been more than 2 years since the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic destabilized the world, adversely affecting not only physical health, but also mental health. During this time, frontline medical workers were at a greater health risk, especially female medical workers. Changes or abnormalities in the menstrual cycle-an important indicator of women's health-may jeopardize female reproductive functioning. Considering that emotional health and sleep status may be related to the menstrual cycle, this study aimed to investigate the association between menstrual cycle changes, anxiety, sleep dysfunction, and other factors among female medical workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by distributing online questionnaires to female medical workers in China from February to May 2022. The study included 160 women aged 18-45 years old. The questionnaires covered data related to the participants' sociodemographic characteristics, medical and reproductive history, and lifestyle. The Rating Scale for Clinical Manifestations of Menopathy (SCMM), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Sleep Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS) were utilized. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, t-tests, and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 160 female medical staff were randomly selected in this research, of whom seven scored less than 3 points, 85 scored 3-11 points, and 68 scored more than 11 points on the total score of the SCMM. Compared to pre-pandemic scores, scores of dizziness and tinnitus were significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scores corresponding to the following clinical symptoms were also higher during the pandemic: Menopathy, including hypaphrodisia, dim complexion, abnormal urination, languidness, dim menstruation, thin menstruation, dysmenorrhea, and empty or saggy lower abdomen (p < 0.05). However, pre-pandemic scores of vaginal bleeding quantity were significantly higher than those found during the COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.05). Scores of vaginal bleeding quantity were significantly lower in cabin hospitals than other types of hospitals, and a similar finding was observed for vaginal bleeding duration (all p < 0.05). Moreover, the findings of the univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis revealed a link between consistent exercise, the underlying illness, the SDRS score, the SAS score, and the total score of SCMM (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that menstruation in female medical workers was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, regular exercise and good physical condition were protective factors, while anxiety and insomnia were risk factors for menstrual abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Uterine Hemorrhage , Depression/etiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302910

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stress on healthcare professionals worldwide. Since resilience and mentalizing capacity play very important preventive roles when it comes to mental health, the main goal of this study was to determine whether the capacity for mentalizing and resilience could explain the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted in Serbia on a sample of 406 healthcare workers (141 doctors and 265 nurses) aged 19 to 65 (M = 40.11, SD = 9.41). The participants' mental health status was evaluated using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-DASS-42. The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire was used to evaluate the capacity for mentalizing. Resilience was assessed using the Brief Resilience Scale. The results of the correlation analysis showed that there were negative correlations between resilience and all three dimensions of mental health status: depression, anxiety, and stress. Hypermentalizing was negatively correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress, while hypomentalizing was positively correlated. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that both resilience and hypermentalizing were significant negative predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress, and that hypomentalizing was a significant positive predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Furthermore, socioeconomic status was a significant negative predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Marital status, number of children, and work environment were not statistically significant predictors of any of the three dimensions of mental health status among the healthcare workers in this study. There is an urgent need to establish and implement strategies to foster resilience and enhance the capacity for mentalizing among healthcare workers in order to minimize the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mentalization , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Health Status
13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 58(7): 2025-2034, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the world, leading to government measures associated with a negative impact on mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on depression, anxiety and resilience in Dutch people with cystic fibrosis (PwCF) or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PwPCD) and their caregivers. METHODS: Adolescents (12-17 years) and caregivers of children (0-17 years) with CF, and adolescents, adults and caregivers of children with PCD completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety and resilience between September 2020 and February 2021. The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 was measured by the Exposure and Family Impact Survey (CEFIS) Part 2. Mixed model analyses compared depression and anxiety results to participants' prepandemic scores. RESULTS: One hundred ten participants (10 PwCF, 31 PwPCD, 52 CF caregivers, 17 PCD caregivers) completed questionnaires during the pandemic. Prepandemic outcomes were available for 87 participants. The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety (PHQ-9 or GAD-7 scores ≥5) in PwCF and PwPCD and their caregivers before and during the pandemic was high, with an increase in depression in PwCF (2.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.82-4.68) and increase in anxiety in CF caregivers (1.03; 0.09-1.96) during the pandemic. Resilience was within the normal range for all groups, CEFIS scores corresponded to a low to normal impact. CONCLUSION: PwCF and PwPCD and their caregivers were at risk of elevated depression and anxiety symptoms both before and during the pandemic, which emphasizes the importance of mental health screening and psychological care in CF and PCD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ciliary Motility Disorders , Cystic Fibrosis , Adult , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Caregivers/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Ciliary Motility Disorders/complications
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(14): e33487, 2023 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294805

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a major health care catastrophe that affects people's physical and mental well-being worldwide. Medical students are at an increased risk of mental health hazards during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sulaiman Al Rajhi University (SRU), the site of our study, is located in Qassim province in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We conducted this study to assess the prevalence of depression, stress and anxiety symptoms among SRU medical students during the quarantine and while learning online shortly after the announcement of documented COVID-19 cases in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, an online questionnaire was sent to all medical students of SRU; 278 students responded (71%). We collected participants' demographic, socioeconomic, and academic data. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale were used as the validated mental health assessment tools. Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were found in 23%, 11%, and 6% of students, respectively. Females were more likely to have anxiety (P = .03) than males. Students who had close contact with COVID-19 cases, those whose lives were affected by COVID-19, and those with poor socioeconomic status had significantly higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression compared to their counterparts (P = .004, .01, .01, respectively). Students from high-viral-load areas, unmarried students, and those who did not live with their families were more stressed (P = .06, .01, .01, respectively). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale was positively correlated with all Depression, Anxiety, and Stress components (depression: r = 0.36, anxiety: r = 0.45, and stress: r = 0.39, P < .001 for all). Medical students, especially female students, are at an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with increased COVID-19 fear during the pandemic. The study highlights the importance of mental health screening for female students, students of low socioeconomic status, and relatives of COVID-19 cases. Our findings could help institutions adjust mental health services in the future amid such pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Anxiety/etiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283556

ABSTRACT

We determined the changes in the activity or participation of the community-dwelling elderly in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic and identified the activities leading to depression. This will allow us to evaluate rehabilitation interventions that can be used to minimize or eliminate the negative impact of COVID-19 on today's community-dwelling elderly. Herein, demographics, activity or participation (Activity Card Sort-Japan version: ACS-JPN), the number of social networks (Lubben Social Network Scale: LSNS), and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale: GDS) were examined in 74 community-dwelling elderly in Japan from August to October 2020. A statistical analysis was conducted to determine the effect of demographics on GDS, LSNS, and ACS-JPN, to compare the activity retention rates of the four domains using ACS-JPN, and to extract the activities that might affect depression using a generalized linear model. The results show that the retention of leisure activity with a high physical demand (H-leisure) and sociocultural activities was significantly lower than instrumental activities of daily living and leisure activity with a low physical demand (L-leisure). L-leisure and the number of social networks were possible risk factors for depression during the pandemic. This study highlighted the importance of maintaining the number of L-leisure and social networks at home to prevent depression in community-dwelling elderly when they could not perform outdoor activities and direct interpersonal interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Independent Living , Humans , Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Depression/etiology
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 51, 2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the 2020/2021 winter, the labour market was under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Changes in socioeconomic resources during this period could have influenced individual mental health. This association may have been mitigated or exacerbated by subjective risk perceptions, such as perceived risk of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2 or perception of the national economic situation. Therefore, we aimed to determine if changes in financial resources and employment situation during and after the second COVID-19 wave were prospectively associated with depression, anxiety and stress, and whether perceptions of the national economic situation and of the risk of getting infected modified this association. METHODS: One thousand seven hundred fifty nine participants from a nation-wide population-based eCohort in Switzerland were followed between November 2020 and September 2021. Financial resources and employment status were assessed twice (Nov2020-Mar2021, May-Jul 2021). Mental health was assessed after the second measurement of financial resources and employment status, using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). We modelled DASS-21 scores with linear regression, adjusting for demographics, health status, social relationships and changes in workload, and tested interactions with subjective risk perceptions. RESULTS: We observed scores above thresholds for normal levels for 16% (95%CI = 15-18) of participants for depression, 8% (95%CI = 7-10) for anxiety, and 10% (95%CI = 9-12) for stress. Compared to continuously comfortable or sufficient financial resources, continuously precarious or insufficient resources were associated with worse scores for all outcomes. Increased financial resources were associated with higher anxiety. In the working-age group, shifting from full to part-time employment was associated with higher stress and anxiety. Perceiving the Swiss economic situation as worrisome was associated with higher anxiety in participants who lost financial resources or had continuously precarious or insufficient resources. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the association of economic stressors and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights the exacerbating role of subjective risk perception on this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Switzerland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Employment , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e064694, 2023 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic heightened the need to address loneliness, social isolation and associated incidence of depression among older adults. Between June and October 2020, the Behavioural Activation in Social IsoLation (BASIL) pilot study investigated the acceptability and feasibility of a remotely delivered brief psychological intervention (behavioural cctivation) to prevent and reduce loneliness and depression in older people with long-term conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: An embedded qualitative study was conducted. Semi-structured interviews generated data that was analysed inductively using thematic analysis and then deductively using the theoretical framework of acceptability (TFA). SETTING: NHS and third sector organisations in England. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen older adults and nine support workers participating in the BASIL pilot study. RESULTS: Acceptability of the intervention was high across all constructs of the TFA: Older adults and BASIL Support Workers described a positive Affective Attitude towards the intervention linked to altruism, however the activity planning aspect of the intervention was limited due to COVID-19 restrictions. A manageable Burden was involved with delivering and participating in the intervention. For Ethicality, older adults valued social contact and making changes, support workers valued being able to observe those changes. The intervention was understood by older adults and support workers, although less understanding in older adults without low mood (Intervention Coherence). Opportunity Cost was low for support workers and older adults. Behavioural Activation was perceived to be useful in the pandemic and likely to achieve its aims (Perceived Effectiveness), especially if tailored to people with both low mood and long-term conditions. Self-efficacy developed over time and with experience for both support workers and older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, BASIL pilot study processes and the intervention were acceptable. Use of the TFA provided valuable insights into how the intervention was experienced and how the acceptability of study processes and the intervention could be enhanced ahead of the larger definitive trial (BASIL+).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pilot Projects , Depression/etiology , Behavior Therapy
18.
J Affect Disord ; 332: 143-149, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19, there have been concerns about the psychological effects of the pandemic on people's mental health around the world. Individuals with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia (SCZ) may be more prone to develop mood disorders during the lockdowns due to their limited access to healthcare, reduced social support, and probable cognitive impairment. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search on PubMed and Scopus to explore the effects of the pandemic on depressive symptoms in individuals with SCZ. A total of 12 studies were included. RESULTS: Overall, studies suggested higher depression rates in patients with SCZ compared to healthy controls. Isolation due to the COVID-19 infection emerged as a risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms. However, results regarding the longitudinal changes of depression in SCZ patients during the lockdowns were inconsistent. LIMITATIONS: The small sample sizes of studies, different depression scales and stages of the lockdowns, as well as the different government policies and restriction levels across the countries limit the conclusions of the present review. CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests an increased probability of depression in patients with SCZ during the pandemic. Identifying the risk factors for developing depression in this population helps find new, suitable approaches to address patients' needs and lower the adverse psychological effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/psychology
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(3): e232969, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280297

ABSTRACT

Importance: Antenatal stress is a significant risk factor for poor postpartum mental health. The association of pandemic-related stress with postpartum outcomes among mothers and infants is, however, less well understood. Objective: To examine the association of antenatal COVID-19-related stress with postpartum maternal mental health and infant outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among 318 participants in the COVID-19 Risks Across the Lifespan study, which took place in Australia, the UK, and the US. Eligible participants reported being pregnant at the first assessment wave between May 5 and September 30, 2020, and completed a follow-up assessment between October 28, 2021, and April 24, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19-related stress was assessed with the Pandemic Anxiety Scale (score range, 0-4, with higher scores indicating greater COVID-19-related stress). The 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (score range, 0-3, with higher scores indicating more frequent symptoms of depression) was used to measure maternal depression at each time point, and the 7-item General Anxiety Disorder scale (score range, 0-3, with higher scores indicating more frequent symptoms of anxiety) was used to measure generalized anxiety at each time point. At follow-up, postpartum distress was assessed with the 10-item Postpartum Distress Measure (score range, 0-3, with higher scores indicating greater postpartum distress), and infant outcomes (negative and positive affectivity and orienting behavior) were captured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (score range, 1-7, with higher scores indicating that the infant exhibited that affect/behavior more frequently). Results: The study included 318 women (mean [SD] age, 32.0 [4.6] years) from Australia (88 [28%]), the US (94 [30%]), and the UK (136 [43%]). Antenatal COVID-19-related stress was significantly associated with maternal postpartum distress (ß = 0.40 [95% CI, 0.28-0.53]), depression (ß = 0.32 [95% CI, 0.23-0.41]), and generalized anxiety (ß = 0.35 [95% CI, 0.26-0.44]), as well as infant negative affectivity (ß = 0.45 [95% CI, 0.14-0.76]). The findings remained consistent across a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that targeting pandemic-related stressors in the antenatal period may improve maternal and infant outcomes. Pregnant individuals should be classified as a vulnerable group during pandemics and should be considered a public health priority, not only in terms of physical health but also mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Infant , Humans , Pregnancy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Depression/etiology , Cohort Studies , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Postpartum Period
20.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 32(3): 767-777, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277925

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological impacts of the abrupt transition to distance learning due to COVID-19 and associated factors among Jordanian nursing students. A cross-sectional online survey with a sample of 224 nursing students in three universities was carried out. The survey measured students' depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), academic self-efficacy, and demographic and distance learning-related data. Students have moderate levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD were significantly associated with various demographic, disease-related, and distance learning-related variables. Further work is required to prepare professional psychological help for nursing students and develop future teaching plans that take into consideration factors underlying students' negative symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Nursing , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Stress, Psychological
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