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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205380

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de controle para conter a disseminação do vírus, como o distanciamento social, trouxeram mudanças à rotina das pessoas, mundialmente. Esse contexto pode gerar impactos adversos para a saúde mental dos indivíduos, especialmente, àqueles em maior vulnerabilidade, os idosos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar na literatura os impactos reais e/ou potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental de idosos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas realizadas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que utilizou a seguinte estratégia de busca: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Foram critérios de inclusão: artigos acessados na íntegra, sem distinção de ano e idioma, indexados até o dia 11 de novembro de 2020; e os critérios de exclusão: artigos com fuga do escopo da pesquisa, revisões de literatura, arquivos multimídia e duplicados. Foram encontrados 241 registros, e após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos restaram 27 artigos para discussão. Dentre os impactos reais/potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental dos idosos, abordados nos estudos, destaca-se a ansiedade, depressão, solidão, estresse, sensação de medo ou pânico, tristeza, suicídio/ideação suicida e insônia. Apesar disso, considera-se que há uma quantidade ainda escassa de estudos voltados especificamente para a população idosa que permitam aprofundar as discussões sobre esse tema.


The COVID-19 pandemic and control measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social detachment, have brought changes to people's routine, worldwide. This context can generate adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals, especially those most vulnerable, the older adults. The aim of this study was to analyze in the literature the real and / or potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the older adults. It is an integrative literature review with searches performed in the Virtual Health Library, which used the following search strategy: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID- 19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Inclusion criteria were: articles accessed in full, without distinction of year and language, indexed until November 11, 2020; and exclusion criteria: articles with escape the scope of the research, literature reviews, multimedia and duplicate files, 241 records were found, and after applying the established eligibility criteria, 27 articles remained for discussion, among the actual / potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older people, addressed in the studies, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, feeling of fear or panic, sadness, suicide / suicidal ideation and insomnia stand out. Despite this, there is still a small amount studies specifically aimed at the older population that allow further discussions on this topic.


La pandemia de covid-19 y las medidas de control para contener la propagación del virus, como el distanciamiento social, han supuesto cambios en la rutina de las personas en todo el mundo. Este contexto puede generar impactos adversos a la salud mental de los individuos, especialmente a los más vulnerables, los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar en la literatura los impactos reales y/o potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con búsquedas realizadas en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, que utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: (Coronavirus OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (elderly OR aged) AND ("Mental Health" OR "Mental Health"). Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos accedidos en su totalidad, independientemente del año y el idioma, indexados hasta el 11 de noviembre de 2020; y los criterios de exclusión: artículos que estuvieran fuera del ámbito de la investigación, revisiones bibliográficas, archivos multimedia y duplicados. Se encontraron un total de 241 registros, y tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos, quedaron 27 artículos para su discusión. Entre los impactos reales/potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos, abordados en los estudios, destacan la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad, el estrés, la sensación de miedo o pánico, la tristeza, la ideación suicida/suicida y el insomnio. A pesar de ello, se considera que todavía hay una escasa cantidad de estudios dirigidos específicamente a la población de edad avanzada que permitan profundizar en las discusiones sobre este tema.


Subject(s)
Aged/psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/psychology , Panic , Suicide/psychology , Aging/physiology , Depression/psychology , Fear/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Loneliness/psychology
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25945, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191011

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among first-line medical staff in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.From March 5 to 15, 2020, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scale were used to investigate the anxiety and depression status of medical staff in Wuhan Cabin Hospital (a Hospital). Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were received from 96 doctors and 180 nurses, including 79 males and 197 females.During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression was 27.9% and 18.1%, respectively, among 276 front-line medical staff in Wuhan. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among doctors was 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively, and the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among nurses was 32.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Females recorded higher total scores for anxiety and depression than males, and nurses recorded higher scores for anxiety and depression than doctors.During the COVID-19 epidemic, some first-line medical staff experienced mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Nurses were more prone to anxiety and depression than doctors. Effective strategies toward to improving the mental health should be provided to first-line medical staff, especially female medical staff and nurses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Medical Staff/psychology , Mobile Health Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Workload/psychology
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(11): 1560-1571, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To what extent the COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures influenced mental health in the general population is still unclear. PURPOSE: To assess the trajectory of mental health symptoms during the first year of the pandemic and examine dose-response relations with characteristics of the pandemic and its containment. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles were identified from the living evidence database of the COVID-19 Open Access Project, which indexes COVID-19-related publications from MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase via Ovid, and PsycInfo. Preprint publications were not considered. STUDY SELECTION: Longitudinal studies that reported data on the general population's mental health using validated scales and that were published before 31 March 2021 were eligible. DATA EXTRACTION: An international crowd of 109 trained reviewers screened references and extracted study characteristics, participant characteristics, and symptom scores at each timepoint. Data were also included for the following country-specific variables: days since the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the stringency of governmental containment measures, and the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths. DATA SYNTHESIS: In a total of 43 studies (331 628 participants), changes in symptoms of psychological distress, sleep disturbances, and mental well-being varied substantially across studies. On average, depression and anxiety symptoms worsened in the first 2 months of the pandemic (standardized mean difference at 60 days, -0.39 [95% credible interval, -0.76 to -0.03]); thereafter, the trajectories were heterogeneous. There was a linear association of worsening depression and anxiety with increasing numbers of reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increasing stringency in governmental measures. Gender, age, country, deprivation, inequalities, risk of bias, and study design did not modify these associations. LIMITATIONS: The certainty of the evidence was low because of the high risk of bias in included studies and the large amount of heterogeneity. Stringency measures and surges in cases were strongly correlated and changed over time. The observed associations should not be interpreted as causal relationships. CONCLUSION: Although an initial increase in average symptoms of depression and anxiety and an association between higher numbers of reported cases and more stringent measures were found, changes in mental health symptoms varied substantially across studies after the first 2 months of the pandemic. This suggests that different populations responded differently to the psychological stress generated by the pandemic and its containment measures. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Swiss National Science Foundation. (PROSPERO: CRD42020180049).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 953155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199455

ABSTRACT

Increases in anti-Asian COVID-19 related discriminatory behaviors have been observed, many of which targeted older adults. Studies demonstrate that racial discrimination is associated with worse health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, and sleep difficulties. No previous studies have examined the impact of day-to-day experiences of discrimination before and during COVID-19 on both Asian and non-Asian older adults within the same sample. We examined whether everyday discrimination was associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms, decreased levels of functioning, and increased sleep difficulties among Asian and non-Asian US older adults before and during the pandemic. Data came from the Positive Minds-Strong Bodies randomized clinical trial, an evidence-based mental health and disability prevention intervention for racially and ethnically diverse older adults with elevated depression or anxiety symptoms and minor to moderate disability. We conducted secondary data analyses in a cohort of 165 older adults (56 Asian and 109 non-Asian) assessed before COVID-19 (May 2015-May 2018) and during COVID-19 (March 2021-July 2022). Regression models examined whether everyday discrimination impacted health outcomes differently before and during COVID-19, and whether this effect was stronger among Asian compared to non-Asian older adults. Non-Asian older adults reported the same levels of everyday discrimination before and during COVID-19. Consistent with literature suggesting that social distancing has inadvertently kept US Asian populations from experiencing discrimination, Asian older adults reported marginally lower levels of everyday discrimination during the pandemic compared with pre-pandemic. We found that everyday discrimination was not associated with health outcomes before COVID-19. In contrast, during the pandemic, everyday discrimination was associated with worse anxiety and depression symptoms and worse levels of functioning, although only the impact on depression was significantly stronger compared with before the pandemic. This negative impact of everyday discrimination on health outcomes during the pandemic appeared to affect both Asian and non-Asian older adults similarly. Social support and social cohesion buffered against the negative effect of everyday discrimination on depression and level of functioning during the pandemic. Results suggest that public health interventions aimed at reducing everyday discrimination and emphasizing social support and cohesion can potentially improve health outcomes for all US older adult populations. Clinical trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier: NCT02317432.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154983

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The psychological status of employees, especially vulnerable populations, has received considerable research attention. However, as a newly emerging and popular occupation in the gig industry, food delivery drivers have received little attention. The majority of these workers are immigrants who are already in a precarious position due to a lack of available jobs, inadequate medical care, poor diets, and communication and acculturation difficulties even before they take these jobs, which involve long working hours and exposure to the elements. (2) Methods: To examine the anxiety and depression symptoms of these workers and possible influencing factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of food delivery drivers working for the Meituan Company (one of the largest e-platform companies in China). Anxiety and depression scales were adapted from the GAD-7, and the PHQ-9 was used to assess participants' related symptoms. Differences were compared in terms of sociodemographic, work situation, and lifestyle variables. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the effects of various factors on the two psychological dimensions. (3) Results: Among the 657 participants, the proportions of participants reporting anxiety and depression symptoms were 46.0% and 18.4%, respectively. Lack of communication with leaders (ORAN = 2.620, 95% CI: 1.528-4.493, p < 0.001; ORDE = 1.928, 95% CI: 1.039-3.577, p = 0.037) and poor sleep quality (ORAN = 2.152, 95% CI: 1.587-2.917, p < 0.001; ORDE = 2.420, 95% CI: 1.672-3.504, p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for both anxiety and depression symptoms. Women (OR = 2.679, 95% CI: 1.621-4.427, p < 0.001), those who climbed ≥31 floors per day (OR = 2.415, 95% CI: 1.189-4.905, p = 0.015), and those with a high frequency of breakfast consumption (OR = 3.821, 95% CI: 1.284-11.369, p = 0.016) were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Participants who earned less than 5000 RMB (OR = 0.438, 95% CI: 0.204-0.940, p = 0.034), were unwilling to seek medical help (OR = 3.549, 95% CI: 1.846-6.821, p < 0.001), or had a high frequency of smoking (OR = 5.107, 95% CI: 1.187-21.981, p = 0.029) were more likely to be depressive. (4) Conclusion: The existence of communication channels with leaders and good sleep quality are protective factors for anxiety and depression symptoms. Participants who were female, climbed ≥31floors per day, and had a high frequency of eating breakfast were more likely to have anxiety symptoms, while earning less, unwillingness to seek medical help, and a high frequency of smoking were risk factors for depression symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154411

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
8.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 43(4): 495-501, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133999

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has negative and sometimes irreversible effects on infertile women. This study aimed to investigate hopelessness and depression in infertile women whose treatment has been delayed due to COVID-19. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted online on 172 infertile women. The case group included infertile women under treatment whose treatment was delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the control group was selected from infertile women who were not under infertile treatment. This study was conducted between April and December 2021 in Jahrom, Iran. Beck hopelessness standard questionnaire (BHS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to collect data, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean score of hopelessness in women in the case group was 9.48 ± 1.80 compared to the control group 8.66 ± 1.34 (OR = 1.39 95% CI = 1.13-1.71), and its areas (OR = 1.33 95% CI = 1.003-2.43), Emotions and expectations score (OR = 1.59 95% CI = 1.07-2.37), Motivation loss score (OR = 2.02 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), Hope score, and depression in women in the case group was 40.33 ± 10.87to 36.72 ± 11.40 compared to the control (OR = 1.17 95% CI = 1.11-1.23). All these variables showed an increase in the case group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results showed that infertile women whose treatment was delayed were more frustrated and depressed than women in the control group. COVID-19 epidemic and discontinuation of infertile treatments in infertile women seem to have negative psychological effects. Therefore, the psychological effects of this epidemic on infertile women should not be ignored, so planners should put social and family support at the top of the program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infertility, Female , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Infertility, Female/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Case-Control Studies
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20346, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133603

ABSTRACT

To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the variables of sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in healthy Brazilian women. Longitudinal observational study conducted through an online questionnaire with women in 2020 and 2021. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. The data were analyzed descriptively and the comparison between the data obtained in the first and second evaluation was performed using the McNemar test. A logistic regression was applied to test the association between the variables that showed a significant difference. A total of 235 women responded to the questionnaires. There was a significant increase in fatigue between the two moments (p < 0.05). In the first assessment, depression (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-4.99), anxiety (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.37-5.22) and sleep quality (OR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.71-9.67) were associated with fatigue. In the second assessment, depression (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.19-7.18) and anxiety (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.27-5.71) were associated with fatigue. There was an impact on biopsychosocial aspects during the COVID-19 pandemic, with worsening of fatigue symptoms within a 6-month interval. In addition, fatigue was associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and worse sleep quality in the first year of the pandemic, remaining associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in the second year of the pandemic in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Sleep Quality , Depression/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Fatigue/psychology
10.
J Affect Disord ; 310: 422-428, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether resilience modulates the levels of depression, anxiety, stress and the impact of events in physiotherapists who work with COVID-19 patients with those who do not. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 up to October 2020. A total of 519 physiotherapists were enrolled and divided according to resilience and whether they worked with COVID-19 patients. Volunteers answered sociodemographic questionnaires, rating their depression, anxiety, and stress on a scale (DASS-21). The impact of event scale revised (IES-R) and 14-item resilience scale (14-RS) were also used. RESULTS: Physiotherapists with low resilience present scores significantly high of depression, anxiety, stress and impact of event compared to the high resilience group (P < .001). Additionally, working with COVID-19 patients also resulted in increased levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and impact of event compared with the NO COVID-19 group (P < .001). These responses were modulated by age, sex, number of absences from work, whether or not personal protective equipment was received, host leadership, and the practice and maintenance of regular physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The responses to the questionnaires were anonymous and self-administered. We cannot assess whether these people had a previous diagnosis of depression, anxiety and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Low resilience and work with COVID-19 patients were associated with high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and worse psychological impacts of events. Several aspects modulate these responses and can contribute to improving the resilience and mental health of physiotherapists who are responsible for the care of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(6)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119338

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between boredom proneness, loneliness, and smartphone addiction among Lebanese young adults and examine the mediating role of depression, anxiety, and stress in this association.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2020 during the lockdown period of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. An online survey was completed by 461 young adults aged 18 to 29 years.Results: The results showed that 66 of 134 males (49.3%, scores ≥ 31) and 143 of 327 females (43.7%, scores ≥ 33) had smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was significantly associated with higher boredom proneness (P < .001), anxiety (P = .012), and loneliness (P = .025). Anxiety mediated the association between boredom proneness and smartphone addiction and between loneliness and smartphone addiction, whereas depression and stress did not mediate the association between boredom/loneliness and smartphone addiction.Conclusions: Smartphone addiction is highly associated with psychological disorders, and screening strategies are needed to minimize addiction. This study emphasizes the importance of investigating the relation between smartphone addiction and psychological disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Male , Female , Young Adult , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Boredom , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
12.
Ann Epidemiol ; 75: 53-56, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118090

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic caused disruptions to children's daily lives due in part to stay-at-home orders and school closures, reducing interactions with both peers and extended family. Yet, few studies with nationally representative data have explored the potential association of the COVID-19 pandemic and children's mental health. METHODS: The current study analyzed data from the 2019 and 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to describe changes in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression before and during the first year of the pandemic among children aged 5-17 years. Changes in prevalence by child- and family-level characteristics were also examined. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly one in six children aged 5-17 years had daily or weekly symptoms of anxiety or depression, a significant increase from before the COVID-pandemic (16.7% (95% CI:15.0-18.6) versus 14.4% (95% CI:13.4-15.3)). Males, children 5-11 years, non-Hispanic children, children living in families in large metropolitan areas, incomes at or below the federal poverty level, and whose highest educated parent had more than a HS education, also showed statistically significant increases in anxiety and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: NHIS data may be used to monitor this increase in mental health symptomatology and assist in identifying children at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Mental Health
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Gain insight into the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of mental health problems among the Dutch general population and different age groups in November-December 2020, compared with the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors in the same period in 2018 and 2019. More specifically, the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of anxiety and depression symptoms, sleep problems, fatigue, impaired functioning due to health problems, and use of medicines for sleep problems, medicines for anxiety and depression, and mental health service. METHODS: We extracted data from the Longitudinal Internet studies for the Social Sciences (LISS) panel that is based on a probability sample of the Dutch population of 16 years and older by Statistics Netherlands. We focused on three waves of the longitudinal Health module in November-December 2018 (T1), November-December 2019 (T2), and November-December 2020 (T3), and selected respondents who were 18 years and older at T1. In total, 4,064 respondents participated in all three surveys. Data were weighted using 16 demographics profiles of the Dutch adult population. The course of mental health problems was examined using generalized estimating equations (GEE) for longitudinal ordinal data and differences in incidence with logistic regression analyses. In both types of analyses, we controlled for sex, age, marital status, employment status, education level, and physical disease. RESULTS: Among the total study sample, no significant increase in the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms, sleep problems, fatigue, impaired functioning due to health problems, use of medicines for sleep problems, of medicines for anxiety and depression, and of mental health service in November-December 2020 was observed, compared with the prevalence in November-December 2018 and 2019 (T3 did not differ from T1 and T2). Among the four different age categories (18-34, 35-49, 50-64, and 65 years old and older respondents), 50-64 years respondents had a significantly lower prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms at T3 than at T1 and T2, while the prevalence at T1 and T2 did not differ. A similar pattern among 65+ respondents was found for mental health service use. We found no indications that the incidence of examined health problems at T2 (no problems at T1, problems at T2) and T3 (no problems at T2, problems at T3) differed. Risk factors for mental health problems at T2 were mostly similar to risk factors at T3; sex and age were less/not a risk factor for sleep problems at T3 compared with at T2. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of the examined mental health problems examined nine months after the COVID-19 outbreak appear to be very stable across the end of 2018, 2019, and 2020 among the Dutch adult population and different age categories, suggesting that the Dutch adult population in general is rather resilient given all disruptions due to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Prevalence , Mental Health , Incidence , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Risk Factors , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology
14.
Neurol India ; 70(5): 2116-2120, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117631

ABSTRACT

Background: India, with a total population of 1,309,053,980, has 0.29 psychiatrists, 0.00 child psychiatrists, and 0.80 mental health nurses per 100,000 population. The mental health expenditure per person is just 4 INR as per Mental Health ATLAS 2017 (World Health Organization). The treatment gap for mental disorders still remains very high. These raise issues to our mental health status post coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression after the stay-at-home order post COVID-19 could lead to further psychological trauma besides mental health. A younger age, the female gender, and the caregiver status have a greater degree of stressfulness because of the pandemic. Objective: To assess the mental health status of the general population post COVID-19 in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) 21 in the month of July, 2020. Results: The results of the online survey using DASS 21 conducted in the month of July, 2020, in India support the mental distress in the general population too. Conclusions: Systematic and regular surveys need to be conducted to allow for monitoring of the mental health impact of COVID-19 from time to time and prepare ourselves so as to prevent the second wave of mental health crises post the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , India/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 57(12): 2481-2490, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116958

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cross-sectional studies found high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and loneliness during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reported increases were lower in longitudinal population-based findings. Studies including positive outcomes are rare. This study analyzed changes in mental health symptoms, loneliness, and satisfaction. METHODS: Respondents of the German Socio-Economic Panel (N = 6038) were surveyed pre-pandemic (2017/2019) and during the first (June 2020) and second wave (January and February 2021) of the pandemic. Self-report screeners assessed depression and anxiety symptoms, loneliness, life and health satisfaction. Difference scores were analysed using ANCOVAs focusing on time, gender, age groups. RESULTS: Depression and anxiety symptoms and health satisfaction increased from pre-pandemic to the first wave, but declined in the second pandemic wave. Loneliness increased and life satisfaction decreased during the first and the second wave of the pandemic. Young adults and women reported more distress and loneliness, even after controlling for pre-pandemic scores, education, and income. All effects remained stable when controlling for self-reported previous diagnosis of depression or region of residence. CONCLUSION: Increases and decreases in mental health symptoms and health satisfaction showed little variation. Of concern are the strong increases of loneliness and decreased life satisfaction being important targets for interventions. Main risk factors are young age and female gender.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Young Adult , Humans , Female , Loneliness/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114900, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116853

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated psychosocial predictors of psychosis-risk, depression, anxiety, and stress in Croatia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given Croatia's recent transgenerational war trauma and the relative lack of available prodromal data, this study presents a unique opportunity to examine the impact of loneliness and other psychosocial factors on psychosis-risk and mental health in this population. 404 Croatian participants completed an anonymous online survey of physical and mental health questions. 48 participants met the criteria for elevated psychosis-risk on prodromal questionnaire (PQ-16). Loneliness had a significant impact on psychosis-risk. Exposure to trauma was associated with psychosis-risk and loneliness, while domestic abuse/violence was associated only with the distress surrounding psychotic-like symptoms. COVID concern was also associated with psychosis-risk. Lastly, the associations between psychosis-risk and depression, anxiety, and stress were robust. These findings highlight the important role of loneliness in psychosis-proneness in Croatia. Depression, anxiety, and stress were also closely related to elevated psychosis-risk. Loneliness is a highly salient issue for individuals with psychosis and it is important to target loneliness within a multi-faceted psychosocial intervention for those at risk for schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Croatia/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study will evaluate the association that the COVID-19 pandemic has had with health-care workers and identify the factors that influenced the female gender being more affected. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in two hospitals in Arequipa (a Peruvian city). The participants were health-care workers. We applied a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and three scales: the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screen for DSM-5. The main outcomes were anxiety, depression, and PTSD scores. The exposure of interest was gender. The scores of the scales were estimated by medians and percentiles 25-75 (p25-p75), and we used linear regression to estimate the crude and adjusted coefficients and their respective confidence intervals at 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: There were 109 participants, and 43.1% were women. The anxiety, depression, and PTSD median (p25-p75) scores in the study population were 6 (2-11), 6 (2-10), and 1 (0-3), respectively. The adjusted analysis showed that the female sex had 4.48 (CI 95% 2.95-6.00), 4.50 (CI 95% 2.39-6.62), and 1.13 (CI 95% 0.50-1.76) higher points on average for the scales of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms in comparison to males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female health-care workers showed increased scores of mental health issues in comparison to male health-care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109333

ABSTRACT

Although the psychological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been evaluated in the literature, further research is needed, particularly on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological outcomes, is needed. This study aims to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological outcomes (depression, anxiety, and insomnia). A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted using the following instruments: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation model (SEM), multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling, and differential item functioning (DIF) were performed to analyze the collected data. According to the results, participants with PTSD (n = 360) showed a higher level of depression, anxiety, and insomnia than those without PTSD (n = 639). Among the participants, 36.5% experienced moderate to severe symptoms of depression, and 32.6% had mild depressive symptoms. Moreover, 23.7% of participants experienced moderate to severe anxiety symptoms, and 33.1% had mild anxiety symptoms. In addition, 51.5% of participants experienced symptoms of insomnia. In conclusion, the PTSD caused by COVID-19 is significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and insomnia at the level of latent constructs and observed variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerning rates of psychological disorders are increasingly recognized in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the associations of different structural and functional social supports on depression, anxiety, and stress among young adults in Vietnam. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was performed on 236 respondents aged 16 to 30 years in Vietnam from June to July 2020. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21); the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the LUBBEN Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) was used to measure psychological health, functional and structural social support characteristics. Multi-level mixed-effect logistic regression was used to identify associations between social support and anxiety, depression, and stress. RESULTS: The rate of at least mild depression, anxiety, and stress were 30.1%, 34.8%, and 35.6%, respectively. Structural supports measured by LSNS-6 were not associated with the likelihood of having depression, anxiety, and stress (p>0.05). Respondents having friends with whom they could share joys and sorrows were less likely to have anxiety (aOR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.41-0.90) and stress (aOR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.45-0.96). Having family support in decision-making was also negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Meanwhile, those having family and friends who tried to help them were more likely to suffer stress (aOR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.16-3.24) and depression (aOR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.11-3.92), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted a high rate of psychological problems among young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. Emotional support from friends and advice support from family were important components that should be considered in further interventions to mitigate the psychological problems in young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Social Support
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 678, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2020 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has been raging for more than 20 months, putting significant strain on public health systems around the world. Despite the fact that the pandemic has been effectively managed in certain countries, regional outbreaks and viral mutations continue to pose a threat to people's lives. The likelihood of post-pandemic changes in people's psychological situations warrants more investigation. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted in the context of another outbreak in Zhangjiajie, China, respondents (infected patients, healthy population) were required to complete self-administered questions and standardized questionnaires, including the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ). MEASURES: We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey of infected patients (excluding critically ill patients) in the confirmed COVID-19 ward of Zhangjiajie City People's Hospital's East Hospital from August 14 to 24, 2021, and used convenience sampling to survey medical staff and the general public to assess the psychological reactions of different populations during the delta variant outbreak pandemic. Differences in anxiety and depression severity were compared between groups, with logistic regression models constructed to explore potential factors associated with scoring clinical significant levels of depression and/or anxiety. RESULTS: There is no significant difference (p value = 0.228) between anxiety and depression in patients (n = 53), general public (n = 97), medical personnel (n = 103), and support workers (n = 65). Females reported higher scores on the GAD-7 and the BIPQ, reduced communication with family and friends appeared to be a risk factor for clinically significant anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in anxiety and depression across populations explored in this study, but females had higher anxiety and illness perception than males, and effective communication may help improve mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Surveys and Questionnaires , China/epidemiology , Mutation
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