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1.
preprints.org; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202402.1752.v1

ABSTRACT

International students were – and continue to be – particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. 625 international students in Israel completed an online survey assessing risk and protective factors (socio-demographics, health status, COVID-19 related experiences/concerns, financial difficulties, academic challenges/experiences, social support, and coping) for student’s depression, perceived need for help, and seeking help from the university. Approximately 15% of participants had moderately-severe or severe depression. Over half needed at least a little help, but only 19.7% had asked for help. Depression symptoms were related coping (β=-.34) and health (β=.12). Need for help was related to being a postdoc (β=-0.26) and experiencing food insecurity (β=0.20). Universities need to develop services which address international students’ unique needs during global crises.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19
2.
preprints.org; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202402.1498.v1

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19-medical emergency has ended worldwide, yet there is still a need to evaluate the psychological impact of these years of unprecedented changes on students’ life. Methods: This study aims to assess and compare COVID-19-related stressors (Relationships-and-Academic-Life; Isolation; Fear-of-Contagion) and psychophysical symptoms reported by university students in April-2020, April 2021, and April 2022. The predictive role of COVID-19-related stressors on psychophysical symptoms within each time was also tested. Data were collected among 637 university students in April-2020 (n = 197), April-2021 (n = 200), April-2022 (n = 240). Results: In April-2022, perceived Isolation and Fear-of-Contagion decreased from the peak registered in April-2021, but stress related to Relationships-and-Academic-Life remained noteworthy high. A sharp and ongoing increase in psychophysical symptoms was found, with more than 50% of students reporting clinical levels of Sleep-Disorders, Depression, Psychoticism, and Interpersonal-Sensitivity. In April-2022, students still perceiving stress related to Relationships-and-Academic-Life and Isolation were at risk for Anxiety, Somatization, and Sleep-Disorders, while those still perceiving stress related to Fear-of-Contagion were also at risk for Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Psychoticism. Conclusion: Findings emphasized the long-lasting detrimental effects of the COVID-19-related stress. Interventions must pinpoint the complex post-pandemic adjustment process and their effects on university students' psychophysical health.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
3.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3973430.v1

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Depressive disorder during early adulthood has been a rising public health concern, potentially further compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using nationally representative large survey samples, this study addressed the knowledge gaps in how COVID-19 affected depressive disorder among U.S. young adults. Methods: The analysis included 348,994 U.S. non-institutionalized young adults aged 18-34 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2018-2022. Changes in the prevalence of diagnosed depressive disorder before and during COVID-19 were assessed by weighted bi-variate analysis using Rao-Scott Chi-Square test, with multivariable logistic regression models fitted to assess the magnitude of depressive disorder before and during COVID-19. Results: Overall, the prevalence of depressive disorder increased by 13.7% (p<0.001) from 20.5% before COVID-19 to 23.3% during COVID-19. Adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the odds of depressive disorder during COVID-19 as compared to before COVID-19 were highest for females (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.29-1.40), aged 18-24 years (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.27-1.41), other races (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.31-1.62), attended college or technical school (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.26-1.40), employed (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.27-1.37), and married (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.24-1.40). Conclusion: The study findings revealed the importance of recognizing and understanding the most affected groups of young adults during a pandemic like COVID-19, providing essential insights for developing targeted interventions and policies.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19
4.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.02.17.24302973

ABSTRACT

Background: Kenya, like many countries, shuttered schools during COVID–19, with subsequent increases in poor mental health, sexual activity, and pregnancy. We sought to understand how the COVID–19 pandemic may mediate risk of reproductive tract infections. We hypothesized that greater COVID–19 related stress would mediate risk via mental health, feeling safe inside the home, and sexual exposure, given the pandemic mitigation–related impacts of school closures on these factors. Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of 436 girls enrolled in secondary school in rural western Kenya. Baseline, 6–, 12–, and 18– month study visits occurred April 2018 – December 2019 (pre–COVID), and 30–, 36–, and 48– month study visits occurred September 2020 – July 2022 (COVID period). At study visits, participants self–completed a survey for sociodemographics and sexual practices, and provided self–collected vaginal swabs for Bacterial vaginosis (BV) testing, with STI testing at annual visits. COVID–related stress was measured with a standardized scale and dichotomized at highest quartile. Mixed effects modeling quantified how BV and STI changed over time, and longitudinal mediation analysis quantified how the relationship between COVID–19 stress and increased BV was mediated. Findings: BV and STI prevalence increased from 12.1% and 10.7% pre–COVID to 24.5% and 18.1% during COVID, respectively. This equated to a 26% (95% CI 1.00 – 1.59) and 36% (95% CI 0.98 – 1.88) increased relative prevalence of BV and STIs, respectively, in the COVID–19 period compared to pre–COVID, adjusted for numerous sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Higher COVID–related stress was associated with elevated depressive symptoms and feeling less safe inside the home, which were each associated with increased likelihood of having a boyfriend. In longitudinal mediation analyses, the direct effect of COVID–related stress on BV was small and non–significant, indicating increased BV was due to the constellation of factors that were impacted during the COVID pandemic. Conclusions: In this cohort of adolescent girls, BV and STIs increased following COVID–related school closures. These results highlight modifiable factors to help maintain sexual and reproductive health resiliency, such as anticipating and mitigating mental health impacts, domestic safety concerns, and maintaining sexual health services to prevent and treat reproductive tract infections.


Subject(s)
Vaginosis, Bacterial , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder
5.
preprints.org; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202402.0762.v1

ABSTRACT

Studies have established the crucial role of sleep among the students which plays a significant role in their mood. This study aimed to examine the mood disorders and sleep quality among undergraduate students at the University of Georgia (UG) and comparison between students’ nationality.This cross-sectional study was a self-reported questionnaire comprised of demographics including age, gender, year of study, current location, lifestyle data (Exercise and smoking), the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DAS21) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We performed a descriptive analysis, and the Chi-square was statistically significant at p<0.05. The prevalence was at a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) as multivariate analysis examined the multicollinearity. The female students were most of the respondents, below the age of 20 years. The student's mean age was 20.20 (SD± 3.0). DAS report presented 72.7% of students with depressive symptoms, 77.8% with anxiety symptoms, and 62.2% had stress. Georgian students were more at risk of having depressive complaints (95% Cl[1.567-3.788]), anxiety (95% Cl[1.612-4.285]), and stress symptoms (95% Cl[1.743-3.831]). There was a strong relationship between the students who experienced poor sleeping patterns and depressive complaints (aOR 0.10). The students who were smokers (aOR 0.39) were more likely to report anxiety symptoms than the students that do not exercise (aOR 1.68). It was observed that students with depressive symptoms, anxiety, and complaints of stress had a significantly high risk of poor sleep quality. Further studies are recommended to curb psychological symptoms of mood changes in association with sleep disorders among students.


Subject(s)
Mood Disorders , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety Disorders
6.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.02.05.24302352

ABSTRACT

Background: Long COVID, also known as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), is a poorly understood condition with symptoms across a range of biological domains that often have debilitating consequences. Some have recently suggested that lingering SARS-CoV-2 virus in the gut may impede serotonin production and that low serotonin may drive many Long COVID symptoms across a range of biological systems. Therefore, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase synaptic serotonin availability, may prevent or treat Long COVID. SSRIs are commonly prescribed for depression, therefore restricting a study sample to only include patients with depression can reduce the concern of confounding by indication. Methods: In an observational sample of electronic health records from patients in the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) with a COVID-19 diagnosis between September 1, 2021, and December 1, 2022, and pre-existing major depressive disorder, the leading indication for SSRI use, we evaluated the relationship between SSRI use at the time of COVID-19 infection and subsequent 12-month risk of Long COVID (defined by ICD-10 code U09.9). We defined SSRI use as a prescription for SSRI medication beginning at least 30 days before COVID-19 infection and not ending before COVID-19 infection. To minimize bias, we estimated the causal associations of interest using a nonparametric approach, targeted maximum likelihood estimation, to aggressively adjust for high-dimensional covariates. Results: We analyzed a sample (n = 506,903) of patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder before COVID-19 diagnosis, where 124,928 (25%) were using an SSRI. We found that SSRI users had a significantly lower risk of Long COVID compared to nonusers (adjusted causal relative risk 0.90, 95% CI (0.86, 0.94)). Conclusion: These findings suggest that SSRI use during COVID-19 infection may be protective against Long COVID, supporting the hypothesis that serotonin may be a key mechanistic biomarker of Long COVID.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19
7.
psyarxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PSYARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-10.31234.osf.io.472cd

ABSTRACT

Emotion regulation (ER) is central to mental health and well-being. Yet, we have limited understanding of how individuals regulate their emotions during context that is highly uncertain and uncontrollable - a global pandemic. Moreover, despite people's use of a variety of ER strategies, conventional norm of ER studies only focused on the impact of one strategy without simultaneously capturing multiple ER strategies to understand individuals’ ER profiles. Objectives: Using a data-driven person-centered approach, we first identified individuals’ ER profiles. Second, we examined how ER profiles may be associated with a variety of mental health outcomes during a global pandemic. Method: We recruited 1,302 participants during the initial outbreak and lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Results: Based on eight ER strategies (i.e., positive reframing, problem solving, seeking support, acceptance, denial, using substances, venting, and rumination), we identified five distinct latent ER profiles: Low Regulator, Adaptive Regulator, Denier, Substance User, and Maladaptive Regulator. The Maladaptive Regulator exhibited higher levels of anxiety, depression, and loneliness than those from other ER profiles, whereas individuals in the Adaptive Regulator profile reported the highest levels of psychological well-being. Conclusion: ER profiles may be an intervention target for reducing psychological burdens in uncertain and stressful circumstances, such as a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders
8.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170667821.19007240.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the effective fight against SARS Cov-2 cases, which have started to be seen in our country since March 2020, the filiation studies conducted for resource detection and contact isolation facilitated the control of the epidemic and increased the success in epidemic control in the early period. After the definitive case detection, contact and close contact persons are detected by the filiation teams, and when necessary, these persons are tested and asymptomatic individuals are followed up by family physicians for 14 days. Method: For the evaluation, the Employee Satisfaction Scale and the Health Anxiety Scale (short version) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), organized by the Ministry of Health, were used. Study data were collected using face-to-face interview technique. Results: Employee satisfaction in the pandemic was found to be moderate, and the risk of anxiety in women was higher than in men (p <0.05). There was no relatıon depression risk for both sexes (p> 0.05). Conclusions: Employee satisfaction in the pandemic was found to be moderate, and the risk of anxiety was higher in women than in men. No significant increase in depression risk has been reported in either sex. Multi-center studies with large participants are needed on this subject.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Anxiety Disorders
9.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170667796.68599970.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: - To determine the prevalence of peripartum depression (PPD) and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic, any differences between COVID-infected and non-infected mothers and its risk factors. Study design- Cross-sectional study. Setting- Tertiary care maternity hospital Population- Pregnant and postpartum women Methods- Questionnaire based direct interview. EPDS (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale) score, COVID-19 anxiety scale (CAS) was used. Outcome measures- Possible PPD (EPDS13), Probable PPD (EPDS14), Peripartum anxiety (EPDS anxiety sub score4), COVID-19 related anxiety and risk factors of PPD. Results- Out of 842 eligible subjects, 142 were confirmed COVID-19 positive and 670 patients were without the infection. The mean age was 25±3.9 years and 571 (67.8%) subjects were postpartum. Among the subjects, 383 (45.5%) had possible depression, 317 (37.6%) had probable depression. Peripartum anxiety was observed among 763(90.6%) subjects and the median CAS score was 15(8-28). While there was no significant difference in the prevalence of PPD, peripartum anxiety was higher among COVID non-infected subjects (91.6% vs 86.6%, p=0.04). The CAS score was higher among COVID-19 infected compared to the non-infected [17(10-28) vs 15(8-25), p=0.00]. In multivariate analysis, history of psychiatric illness [OR- 4.2(95% CI- 1.82-9.93), p=0.001], domestic violence [OR-2.4(95% CI-1.16-5.10), p=0.019] and past obstetric complications [OR-1.5(95%CI-1.01-2.27), p=0.042] were significant risk factors for PPD. Conclusion- High prevalence of PPD was observed during COVID-19 pandemic without any significant difference between COVID-19 infected and non-infected subjects. COVID-19 infected patients had higher COVID related anxiety. Funding- None taken Keywords- peripartum depression; EPDS; COVID-19 anxiety scale.


Subject(s)
Depression, Postpartum , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Infections
10.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170667995.53747934.v1

ABSTRACT

Aims: : During the COVID-19 outbreak, international students in the U.S. were informed that they would be deported to their home countries if enrolled in fully online programs. Although this proclamation was soon altered to permit students to continue learning online without fear of being deported, it spread a wave of stress and anxiety among international students all over the U.S. We aim to capture the emotional challenges and hardships faced by international students due to the changes in U.S. visa regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey using previously validated questionnaire tools (PHQ-9 and GAD-7), and we received 165 complete responses from international students at University of Florida (UF). The collected data was quantitatively analyzed through ANOVA, Independent Sample t-Test, and Binary Logistic Regression. Results: Our findings provided insights into one main research question: “How did the changes in student visa regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak affect the anxiety and depression levels among international students at UF?” A total of 18.8% (n= 31) of our study sample had a depression score of (15 and above) on the PHQ-9 scale, which is interpreted as moderately severe to severe depressive status. A similar proportion (20.6%; n= 34) scored (15 and above) on the GAD-7 scale, and was symptomatically diagnosed as having severe anxiety. There was also a statistically significant difference in the means depression and anxiety scores based on gender, where males showed lower scores compared to any other demographic group. Conclusion: Our findings show that international students were affected psychologically due to changes in U.S. visa regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak. The findings of this study addressed the importance of taking serious measures when emotionally impactful political issues arise in order to prevent the development of mental illnesses among international students at institutions of higher education.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders
11.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170669054.45932655.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the intensity of climacteric symptoms and possible associations with sociodemographic variables, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in women between 40 and 65 years old who sought attendance in a primary health care setting in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: An observational cross-sectional study. Setting: a municipal health care facility (MHF) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sample: 138 women (age = 51.4 ± 7.1 years old) seeking health services from June to August 2020. Methods: A cross-sectional approach was developed using self-reported questionnaires. Main outcome measures: Sociodemographic and economic aspects, the Blatt and Kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI), the WHOQOL-BREF for quality of life, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Ninety-six percent of the women had moderate to accentuated climacteric symptoms. Women with severe menopausal symptoms tended to have higher HADS scores (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between BKMI scores and education levels (p = 0.04). All illiterate women had moderate or severe climacteric symptoms. Proportionately, women who have completed high school had less marked intensity than those with moderate schooling. Moreover, most women with severe or moderate climacteric intensity levels presented “highly likely” incidence of anxiety. Conclusions: This is the first report to highlight climacteric and menopausal effects on women’s health status during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is an aggravating factor for the emergence of emotional changes resulting from sanitation, social isolation, and socioeconomic uncertainties.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders
12.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3904203.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant global impact, particularly on the older adult population. To address concerns regarding the emergence and persistence of cognitive impairment and its potential risk factors, this study aimed to investigate cognitive function and its relationship with inflammation in older COVID-19 survivors during a three-month follow-up. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 177 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 aged >60 years were examined between July 2021 and February 2022.Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were conducted at discharge and at one month and three months post-discharge. All the statistical analyses were conducted using a Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 (P<0.05). Cognitive status was analyzed with the Repeated Measures Test, and relationships between inflammatory indices and cognitive function were explored via the Pearson correlation test and Mann‒Whitney U test. The normality of the data was examined using the Kolmogorov‒Smirnov test. Results:A cognitive assessment of patients indicated lower scores onthe informant subscales of the General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) during the time of discharge, as well as at the 1-and 3-month follow-up intervals. Negative correlations were found between cognitive function and depression/anxiety. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were linked to lower cognitive scores, while the Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were not significantly correlated. Over time, cognitive function and anxiety improved, while depression and daily activity challenges persisted. Conclusions: This study highlights the lingering impact of inflammation on cognition among older COVID-19 survivors. Moreover, these findings underscore the urgent need for focused interventions and rehabilitation efforts to foster sustained cognitive recovery in this population.


Subject(s)
Inflammation , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Cognition Disorders
13.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3900430.v1

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the loss of thousands of lives, leading to a global phenomenon where numerous families are undergoing a grieving process. Simultaneously, health restrictions to prevent the disease´s transmission have prevented individuals from bidding farewell to their loved ones and conducting cultural farewell rituals. Through a cross-sectional study, we investigated, via social media surveys, the Mexican population that experienced the death of a close family member from November 2020, regardless of the cause. The aim was to determine whether those who did not have the opportunity to say goodbye to their loved one prior to their death and/or those who could not perform farewell rituals according to their culture were at a different risk of developing depressive disorders and/or complicated grief compared to those who did have the opportunity to bid farewell and practice their rituals. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, we found no statistically significant difference in the likelihood of developing major depressive disorders or complicated grief based on whether individuals said their goodbyes or not. However, we did identify risk and protective factors by analyzing other variables such as the initiation or increase in substance consumption following the loss, religious attachment, and age.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19
14.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.25.24301772

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated mental health challenges, particularly depression among college students. Detecting at-risk students early is crucial but remains challenging, particularly in developing countries. Utilizing data-driven predictive models presents a viable solution to address this pressing need. AIMS: 1) To develop and compare machine learning (ML) models for predicting depression in Argentinean students during the pandemic. 2) To assess the performance of classification and regression models using appropriate metrics. 3) To identify key features driving depression prediction. METHODS: A longitudinal dataset (N = 1492 college students) captured T1 and T2 measurements during the Argentinean COVID-19 quarantine. ML models, including linear logistic regression classifiers/ridge regression (LogReg/RR), random forest classifiers/regressors, and support vector machines/regressors (SVM/SVR), are employed. Assessed features encompass depression and anxiety scores (at T1), mental disorder/suicidal behavior history, quarantine sub-period information, sex, and age. For classification, models' performance on test data is evaluated using Area Under the Precision-Recall Curve (AUPRC), Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve, Balanced Accuracy, F1 score, and Brier loss. For regression, R-squared (R2), Mean Absolute Error, and Mean Squared Error are assessed. Univariate analyses are conducted to assess the predictive strength of each individual feature with respect to the target variable. The performance of multi- vs univariate models is compared using the mean AUPRC score for classifiers and R2 score for regressors. RESULTS: The highest performance is achieved by SVM and LogReg (e.g., AUPRC: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.81) and SVR and RR models (e.g., R2 for SVR and RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.64 and 0.45, 0.63, respectively). Univariate models, particularly LogReg and SVM using depression (AUPRC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.79) or anxiety scores (AUPRC: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.78) and RR using depression scores (R2: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.57) exhibit performance levels close to those of the multivariate models, which include all features. DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the relevance of pre-existing depression and anxiety conditions in predicting depression during quarantine, underscoring their comorbidity. ML models, particularly SVM/SVR and LogReg/RR, demonstrate potential in timely detection of at-risk students, enabling preventive measures for improved mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Learning Disabilities , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders
15.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3893536.v1

ABSTRACT

Background According to the most comprehensive mental health report in the past two decades by the World Health Organization, nearly one billion people experienced mental health issues prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Following its outbreak in 2021, the rates of depression and anxiety increased by 25%, which highlights its impact on mental health at the global scale. This study aims to elucidate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s mental health and to raise awareness among various stakeholders, including educators and governments. Methods To analyze and evaluate the indicators of mental health in children, we used a structured questionnaire that was previously designed with good reliability and validity. We focused on assessing six major categories related to children’s mental health in 2021 and 2022. We collected 1,000 valid responses from parents and their children for in-depth analysis (men: 538; women: 462). Results The average total indices of children’s mental health were 66.50 and 63.83 in 2021 and 2022, respectively. The results of the six indices for both years were as follows: “Personal Life”: 68 and 66; “Family Life”: 70 and 70; “Peer Relationship”: 77 and 73; “School Life”: 68 and 68; “Online Social Interaction”: 60 and 55; and “Epidemic Life”: 56 and 51, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the top three activities of children aside from attending online classes were watching TV (66.0%), browsing the Internet (62.0%), and playing video games (50.7%). Conclusions Children reported challenges with online exposure and academic pressure. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected their mental health, which impacted learning, socializing, and family dynamics. Specifically, family dynamics and environment emerged as significant influencing factors on the overall well-being of the children during these times. Consequently, collaborative effort among schools, communities, and governments is essential for improving or maintaining the mental health of children. Trial registration: C110199


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders
16.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3886676.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional face-to-face teaching was disrupted, leading to a transition to online activities. Social restrictions and isolation during this period may have contributed to various physical and emotional disorders, such as anxiety, depression, reduced perception of happiness, and a decline in overall quality of life. The objective of our study was to assess the perceptions of medical students regarding their emotions, anxiety and depression symptoms, and daily experiences during the pandemic.Methods We conducted a prospective study with both quantitative and qualitative components involving students in their 1st to 4th year of medicine at a private university in São Paulo, Brazil in 2020 and 2021. Participants completed online questionnaires, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), and Medical Student Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (VERAS-Q). Additionally, they engaged in online focus group discussions.Results A total of 313 students completed the questionnaires, and 200 participated in the focus group. Women exhibited higher scores for anxiety (p = 0.002) and depression (p = 0.007), while men demonstrated better quality of life (p = 0.042). The students aged 18 to 24 years (p = 0.048) presented better quality of life and lower trait anxiety (p = 0.001). Both trait and state anxiety were strongly associated with depression (p < 0.01) and inversely related to quality of life, showing a moderate association with happiness (p < 0.01). Depression was strongly linked to both trait and state anxiety (p < 0.01) and moderately negatively correlated with happiness and quality of life (p < 0.01). The focus groups revealed recurring negative feelings among students, such as anxiety, depression, tiredness, discouragement, loneliness, difficulty managing time, poor sleep quality, exacerbation of harmful habits, and challenges in relationships, resulting in reduced mental and physical health during the pandemic. Coping strategies were discussed, including the adoption of new healthy habits, religious practices, and reconnection with family.Conclusion Depression and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent among females, while quality of life improved for younger and male students. The qualitative analysis enhanced our understanding of the determinants and consequences of students' recurring negative feelings, and also showed positive aspects like greater proximity to family and religiosity.


Subject(s)
Kashin-Beck Disease , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders , Fatigue , Angelman Syndrome
17.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3878458.v1

ABSTRACT

People differ in their responses to experiences with some showing a heightened Environmental Sensitivity (ES) for better and for worse. Highly sensitive people tend to get easily overwhelmed in adverse conditions but also to flourish in enriched environments. Yet, no studies have investigated whether people with a heightened ES may experience a positive outcome as well, in terms of Post-traumatic Growth (PTG), when a traumatic event occurs. This study provided a first empirical evidence regarding the relationship between ES and PTG on a general population of 2387 adults (age range: 18-88yy) surveyed online during the first Covid-19 lockdown. Correlations showed that ES was positively associated with PTG, though with a small effect size. Interaction effects from regression analyses provided evidence that the ES-PTG association was stronger when the individuals experienced anxiety to some extent, and not too much depression. To conclude, findings suggested highly sensitive people as not only more susceptible to adversities, but also more open to experience a growth when faced with challenging events. Identifying potential paths of growth in individuals who are more prone to negative feelings can have important implications for clinical practice as well as for theory by broadening our understanding of the concept of environmental sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders , Wounds and Injuries , Growth Disorders
18.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.14.23300571

ABSTRACT

Recent time-dependent analyses of stress-related disorders have identified heterogeneity of trajectories and their modifying factors. While psychiatric patients are vulnerable to stress events, it is unclear how psychiatric conditions in the general population modulate subsequent stress responses. Using our longitudinal online survey from before the COVID-19 pandemic to post-pandemic follow-ups (n = 3815 Japanese adults), here we identified four trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) a latent growth mixture model; resilient, chronic, mild chronic, and early response. The depression/anxiety were identified as specific risk factors for the early-response trajectory. In contrast, general psychiatric burden and social withdrawal were identified as common risk/protective factors. Further, we estimated "baseline" PTSS to determine the predictability of the PTSS prognosis from pre-pandemic states. The chronic group showed significantly higher baseline PTSS scores than the mild-chronic and early-response groups, both of which were significantly higher than the resilient group. We concluded that prior psychiatric conditions significantly affect the PTSS trajectory. These results suggest that prior psychiatric conditions may be considered for the prevention and treatment of maladaptive stress responses.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Fractures, Stress
19.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3865066.v1

ABSTRACT

Recent time-dependent analyses of stress-related disorders have identified heterogeneity of trajectories and their modifying factors. While psychiatric patients are vulnerable to stress events, it is unclear how psychiatric conditions in the general population modulate subsequent stress responses. Using our longitudinal online survey from before the COVID-19 pandemic to post-pandemic follow-ups (n = 3815 Japanese adults), here we identified four trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) a latent growth mixture model; resilient, chronic, mild chronic, and early response. The depression/anxiety were identified as specific risk factors for the early-response trajectory. In contrast, general psychiatric burden and social withdrawal were identified as common risk/protective factors. Further, we estimated “baseline” PTSS to determine the predictability of the PTSS prognosis from pre-pandemic states. The chronic group showed significantly higher baseline PTSS scores than the mild-chronic and early-response groups, both of which were significantly higher than the resilient group. We concluded that prior psychiatric conditions significantly affect the PTSS trajectory. These results suggest that prior psychiatric conditions may be considered for the prevention and treatment of maladaptive stress responses.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Fractures, Stress
20.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3867798.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine two waves of longitudinal survey data, at 1- and 2-years into the COVID-19 pandemic, to determine sociodemographic and economic risk factors for prolonged mental health distress. Methods: A longitudinal study of adults (N=1,412) began in April of 2020 in a large health system in Texas. Follow-up surveys were sent at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months.  The survey data included demographics, self-report mental health history, and symptoms of depression (PHQ-8). Generalized linear regression models were utilized to determine factors associated with a change in PHQ-8 at 1-year and 2-years from baseline. Results: Significant increases in PHQ-8 scores at both 1- and 2-year follow-up were associated with lower income, lower education, unemployment, history of depression, and being a healthcare worker or essential worker. Conclusions: Lower income individuals, those unemployed at baseline, essential workers, healthcare providers, and people with a history of depression reported worsening depression symptoms from their baseline scores. Policy implications: Establishing mechanisms and pathways of causality in social determinants of health research is critical to inform public health policy and population health interventions.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19
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