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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841188

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
2.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221096278, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased psychological distress among common people and has caused health care providers, such as nurses, to experience tremendous stress. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study assessed the psychological impacts on nurses in a community hospital in Taiwan, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress (PTS), and pessimism. According to transactional theory, coping strategies and personal factors have psychological impacts. We hypothesized that behavioral responses to COVID-19 (problem-focused coping) are more effective in reducing psychological impacts than emotional responses to COVID-19 (emotion-focused coping). Independent variables were the use of behavioral and emotional coping strategies for COVID-19 and 3 personal factors, namely sleep disturbance, physical component summary (PCS-12), and mental component summary (MCS-12) of the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) obtained from the Medical Outcomes Study. Dependent variables comprised 3 psychological impacts, namely MDD, PTS, and pessimism. RESULTS: We determined that behavioral coping strategies had significant negative effects on PTS and pessimism; however, emotional coping strategies had significantly positive effects on PTS and pessimism. Sleep disturbance was significantly associated with increased MDD and pessimism. PCS-12 had a significant negative effect on PTS, whereas MCS-12 was not significantly associated with any of the 3 psychological impacts. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses who adopted protective behavior against COVID-19, such as washing hands, wearing masks, avoiding touching eyes, and mouth, and avoiding personal contact, were associated with less posttraumatic stress and pessimism. Healthcare providers should consider strategies for improving preventive behaviors to help ease their worries and fears concerning COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051887, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832438

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Women Aware with Their Children study was created because prospective data are required to accurately guide prevention programmes for intimate partner violence (IPV) and to improve the mental health and resettlement trajectories of women from refugee backgrounds in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1335 women (685 consecutively enrolled from refugee backgrounds and 650 randomly selected Australian-born) recruited during pregnancy from three public antenatal clinics in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. The mean age was 29.7 years among women from refugee backgrounds and 29.0 years among women born in the host nation. Main measures include IPV, mood, panic, post-traumatic stress disorder, disability and living difficulties. FINDINGS TO DATE: Prevalence of IPV at all three time points is significantly higher for refugee-background women. The trend data showed that reported IPV rates among Australian-born women increased from 25.8% at time 1 to 30.1% at time 3, while for refugee-background women this rate declined from 44.4% at time 1 to 42.6% at time 3. Prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) at all three time points is higher for refugee-background women. MDD among Australian-born women significantly declined from 14.5% at time 1 to 9.9% at time 3, while for refugee-background women it fluctuated from 25.1% at time 1 to 17.3% at time 2 and to 19.1% at time 3. FUTURE PLANS: We are currently examining trajectories of IPV and mental disorder across four time points. Time 4 occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, enabling a unique opportunity to examine the impacts of the pandemic over time. Time 5 started in August 2021 and time 6 will begin approximately 12 months later. The children at time 5 are in the early school years, providing the capacity to examine behaviour, development and well-being of the index child.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Intimate Partner Violence , Refugees , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Refugees/psychology
4.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e28, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829911

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Longitudinal data on the mental health impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic in healthcare workers is limited. We estimated prevalence, incidence and persistence of probable mental disorders in a cohort of Spanish healthcare workers (Covid-19 waves 1 and 2) -and identified associated risk factors. METHODS: 8996 healthcare workers evaluated on 5 May-7 September 2020 (baseline) were invited to a second web-based survey (October-December 2020). Major depressive disorder (PHQ-8 ≥ 10), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7 ≥ 10), panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-5 ≥ 7), and alcohol use disorder (CAGE-AID ≥ 2) were assessed. Distal (pre-pandemic) and proximal (pandemic) risk factors were included. We estimated the incidence of probable mental disorders (among those without disorders at baseline) and persistence (among those with disorders at baseline). Logistic regression of individual-level [odds ratios (OR)] and population-level (population attributable risk proportions) associations were estimated, adjusting by all distal risk factors, health care centre and time of baseline interview. RESULTS: 4809 healthcare workers participated at four months follow-up (cooperation rate = 65.7%; mean = 120 days s.d. = 22 days from baseline assessment). Follow-up prevalence of any disorder was 41.5%, (v. 45.4% at baseline, p < 0.001); incidence, 19.7% (s.e. = 1.6) and persistence, 67.7% (s.e. = 2.3). Proximal factors showing significant bivariate-adjusted associations with incidence included: work-related factors [prioritising Covid-19 patients (OR = 1.62)], stress factors [personal health-related stress (OR = 1.61)], interpersonal stress (OR = 1.53) and financial factors [significant income loss (OR = 1.37)]. Risk factors associated with persistence were largely similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the prevalence of probable mental disorders among Spanish healthcare workers during the second wave of the Covid-19 pandemic was similarly high to that after the first wave. This was in good part due to the persistence of mental disorders detected at the baseline, but with a relevant incidence of about 1 in 5 of HCWs without mental disorders during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic. Health-related factors, work-related factors and interpersonal stress are important risks of persistence of mental disorders and of incidence of mental disorders. Adequately addressing these factors might have prevented a considerable amount of mental health impact of the pandemic among this vulnerable population. Addressing health-related stress, work-related factors and interpersonal stress might reduce the prevalence of these disorders substantially. Study registration number: NCT04556565.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792696

ABSTRACT

There is growing recognition in research and policy of a mental health crisis among Canada's paramedics; however, despite this, epidemiological surveillance of the problem is in its infancy. Just weeks before the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada to assess for symptom clusters consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and to identify potential risk factors for each. In total, we received 589 completed surveys (97% completion rate) and found that 11% screened positive for PTSD, 15% screened positive for major depressive disorder, and 15% screened positive for generalized anxiety disorder, with one in four active-duty paramedics screening positive for any of the three as recently as February 2020. In adjusted analyses, the risk of a positive screen varied as a function of employment classification, gender, self-reported resilience, and previous experience as a member of the service's peer support team. Our findings support the position that paramedics screen positive for mental disorders at high rates-a problem likely to have worsened since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We echo the calls of researchers and policymakers for urgent action to support paramedic mental health in Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Allied Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(14): e108, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on public mental health has been increasing. Additionally, the underlying psychological stressors remain unexplored, and few studies have been conducted nationally on the social distancing measures. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the psychological impacts of the implementation of social distancing measures by analyzing the Internet search trends of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms. METHODS: Using Naver® Trends' relative search volumes (RSVs), we analyzed the average search volumes and trend changes of 16 terms, adopted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 criteria for diagnosing MDD. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed using the data from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2020. Furthermore, changes in RSVs, according to the intensity of the social distancing measures implemented from January 1 to December 31, 2020, were determined using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. RESULTS: Of the 16 terms, the search trends of 'feeling guilty' (P < 0.001) and 'wanting to die' (P = 0.002) showed a significant increase as of February 29, 2020, when the social distancing measures were officially implemented. Additionally, the average search volumes for 'hopelessness' (P = 0.003), 'sexual desire' (P < 0.001), 'insomnia' (P = 0.002), 'hypersomnia' (P < 0.001), 'restlessness' (P < 0.001), and 'feeling lethargic' (P < 0.001) increased significantly. Moreover, gender analysis showed that the average search volume of 'depressed mood' (P = 0.033) and the trend of 'impaired concentration' (P < 0.001) increased in males only. However, the average search volume of 'feeling lethargic' (P = 0.001) and the trend of 'feeling guilty' (P = 0.001) increased in females only. The average search volumes for 'depressed mood' (P < 0.001), 'impaired concentration' (P = 0.038), and 'indecisiveness' (P < 0.001) were significantly higher during the enforcement of level 2 or higher social distancing measures. CONCLUSION: Our results reported the negative effect of COVID-19 preventive measures on public mental health in South Korea, especially for MDD symptoms. Moreover, the findings suggested the utility of Naver Trends as a feasible big data source to assess future mental health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , Public Health
8.
J Affect Disord ; 307: 142-148, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems including suicide in many subpopulations, but its influence on stable patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been studied fleetingly. This study examined the one-year prevalence of suicidality including suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plans (SP), and suicide attempts (SA) as well as their correlates in clinically stable MDD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between October 1, 2020, and October 15, 2021, in six tertiary psychiatric hospitals. Socio-demographic information, clinical data and one-year prevalence of suicidality were recorded. RESULTS: Altogether, 1718 participants who met the eligibility criteria were included. The overall one-year prevalence of suicidality during the COVID-19 pandemic was 68.04% (95% confidence intervals (CI) =65.84-70.25%), with one-year SI prevalence of 66.4% (95%CI = 64.18-68.65%), SP prevalence of 36.26% (95%CI = 33.99-38.54%), and SA prevalence of 39.35% (95%CI = 37.04-41.66%). Binary logistic regression analyses revealed male gender, married marital status, college education level and above and age were negatively associated with risk of suicidality. Urban residence, unemployed work status, experiences of cyberbullying, a history of suicide among family members or friends, and more severe fatigue, physical pain, and residual depressive symptoms were positively associated with risk of suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Suicidality is common among clinically stable MDD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Regular suicide screening and preventive measures should be provided to clinically stable MDD patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Suicide , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation
9.
Ups J Med Sci ; 1262021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy at different cut-off values for the Swedish versions of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) compared with a structured clinical psychiatric interview in older adults. METHODS: Community-dwelling participants (N = 113) aged 65 years or older completed the Swedish versions of the GDS-15 and PHQ-9 and were then interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to establish the presence or absence of current major depressive episodes (MDEs). Areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each scale, as well as the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's index for different cut-off values. RESULTS: Seventeen participants met the criteria for MDEs. The AUC was 0.97 for the GDS-15 and 0.95 for the PHQ-9. A cut-off of ≥6 on the GDS-15 yielded a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 88%, and a Youden's index of 0.82. A cut-off of ≥5 on the PHQ-9 yielded a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 81%, and a Youden's index of 0.81. The proposed cut-off of ≥10 on the PHQ-9 produced excellent specificity of 95% but a lower sensitivity of 71%. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the Swedish versions of the GDS-15 and PHQ-9 have comparable accuracy as screening instruments for older adults with MDEs. However, the proposed cut-off of 10 on the PHQ-9 might be too high when applied to older individuals in Sweden, and further investigations in larger samples in different healthcare settings are warranted.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Patient Health Questionnaire , Aged , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sweden
10.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(1): 50-53, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Airline cabin crew experience high levels of fatigue and sleepiness. Whether these are solely related to their work schedules/jetlag or are in part related to individual factors is unknown. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted the aviation industry and many cabin crew have been grounded. This provides a unique opportunity to assess the causes of fatigue and sleepiness in this population.METHODS: An online anonymous survey was distributed in April-June 2020 to cabin crew who were 1) flying, 2) grounded but doing alternative work, and 3) grounded, not working, or unemployed. The survey measured fatigue, sleepiness, and mental health. It also screened their risk for insomnia, depression, and shift work disorder and assessed drug and caffeine use.RESULTS: Collected were 409 valid responses: 45 currently flying; 35 grounded but doing alternate work; and 329 not working. On average, all three groups experienced normal levels of fatigue and sleepiness. The risk for major depressive disorder was 27.4%, with 59.5% of individuals reporting abnormal levels of anxiety. Caffeine intake and the use of drugs and alcohol to facilitate sleep were common, although not different between those currently flying vs. grounded.CONCLUSIONS: With reduced workloads or not flying, cabin crew reported lowered fatigue and sleepiness compared to prepandemic findings, along with reduced risk for major depressive disorder. However, a high occurrence of negative emotional states were reported, potentially related to the uncertainty surrounding the pandemic. This study suggests fatigue and sleepiness is primarily related to airline operational rather than personal variables.Wen CC-Y, Nicholas CL, Howard ME, Trinder J, Jordan AS. Understanding sleepiness and fatigue in cabin crew using COVID-19 to dissociate causative factors. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(1):50-53.


Subject(s)
Aerospace Medicine , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleepiness
11.
Trials ; 23(1): 250, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major depression is the second leading cause of years lost to disability worldwide and is a leading contributor to suicide. However, first-line antidepressants are only fully effective for 33%, and only 40% of those offered psychological treatment attend for two sessions or more. Views gained from patients and primary care professionals are that greater treatment uptake might be achieved if people with depression could be offered alternative and more accessible treatment options. Although there is evidence that the Alpha-Stim Anxiety Insomnia and Depression (AID) device is safe and effective for anxiety and depression symptoms in people with anxiety disorders, there is much less evidence of efficacy in major depression without anxiety. This study investigates the effectiveness of the Alpha-Stim AID device, a cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) treatment that people can safely use independently at home. The device provides CES which has been shown to increase alpha oscillatory brain activity, associated with relaxation. METHODS: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of Alpha-Stim AID in treatment-seeking patients (aged 16 years upwards) with moderate to moderately severe depressive symptoms in primary care. The study is a multi-centre parallel-group, double-blind, non-commercial, randomised controlled superiority trial. The primary objective of the study is to examine the clinical efficacy of active daily use of 8 weeks of Alpha-Stim AID versus sham Alpha-Stim AID on depression symptoms at 16 weeks (8 weeks after the end of treatment) in people with moderate severity depression. The primary outcome is the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at 16 weeks. All trial and treatment procedures are carried out remotely using videoconferencing, telephone and postal delivery considering the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. DISCUSSION: This study is investigating whether participants using the Alpha-Stim AID device display a reduction in depressive symptoms that can be maintained over 8 weeks post-treatment. The findings will help to determine whether Alpha-Stim AID should be recommended, including being made available in the NHS for patients with depressive symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRTCN ISRCTN11853110 . Registered on 14 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(3): e34148, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2017, an estimated 17.3 million adults in the United States experienced at least one major depressive episode, with 35% of them not receiving any treatment. Underdiagnosis of depression has been attributed to many reasons, including stigma surrounding mental health, limited access to medical care, and barriers due to cost. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if low-burden personal health solutions, leveraging person-generated health data (PGHD), could represent a possible way to increase engagement and improve outcomes. METHODS: Here, we present the development of PSYCHE-D (Prediction of Severity Change-Depression), a predictive model developed using PGHD from more than 4000 individuals, which forecasts the long-term increase in depression severity. PSYCHE-D uses a 2-phase approach. The first phase supplements self-reports with intermediate generated labels, and the second phase predicts changing status over a 3-month period, up to 2 months in advance. The 2 phases are implemented as a single pipeline in order to eliminate data leakage and ensure results are generalizable. RESULTS: PSYCHE-D is composed of 2 Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) algorithm-based classifiers that use a range of PGHD input features, including objective activity and sleep, self-reported changes in lifestyle and medication, and generated intermediate observations of depression status. The approach generalizes to previously unseen participants to detect an increase in depression severity over a 3-month interval, with a sensitivity of 55.4% and a specificity of 65.3%, nearly tripling sensitivity while maintaining specificity when compared with a random model. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that low-burden PGHD can be the basis of accurate and timely warnings that an individual's mental health may be deteriorating. We hope this work will serve as a basis for improved engagement and treatment of individuals experiencing depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Humans , Mental Health , Self Report
14.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(1): 17-21, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and the level of perceived social support among occupational therapists during the pandemic, and to identify any associations between depression and perceived social support. METHODS: Using convenience and snowball sampling, occupational therapists aged ≥18 years who were working in Hong Kong and able to read and understand Chinese were invited to participate in a survey between January 2021 and April 2021 (during the fourth wave of COVID-19 pandemic). Data collected included age, sex, education level, employment status, marital status, living status, level of perceived social support (measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support [MSPSS-C]) and level of depression (measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]). RESULTS: 87 occupational therapists completed the survey. The mean MSPSS-C score was 67.87; 88.5% of participants had a high level of perceived social support. The mean PHQ-9 score was 4.67; 59.8% of participants had no or minimal depression and 11.5% of participants had clinical depression. The MSPSS-C score negatively correlated with the PHQ-9 score (rs = -0.401, p < 0.001). In regression analysis, the MSPSS-C score was associated with the PHQ-9 score (F(1, 85) = 44.846, r = 0.588, p < 0.001). About 34.5% of the variance of the PHQ-9 score was accounted for by the MSPSS-C score. CONCLUSION: Higher level of perceived social support is associated with lower level of depression. Social support might serve as a protective factor for depression among occupational therapists in Hong Kong during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Therapists , Pandemics , Social Support
15.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(1): 5-10, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the rates of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after hospital discharge among COVID-19 survivors and to determine the associated risk factors. METHODS: Adult COVID-19 survivors discharged from hospitals between March 2020 and March 2021 were asked to complete a questionnaire at 4 weeks after discharge. The Chinese version of the 22-item Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) was used to measure symptoms of PTSD. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of major depressive disorder. The 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) was used to measure symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder. The rates of anxiety, depression, and PTSD among discharged patients were determined, as were associations between psychosocial factors and outcome measures and predictors for moderate-tosevere symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. RESULTS: 96 men and 103 women aged 18 to 81 years returned the completed questionnaire. 12.1% to 20.1% of them reported symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, or depression. Higher symptom severity was associated with higher perceived life threat, lower emotional support, lower disease severity upon admission, and longer hospital stay. Women had more PTSD symptoms than men, particularly when knowing someone under quarantine. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 survivors with higher perceived life threat, lower emotional support, lower disease severity upon admission, and longer hospital stay were associated with higher severity of symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Timely intervention should provide to at-risk survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors , Young Adult
16.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 246-248, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764698

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact and coping strategies experienced by depressed inpatients during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. We recruited 75 depressed inpatients. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of PTSD-like symptoms measured with Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Predicting variables were age, sex, the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced subscales scores, the Anxiety Status Inventory total score, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 total score. The prevalence of PTSD-like stress symptoms was 41.33%. Age, social and avoidance coping strategies, and anxiety levels were significant predictors of PTSD-like symptoms. Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic in depressed inpatients is associated with PTSD-like stress symptoms, anxiety, and maladaptive coping.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Emergency Medical Services , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
17.
Biol Sex Differ ; 13(1): 12, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759778

ABSTRACT

Women and men are suggested to have differences in vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), schizophrenia, eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease. Genetic factors and sex hormones are apparently the main mediators of these differences. Recent evidence uncovers that reciprocal interactions between sex-related features (e.g., sex hormones and sex differences in the brain) and gut microbiota could play a role in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders via influencing the gut-brain axis. It is increasingly evident that sex-microbiota-brain interactions take part in the occurrence of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accordingly, integrating the existing evidence might help to enlighten the fundamental roles of these interactions in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, an increased understanding of the biological sex differences on the microbiota-brain may lead to advances in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and increase the potential for precision medicine. This review discusses the effects of sex differences on the brain and gut microbiota and the putative underlying mechanisms of action. Additionally, we discuss the consequences of interactions between sex differences and gut microbiota on the emergence of particular neuropsychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e223245, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750276

ABSTRACT

Importance: Both major depression and firearm ownership are associated with an increased risk for death by suicide in the United States, but the extent of overlap among these major risk factors is not well characterized. Objective: To assess the prevalence of current and planned firearm ownership among individuals with depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional survey study using data pooled from 2 waves of a 50-state nonprobability internet survey conducted between May and July 7, 2021. Internet survey respondents were 18 years of age or older and were sampled from all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported firearm ownership; depressive symptoms as measured by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Results: Of 24 770 survey respondents (64.6% women and 35.4% men; 5.0% Asian, 10.8% Black, 7.5% Hispanic, and 74.0% White; mean [SD] age 45.8 [17.5]), 6929 (28.0%) reported moderate or greater depressive symptoms; this group had mean (SD) age of 38.18 (15.19) years, 4587 were female (66.2%), and 406 were Asian (5.9%), 725 were Black (10.5%), 652 were Hispanic (6.8%), and 4902 were White (70.7%). Of those with depression, 31.3% reported firearm ownership (n = 2167), of whom 35.9% (n = 777) reported purchasing a firearm within the past year. In regression models, the presence of moderate or greater depressive symptoms was not significantly associated with firearm ownership (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.17) but was associated with greater likelihood of a first-time firearm purchase during the COVID-19 pandemic (adjusted OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02) and greater likelihood of considering a future firearm purchase (adjusted OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.23-1.90). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, current and planned firearm ownership was common among individuals with major depressive symptoms, suggesting a public health opportunity to address this conjunction of suicide risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ownership , Pandemics , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Affect Disord ; 307: 62-68, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic may impact the prevalence and incidence of depression in college students. However, there is no longitudinal study focusing on major depressive disorder (MDD) before and during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out among 8079 Chinese college freshmen. The baseline survey was conducted in 2018 (T0) and annual follow-ups were in 2019 (T1, before COVID-19) and in 2020 (T2, during COVID-19). CIDI-3.0 was used to diagnose MDD. Random effects logistic models of panel data analysis were used for the risk of MDD incidence. STATA 15.1 was used for all analysis. RESULTS: The weighted 12-month prevalence of MDD at T2 (2.10%) was significantly lower than that at T1 (2.67%) (p < 0.001). However, among students who reported exposure to the COVID-19 events, the annual prevalence of MDD at T2 was higher than that at T1 (4.21% vs. 2.79%, p < 0.001). The incidence from T0 to T1, incidence from T1 to T2, and the 2-year incidence was 2.23%, 1.34% and 3.75%, respectively. Only 8.93% of MDD students had chosen to seek professional help during the COVID-19 pandemic period. LIMITATIONS: The computer assisted CIDI may not be as sensitive and specific as the diagnosis made by a psychiatrist and may have caused report bias. CONCLUSIONS: Although the MDD incidence of college students was decreasing over time, the impact of the pandemic on student mental health may depend on exposure to COVID-19 events. Not seeking professional help in the Chinese college students is still an important issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Prevalence , Universities
20.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(2): 69-70, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744322
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