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1.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 446, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Literature shows a high prevalence of psychological distress (PD) as well as common mental disorders (CMD) such as major depressive disorders (MDD), generalized anxiety disorders (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), and substance misuse disorders (SUD) among people exposed to disasters and pandemics like the COVID-19. Moreover, CMD are associated with increased mortality (mainly through suicide) and morbidity (loss of productivity). A number of countries have made deliberate efforts to identify and manage CMD in light of COVID-19. However, low levels of mental health literacy (MHL) manifested by the individual's unawareness of CMD symptoms, limited human and mental health infrastructure resources, and high levels of mental illness stigma (MIS) are barriers to integration of mental health care in general health care during pandemics and epidemics such as the COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: For the proposed study, we will determine effectiveness of a psycho-education intervention delivered by village health team (VHT) members. METHODS: We will employ a cluster randomized trial design in 24 villages in central Uganda. We will collect baseline data to and document the prevalence of MHL, PD, MDD, PTSD, GAD, and SUD. We will distribute information education and communication materials (IEC) aimed at improving MHL to 420 adult individuals in the intervention arm (n = 12 villages). In the control arm (n = 12 villages), VHTs will distribute ministry of health COVID-19 information leaflets to 420 participants. Within 7 days of distributing the materials, research assistants will conduct a follow-up interview and assess for the same parameters (MHL, PD, MDD, PTSD, GAD, and SUD). We will use an intention to treat analysis to estimate the effectiveness of the psycho-education intervention. DISCUSSION: Findings from this research will guide policy and practice regarding the integration of mental health services in the community in the context of epidemic preparedness and response. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04616989 . Registered on 05 November 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Health Literacy , Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/prevention & control , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology
3.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(2): 137-144, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292182

ABSTRACT

The widespread prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) means that inpatient psychiatric units will necessarily manage patients who have COVID-19 that is comorbid with acute psychiatric symptoms. We report a case of recurrence of respiratory symptoms and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing in a patient on an inpatient psychiatric unit occurring 42 days after the initial positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, 38 days after initial symptom resolution, and 30 days after the first of 3 negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests. Over the course of the admission, the patient was safely initiated on clozapine. Recent literature on COVID-19's potential recurrence and neuropsychiatric effects is reviewed and implications for the management of COVID-19 on inpatient psychiatric units are discussed. In the era of COVID-19 and our still-developing understanding of this illness, psychiatrists' role as advocates and collaborators in our patients' physical health care has become even more critical.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Clozapine , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Male , Mirtazapine/therapeutic use , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Suicide, Attempted
4.
Compr Psychiatry ; 110: 152255, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggested that traumatic events, including pandemics, can be associated with psychiatric symptoms like increased anxiety and depression. However, there were many unknowns concerning the emergent global coronavirus-19 (COVID-19), including its impact on psychiatric health within the United States. Our study aimed to track trends of mental health problems in individuals who presented with psychiatric complaints in an emergent setting. METHODS: A total of 1776 patients and 1610 patients presented to Emergency Department (ED) with psychiatric complaints between January 1 - July 9 of the years of 2019 and 2020, respectively, in Millcreek Community Hospital (MCH) Erie, PA. This study was an electronic medical record review (EMR), therefore the data were collected exclusively from EMR over the two-year span. ED prevalence was calculated as the number of total psychiatric MCH ED cases divided by the total number of all MCH ED patients, and prevalence ratio (PR) between 2019 and 2020 was used to reflect change of overall ED psychiatric prevalence. RESULTS: Clinical notes revealed increased ED psychiatric chief complaint prevalence, as indicated by a PR greater than one, in multiple categories in comparison to before the COVID-19 outbreak. Concerning primary psychiatric disorders, there was increased ED prevalence in chief complaint of total mood disorders (PR = 1.21) with major depressive disorder (PR = 1.23) and bipolar disorder (PR = 1.47), neurodevelopment disorders (PR = 1.25) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (PR = 1.19) and intellectual disability (PR = 1.52), trauma- and stressor-related disorders (PR = 1.56) with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (PR = 1.39) and adjustment disorder (PR = 1.73), substance abuse and addiction disorders (PR = 1.29), and personality disorders (PR = 1.56). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic outbreak dramatically impacted mental health in an ER setting. Further research on mental health disparities in conjunction with the COVID-19 pandemic is critical to help predict and address risk for chronic symptoms and sequela to help anticipate and improve psychiatric patient care and well-being during potential future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Psychiatry , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Affect Disord ; 288: 41-49, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174334

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined how exposure to events during the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) era is linked to symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), COVID-19 era-related stress (CS), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and suicidal ideation (SI) in low and middle-income U.S adults. METHODS: A national sample of 6,607 adults (4.4% who reported testing positive for COVID-19, 25.3% testing negative, and 70.3% untested) were recruited an online platform andcompleted the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2, PTSD-Checklist for DSM-5, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification-Consumption scale, and an item assessing SI in May-June 2020. A series of multivariable analyses were conducted. RESULTS: In the total sample, 35.3% screened positive for current AUD, 33.6% for MDD, 33.6% for GAD, 24.6% for SI, and 20.2% for CS. Past 2-week SI (adjusted odds ratios [AORs]= 1.49-12.06), number of close friends (AORs= 1.40-2.72), history of AUD (AORs= 1.15-1.92), history of anxiety disorder (AORs= 1.07-2.63), and younger age (AORs= 0.97-0.98) were significantly associated with screening positive for MDD, GAD, CS, and AUD. COVID-19 status was not independently associated with these conditions, but the combination of testing positive for COVID-19, meeting criteria for AUD, and screening positive for MDD, GAD, or CS predicted a 96% probability for SI. CONCLUSION: Predisposing factors are stronger predictors of psychological distress than personal COVID-19 infection or exposure. The additive effects of COVID-19 infection, alcohol use, and psychiatric problems in predicting SI suggest screening, monitoring, and treating these conditions in population-based prevention and treatment efforts may be important.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Psychological Distress , Adult , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 31(1): 3-8, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare older adults with late-life depression (LLD) and healthy controls in terms of suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to determine predictors of suicidal ideation. METHODS: Between March and April 2020, old adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (single or recurrent episode) as defined by the DSM-5 were recruited from psychiatric clinics or inpatient wards, whereas 31 healthy older adults without a history of depression or other psychiatric illnesses were recruited from voluntary organisations or elderly community centres. Their depressive symptoms, perceived severity of the pandemic, perceived time spent on receiving related information, perceived health, levels of loneliness, perceived coping efficacy, suicidal ideation, and the level of symptomatic responses to a specific traumatic stressor in the past week were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 21 men and 43 women aged 61 to 89 years were interviewed through telephone by trained research assistants. Of them, 33 were older adults with LLD (cases) and 31 were healthy older adults (controls). Older people with LLD had a higher level of suicidal ideation than healthy controls, after controlling for the level of depression and medical comorbidity (F (1, 59) = 5.72, p = 0.020). Regression analyses showed that coping efficacy and loneliness accounted for a significant portion of the variance in suicidal ideation, and loneliness significantly predicted the level of stress. Mediation analyses reveal an indirect effect between group and suicidal ideation through coping efficacy (Z = 2.43, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Older people with LLD are at increased suicidal risk and require timely mental health support. Coping efficacy and loneliness are important predictors for suicidal ideation and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Noncommunicable Diseases , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
7.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(6): E11, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has considerably affected the delivery of postoperative care to patients who have undergone deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. DBS teleprogramming technology was developed and deployed in China before the COVID-19 outbreak. In this report, the authors share their experiences with telemedical DBS treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Four patients (2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1 with major depressive disorder, and 1 with anorexia nervosa) underwent DBS surgery at Ruijin Hospital and received continuous postoperative DBS telemedicine case management from January 2020 to July 2020. DBS teleprogramming, individualized psychological support, and medical consultations were provided via the authors' DBS telemedicine platform, which also incorporated a synchronous real-time video communication system. RESULTS: Forty-five DBS telemedicine sessions were conducted; there was no unexpected loss of network connection during the sessions. Of these, 28 sessions involved DBS teleprogramming. Adjustments were made to the stimulation voltage, frequency, pulse width, and contact site in 21, 12, 9, and 9 sessions, respectively. Psychological support and troubleshooting were provided during the remaining telemedicine sessions. Modest to substantial clinical improvements after DBS surgery were observed in some but not all patients, whereas stimulation-related side effects were reported by 2 patients and included reversible sleep and mood problems, headache, and a sensation of heat. CONCLUSIONS: DBS telemedicine seems to offer a feasible, safe, and efficient strategy for maintaining the delivery of medical care to psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 outbreak. The authors propose that implementation of a comprehensive DBS telemedicine system, which combines DBS teleprogramming with psychological counseling, medical consultations, and medication prescriptions and delivery, could be an efficient and effective approach to manage the mental health and quality of life of patients with psychiatric disorders during future local or global public health crises.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Depressive Disorder, Major/surgery , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/surgery , Telemedicine/methods , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis , Anorexia Nervosa/psychology , Deep Brain Stimulation/standards , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mental Disorders , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/standards , Treatment Outcome
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