Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
2.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512771

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to review major depression, including its types, epidemiology, association with different diseases status and treatments, as well as its correlation with the current COVID-19 pandemic. Mental depression is a common disorder that affects most individuals at one time or another. During depression, there are changes in mood and behavior, accompanied by feelings of defeat, hopelessness, or even suicidal thoughts. Depression has a direct or indirect relation with a number of other diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, epilepsy, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, antidepressant drugs have several side effects including sedation, increased weight, indigestion, sexual dysfunction, or a decrease in blood pressure. Stopping medication may cause a relapse of the symptoms of depression and pose a risk of attempted suicide. The pandemic of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of individuals, including patients, individuals contacting patients and medical staff with a number of mental disorders that may adversely affect the immune ability of their bodies. Some of the drugs currently included in the protocols for treating COVID-19 may negatively affect the mental health of patients. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that serotonin (5HT) deficiencies and norepinephrine (NE) in the brain can lead to mental depression. Drugs that increase levels of NE and 5HT are commonly used in the treatment of depression. The common reason for mood disorders, including mania and bipolar disease are not clearly understood. It is assumed that hyperactivity in specific parts of the brain and excessive activity of neurotransmitters may be involved. Early diagnosis and developing new treatment strategies are essential for the prevention of the severe consequences of depression. In addition, extensive research should be directed towards the investigation of the mental health disturbances occurring during and/or after COVID-19 infection. This may lead to the incorporation of a suitable antidepressant into the current treatment protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress
3.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 421-429, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amygdala is vital in processing psychological stress and predicting vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders. This study aimed to build the link between functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained before the stress event and the subsequent stress-related depressive symptoms. METHODS: Neuroimaging data obtained before the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from 39 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 61 health controls (HCs) were used in this study. The participants were divided retrospectively into four groups in accordance with the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic: remitted patients, non-remitted patients, depressed HCs (HCd) and non-depressed HCs (HCnd). Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses of the amygdala and its subregions, including the centromedial (CM), the basolateral and the superficial (SF), were performed. RESULTS: Vulnerability to depression was suggested by decreased rsFC between the left CM amygdala and the bilateral lingual gyrus in the HCd group compared with the HCnd group, and decreased rsFC of the left CM or right SF amygdala with the precuneus and the postcentral gyrus in the HCd group compared with patients with MDD. No evidence supported the rsFC of the amygdala or its subregions as a biomarker for the resilience of patients with MDD to stress under antidepressant treatment. LIMITATIONS: Smaller sample size and no longitudinal neuroimaging data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that the rsFC of amygdala subregions may represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to depression following stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Amygdala/diagnostic imaging , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnostic imaging , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(11): 340-358, 2021 11 10.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, numerous studies from around the world have reported declines in mental health. However, most of these studies were of low-to-moderate quality and many were based on convenience samples or used mental health measures with low validity, or both. Consequently, it has been difficult to draw conclusions. METHODS: Both the 2020 Survey on COVID-19 and Mental Health (SCMH) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) (2015-2019) used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to screen for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults aged 18 or older. The prevalence of MDD was compared between the SCMH and the CCHS. Risk and protective factors for MDD in the SCMH were examined using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Based on SCMH data, 15.2% (95% CI: 14.2-16.2) of Canadians screened positive for MDD. The prevalence of MDD was more than two times higher in the SCMH (during COVID-19) than in the CCHS (predating COVID-19). In bivariate analysis, Canadians reporting five or more COVID-19-related risk factors were close to 30 times more likely to have MDD than those reporting no risk factors. Mastery and a sense of community belonging were protective factors for MDD. CONCLUSION: After remaining stable for two decades, the prevalence of depression among Canadians increased substantially with the onset of COVID-19. Ongoing monitoring of this common condition associated with major morbidity is vital to determine if elevated levels of MDD persist as we progress through and beyond future waves of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 435, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes a clinical illness Covid-19, has had a major impact on mental health globally. Those diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be negatively impacted by the global pandemic due to social isolation, feelings of loneliness or lack of access to care. This study seeks to assess the impact of the 1st lockdown - pre-, during and post - in adults with a recent history of MDD across multiple centres. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of an on-going cohort study, RADAR-MDD project, a multi-centre study examining the use of remote measurement technology (RMT) in monitoring MDD. Self-reported questionnaire and passive data streams were analysed from participants who had joined the project prior to 1st December 2019 and had completed Patient Health and Self-esteem Questionnaires during the pandemic (n = 252). We used mixed models for repeated measures to estimate trajectories of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sleep duration. RESULTS: In our sample of 252 participants, 48% (n = 121) had clinically relevant depressive symptoms shortly before the pandemic. For the sample as a whole, we found no evidence that depressive symptoms or self-esteem changed between pre-, during- and post-lockdown. However, we found evidence that mean sleep duration (in minutes) decreased significantly between during- and post- lockdown (- 12.16; 95% CI - 18.39 to - 5.92; p <  0.001). We also found that those experiencing clinically relevant depressive symptoms shortly before the pandemic showed a decrease in depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sleep duration between pre- and during- lockdown (interaction p = 0.047, p = 0.045 and p <  0.001, respectively) as compared to those who were not. CONCLUSIONS: We identified changes in depressive symptoms and sleep duration over the course of lockdown, some of which varied according to whether participants were experiencing clinically relevant depressive symptoms shortly prior to the pandemic. However, the results of this study suggest that those with MDD do not experience a significant worsening in symptoms during the first months of the Covid - 19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 395, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to threaten the physical and mental health of people across the world. This study aimed to understand the psychological impact of this disease on adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) at 1 month after the start of the outbreak in China. METHODS: Using the Children's Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) questionnaire, we investigated the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in two groups of adolescents: MDD patients who were in continuous antidepressant therapy and healthy controls. Total scores and factor subscores were compared between the two groups and subgroups stratified by sex and school grade. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with high total CRIES-13 scores. RESULTS: Compared to controls (n = 107), the MDD group (n = 90) had higher total CRIES-13 scores and a higher proportion with a total score ≥ 30. They also had a lower intrusion subscore and a higher arousal subscore. In the MDD group, males and females did not differ significantly in total CRIES-13 scores or factor subscores, but junior high school students had higher avoidance subscores than senior high school students. Logistic regression showed high total CRIES-13 scores to be associated with MDD and the experience of "flashbacks" or avoidance of traumatic memories associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It is crucial to understand the psychological impact of COVID-19 on adolescents with MDD in China, especially females and junior high school students. Long-term monitoring of adolescents with a history of mental illness is required to further understand these impacts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR2000033402 , Registered 31 May 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
8.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(10): 1026-1033, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347400

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The major stressors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provide an opportunity to understand the extent to which protective factors against depression may exhibit gender-specificity. METHOD: This study examined responses from multiple waves of a 50 states non-probability internet survey conducted between May 2020 and January 2021. Participants completed the PHQ-9 as a measure of depression, as well as items characterizing social supports. We used logistic regression models with population reweighting to examine association between absence of even mild depressive symptoms and sociodemographic features and social supports, with interaction terms and stratification used to investigate sex-specificity. RESULTS: Among 73,917 survey respondents, 31,199 (42.2%) reported absence of mild or greater depression-11,011/23,682 males (46.5%) and 20,188/50,235 (40.2%) females. In a regression model, features associated with greater likelihood of depression-resistance included at least weekly attendance of religious services (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.16) and greater trust in others (OR: 1.04 for a 2-unit increase, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06), along with level of social support measured as number of social ties available who could provide care (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07), talk to them (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07-1.12), and help with employment (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04-1.08). The first two features showed significant interaction with gender (p < .0001), with markedly greater protective effects among women. CONCLUSION: Aspects of social support are associated with diminished risk of major depressive symptoms, with greater effects of religious service attendance and trust in others observed among women than men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 671-678, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the social distancing protocols used to impede the spread of the virus may have severe mental health consequences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the network of components of pandemic-related negative psychological states (i.e., fear of infection, financial worries, loneliness) and symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: Data from 10,061 Norwegian adults recruited through an online survey during a period of strict social distancing protocols were analyzed by cross-sectional network methods. RESULTS: Of the infection fears, fear of being infected, fear of dying from the coronavirus and fear of significant others dying from it had notable connections to the GAD symptoms anxiety and/or fear of awful events. The financial worry component worry about personal economy was connected to the MDD symptom sleep problems and to the GAD symptom generalized worry. Each of the loneliness components was connected to a specific MDD symptom. Depressed mood, low energy and worthlessness had the highest strength centrality among the MDD symptoms; generalized worry, uncontrollability of worry, and trouble relaxing among the GAD symptoms; fear of dying from the virus among the fear of infection components; and feeling isolated among the loneliness components. LIMITATIONS: Full random sampling was not conducted, although the sample turned out to be relatively representative of the Norwegian population. CONCLUSIONS: Some components of the pandemic-related distressing states of fear of infection, financial worry and loneliness seem to be associated with specific symptoms of MDD and GAD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 446, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Literature shows a high prevalence of psychological distress (PD) as well as common mental disorders (CMD) such as major depressive disorders (MDD), generalized anxiety disorders (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), and substance misuse disorders (SUD) among people exposed to disasters and pandemics like the COVID-19. Moreover, CMD are associated with increased mortality (mainly through suicide) and morbidity (loss of productivity). A number of countries have made deliberate efforts to identify and manage CMD in light of COVID-19. However, low levels of mental health literacy (MHL) manifested by the individual's unawareness of CMD symptoms, limited human and mental health infrastructure resources, and high levels of mental illness stigma (MIS) are barriers to integration of mental health care in general health care during pandemics and epidemics such as the COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: For the proposed study, we will determine effectiveness of a psycho-education intervention delivered by village health team (VHT) members. METHODS: We will employ a cluster randomized trial design in 24 villages in central Uganda. We will collect baseline data to and document the prevalence of MHL, PD, MDD, PTSD, GAD, and SUD. We will distribute information education and communication materials (IEC) aimed at improving MHL to 420 adult individuals in the intervention arm (n = 12 villages). In the control arm (n = 12 villages), VHTs will distribute ministry of health COVID-19 information leaflets to 420 participants. Within 7 days of distributing the materials, research assistants will conduct a follow-up interview and assess for the same parameters (MHL, PD, MDD, PTSD, GAD, and SUD). We will use an intention to treat analysis to estimate the effectiveness of the psycho-education intervention. DISCUSSION: Findings from this research will guide policy and practice regarding the integration of mental health services in the community in the context of epidemic preparedness and response. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04616989 . Registered on 05 November 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Health Literacy , Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/prevention & control , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging research suggests that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and associated public health restrictions have caused psychological distress in many contexts. In order for public health authorities and policy makers to effectively address the psychological distress associated with the pandemic, it is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders, including depression. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence, and demographic, social, clinical and other COVID-19 related correlates of major depressive disorder symptoms among the general population in Ghana during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: The study was a cross-sectional survey using online data collection methods. The survey assessed demographic, social and clinical variables as well as COVID-19 related variables. Major depressive disorder symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The survey link was distributed primarily through WhatsApp-based platforms. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of likely MDD symptoms among the sample population was 12.3%. Variables such as employment, loss of jobs during the pandemic and rate of exposure to COVID-related news were independently and significantly associated with the likelihood that respondents had likely MDD. Variables such as gender, relationship, housing status and having a family member or friend who was sick from COVID-19 were not independently significantly associated with the likelihood that respondents had likely MDD, when all other factors in the model were controlled. CONCLUSION: This study has identified the prevalence and correlates of depression symptoms in Ghana during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is the urgent need for mental health policy makers and the government of Ghana to have policies in place to alleviate the potential threat to the mental health of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 422-428, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293883

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Depression and self-harm are leading causes of disability in young people, but prospective data on how maternal depression and self-harm thoughts contribute to these outcomes, and how they may interact is lacking. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 8,425 mothers and offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an ongoing birth cohort study. Exposures were maternal self-harm ideation and depression measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, collected at eleven time points over the period 18 weeks' gestation to 18 years post-partum. Outcomes were offspring past-year major depressive disorder and lifetime self-harm assessed at age 24. RESULTS: Nearly one-fifth (16.7%) of mothers reported thoughts of self-harm on at least one of the eleven assessment points. The frequency of maternal self-harm ideation was related to both outcomes in a dose-response manner. Young adults whose mothers had self-harm ideation on 5-11 occasions were over three times more likely (Odds ratio (OR), 3.32; 95% CI, 1.63-6.76) to be depressed and over 1.5 times as likely (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.73, 3.29) to have self-harmed than their peers whose mothers had never reported self-harm thoughts. Maternal self-harm thoughts remained associated with both offspring outcomes independent of maternal depression, and no evidence was found for an interaction between the two exposures. DISCUSSION: Clinicians collecting data on maternal depression may consider paying attention to questions about self-harm ideation in assessments. Examining accumulated maternal self-harm ideation over time may provide insights into which children are most at risk for later self-harm and depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Prospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
13.
Compr Psychiatry ; 110: 152255, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggested that traumatic events, including pandemics, can be associated with psychiatric symptoms like increased anxiety and depression. However, there were many unknowns concerning the emergent global coronavirus-19 (COVID-19), including its impact on psychiatric health within the United States. Our study aimed to track trends of mental health problems in individuals who presented with psychiatric complaints in an emergent setting. METHODS: A total of 1776 patients and 1610 patients presented to Emergency Department (ED) with psychiatric complaints between January 1 - July 9 of the years of 2019 and 2020, respectively, in Millcreek Community Hospital (MCH) Erie, PA. This study was an electronic medical record review (EMR), therefore the data were collected exclusively from EMR over the two-year span. ED prevalence was calculated as the number of total psychiatric MCH ED cases divided by the total number of all MCH ED patients, and prevalence ratio (PR) between 2019 and 2020 was used to reflect change of overall ED psychiatric prevalence. RESULTS: Clinical notes revealed increased ED psychiatric chief complaint prevalence, as indicated by a PR greater than one, in multiple categories in comparison to before the COVID-19 outbreak. Concerning primary psychiatric disorders, there was increased ED prevalence in chief complaint of total mood disorders (PR = 1.21) with major depressive disorder (PR = 1.23) and bipolar disorder (PR = 1.47), neurodevelopment disorders (PR = 1.25) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (PR = 1.19) and intellectual disability (PR = 1.52), trauma- and stressor-related disorders (PR = 1.56) with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (PR = 1.39) and adjustment disorder (PR = 1.73), substance abuse and addiction disorders (PR = 1.29), and personality disorders (PR = 1.56). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic outbreak dramatically impacted mental health in an ER setting. Further research on mental health disparities in conjunction with the COVID-19 pandemic is critical to help predict and address risk for chronic symptoms and sequela to help anticipate and improve psychiatric patient care and well-being during potential future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Psychiatry , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 144(3): 230-237, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258879

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (M-ECT) is considered an effective relapse prevention strategy in severe mood and psychotic disorders. How long M-ECT should be continued, and what the outcome is after its discontinuation has not been adequately studied. In our tertiary psychiatric hospital, M-ECT treatments were suspended at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to determine the 6-month relapse rate and time to relapse after abrupt discontinuation of M-ECT and to assess the impact of patient and treatment characteristics on the risk of relapse. METHODS: Eighty-one patients whose M-ECT was discontinued abruptly were followed up prospectively for 6 months, or until relapse (i.e., hospital admission, restart of ECT, change of pharmacotherapy, or suicide (attempt)). We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to assess the impact of patient and treatment characteristics on the risk of relapse. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (44.44%) relapsed within 6 months following abrupt discontinuation of M-ECT. A greater number of previous acute ECT courses, a diagnosis of psychotic disorder (compared with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder), and a shorter interval between M-ECT treatments at the time of discontinuation were significantly associated with increased risk of relapse. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the patients relapsed, similar to the relapse rate after a successful acute course of ECT. Patients with a shorter interval between M-ECT treatments at the time of discontinuation seem to be at increased risk, as well as patients with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder, compared to patients with mood disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219282

ABSTRACT

Nearly a year after the classification of the COVID-19 outbreak as a global pandemic, it is clear that different factors have contributed to an increase in psychological disorders, including public health measures that infringe on personal freedoms, growing financial losses, and conflicting messages. This study examined the evolution of psychosocial impacts with the progression of the pandemic in adult populations from different countries and continents, and identified, among a wide range of individual and country-level factors, which ones are contributing to this evolving psychological response. An online survey was conducted in May/June 2020 and in November 2020, among a sample of 17,833 adults (Phase 1: 8806; Phase 2: 9027) from eight countries/regions (Canada, the United States, England, Switzerland, Belgium, Hong Kong, the Philippines, New Zealand). Probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive episode (MDE) were assessed. The independent role of potential factors was examined using multilevel logistic regression. Probable GAD or MDE was indicated by 30.1% and 32.5% of the respondents during phases 1 and 2, respectively (a 7.9% increase over time), with an important variation according to countries/regions (range from 22.3% in Switzerland to 38.8% in the Philippines). This proportion exceeded 50% among young adults (18-24 years old) in all countries except for Switzerland. Beyond young age, several factors negatively influenced mental health in times of pandemic; important factors were found, including weak sense of coherence (adjusted odds ratio aOR = 3.89), false beliefs (aOR = 2.33), and self-isolation/quarantine (aOR = 2.01). The world has entered a new era dominated by psychological suffering and rising demand for mental health interventions, along a continuum from health promotion to specialized healthcare. More than ever, we need to innovate and build interventions aimed at strengthening key protective factors, such as sense of coherence, in the fight against the adversity caused by the concurrent pandemic and infodemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Belgium , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , England , Hong Kong , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Philippines , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Young Adult
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 101-106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases, such as asthma (AS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a public health problem that compromises patients' quality of life and is highly comorbid with medical and psychological conditions. The present study's objective was to know the variables associated with the risk of major depression during confinement due to SAR-CoV-2 in patients with AS and COPD in the Colombian Caribbean. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional observational study was done with the participation of patients diagnosed with AS or COPD. AS and COPD patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify a major depressive disorder risk. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients diagnosed with AS or COPD aged 18 to 69 (M=60.4, SD=17.6) participated. The risk of major depression was assessed using the PHQ-9 sent online after telephone contact with the participants. 30.7% of the patients during the last month reported a risk of major depression, and it was associated with a history of major depressive disorder (OR=4.39, 95% CI 1.53-12.67) and medical comorbidity (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: The depression risk is associated with a history of depressive disorder and medical comorbidity in patients with AS and COPD. Medical history is the leading risk factor for depression during confinement. It is recommended to carry out studies with many participants and study other variables that may mediate said associations during confinement by SAR-CoV-2 in the Colombian Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Depressive Disorder, Major , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Young Adult
18.
J Affect Disord ; 288: 41-49, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174334

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined how exposure to events during the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) era is linked to symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), COVID-19 era-related stress (CS), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and suicidal ideation (SI) in low and middle-income U.S adults. METHODS: A national sample of 6,607 adults (4.4% who reported testing positive for COVID-19, 25.3% testing negative, and 70.3% untested) were recruited an online platform andcompleted the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2, PTSD-Checklist for DSM-5, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification-Consumption scale, and an item assessing SI in May-June 2020. A series of multivariable analyses were conducted. RESULTS: In the total sample, 35.3% screened positive for current AUD, 33.6% for MDD, 33.6% for GAD, 24.6% for SI, and 20.2% for CS. Past 2-week SI (adjusted odds ratios [AORs]= 1.49-12.06), number of close friends (AORs= 1.40-2.72), history of AUD (AORs= 1.15-1.92), history of anxiety disorder (AORs= 1.07-2.63), and younger age (AORs= 0.97-0.98) were significantly associated with screening positive for MDD, GAD, CS, and AUD. COVID-19 status was not independently associated with these conditions, but the combination of testing positive for COVID-19, meeting criteria for AUD, and screening positive for MDD, GAD, or CS predicted a 96% probability for SI. CONCLUSION: Predisposing factors are stronger predictors of psychological distress than personal COVID-19 infection or exposure. The additive effects of COVID-19 infection, alcohol use, and psychiatric problems in predicting SI suggest screening, monitoring, and treating these conditions in population-based prevention and treatment efforts may be important.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Psychological Distress , Adult , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 31(1): 3-8, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare older adults with late-life depression (LLD) and healthy controls in terms of suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to determine predictors of suicidal ideation. METHODS: Between March and April 2020, old adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (single or recurrent episode) as defined by the DSM-5 were recruited from psychiatric clinics or inpatient wards, whereas 31 healthy older adults without a history of depression or other psychiatric illnesses were recruited from voluntary organisations or elderly community centres. Their depressive symptoms, perceived severity of the pandemic, perceived time spent on receiving related information, perceived health, levels of loneliness, perceived coping efficacy, suicidal ideation, and the level of symptomatic responses to a specific traumatic stressor in the past week were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 21 men and 43 women aged 61 to 89 years were interviewed through telephone by trained research assistants. Of them, 33 were older adults with LLD (cases) and 31 were healthy older adults (controls). Older people with LLD had a higher level of suicidal ideation than healthy controls, after controlling for the level of depression and medical comorbidity (F (1, 59) = 5.72, p = 0.020). Regression analyses showed that coping efficacy and loneliness accounted for a significant portion of the variance in suicidal ideation, and loneliness significantly predicted the level of stress. Mediation analyses reveal an indirect effect between group and suicidal ideation through coping efficacy (Z = 2.43, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Older people with LLD are at increased suicidal risk and require timely mental health support. Coping efficacy and loneliness are important predictors for suicidal ideation and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Noncommunicable Diseases , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
20.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 105: 106352, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120198

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking among postpartum women remains a significant public health problem despite known health risks to women and their newborns. It is estimated that over 50% of women quit smoking during pregnancy but 90% relapse by one year. Safe and effective postpartum relapse prevention strategies are urgently needed. In an attempt to address this deficit, we will investigate the efficacy of bupropion vs. placebo as a smoking relapse prevention aid in postpartum women. The objective of this paper is to detail an approach to investigate bupropion's efficacy for preventing postpartum smoking relapse among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Specifically, we designed a two-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial testing the efficacy of bupropion vs. placebo as a relapse prevention tool. Mothers of healthy infants who quit smoking while pregnant will be stratified based on current or past history of major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder and randomized to receive either active (bupropion XL 300 mg/day) or placebo medication for 12 weeks. To respond to safety concerns associated with participant and staff exposure to COVID-19, we revised our original protocol and present procedures which allow our trial to be conducted entirely remotely. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed at weeks 12, 24, 36 and 52 post-randomization. The primary outcome is 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks. Results of this work have the potential to positively impact women and their children by promoting lifelong cessation, eliminating secondhand smoke exposure, and modelling of abstinence to children.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Bupropion/administration & dosage , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Secondary Prevention/methods , Tobacco Smoking/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delayed-Action Preparations , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...