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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793522

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented experience of national lockdowns and uncertainty of academic career due to the COVID-19 pandemic has multifaceted impacts on mental health among university students worldwide. This study determined its impact on depression and anxiety level, and associated risk factors among engineering students studying at College of Science and Technology (CST), Phuentsholing, Bhutan during the first lockdown in the country. Self-reported depression and anxiety levels were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) respectively. Data was collected using an e-questionnaire link generated in Google form and the link was shared with students via the student's official email group. A total of 278 students (response rate, 26.9%) completed the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were male (69.8%) and were aged from 18 to 30 (Mean: 21.7 ±SD 2.07) years. The prevalence of self-reported moderate to severe depression and anxiety were 44.2% (95% CI, 38.5-49.6) and 27.3% (95% CI, 22.3-32.4) respectively. Participants having their family members as frontline workers reported a significantly higher level of anxiety (χ2 = 4.85, p = 0.028). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, students who were academically lagging showed a higher risk of depression (AOR = 5.36, 95% CI = 2.86-10.04) and anxiety (AOR = 3.83, 95%CI = 1.86-7.88) as compared to students who were not academically behind. A high percentage of depression and anxiety was reported by students of CST during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings from the study highlight the importance of adopting appropriate online-based teaching and learning methods to ensure timely academic and professional achievements. Moreover, the relevant stakeholders should put health system strategies in place to provide psychological support to university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Bhutan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 811168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776009

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different exercise types on health-related quality of life (QOL) in men with depressive disorder (DD) in South (S) Korea. The data of 385 men aged 19 with DD were collected in S. Korea. The Euro Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) index and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) questionnaires were used to establish the purpose of this study. Furthermore, the complex sampling model was applied to investigate the influence of different exercise types on health-related QOL in participants. When reviewing the outcomes, the strength exercise and walking had significant influences on health-related QOL in men with DD in S. Korea. However, the flexibility exercise did not have a significant influence on them. Based on the results, strength exercise and walking were effective exercise types to increase levels of health-related QOL in men with DD in S. Korea.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Exercise , Quality of Life , Adult , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown pose a threat for adolescents' mental health, especially for those with an earlier vulnerability. Accordingly, these adolescents may need increased support from family and friends. This study investigated whether family functioning and peer connectedness protects adolescents with earlier internalizing or externalizing symptoms from increased depressive symptoms during the first Dutch COVID-19 lockdown in a low-risk community sample. METHODS: This sample comprised 115 adolescents (Mage = 13.06; 44% girls) and their parents (N = 111) and is part of an ongoing prospective study on child development. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms were self-reported a year before the COVID-19 lockdown. In an online survey during the first Dutch lockdown (April-May 2020), adolescents reported depressive symptoms and perceived peer connectedness, and parents reported family functioning. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of adolescents reported clinically relevant symptoms of depression during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Depressive symptoms were significantly predicted by earlier internalizing, but not externalizing symptoms. Furthermore, higher quality of family functioning, but not peer connectedness, predicted fewer adolescent depressive symptoms. Family functioning and peer connectedness did not moderate the link between pre-existing internalizing symptoms and later depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In a low-risk community sample, one-in-four adolescents reported clinically relevant depressive symptoms at the first COVID-19 lockdown. Higher earlier internalizing symptoms and lower quality of family functioning increased risks. These results indicate that even in low-risk samples, a substantial group of adolescents and their families are vulnerable during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Defense Mechanisms , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 172-176, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719352

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by Covid-19 has been an unprecedented social and health emergency worldwide. This is the first study in the scientific literature reporting the psychological impact of the Covid-19 outbreak in a sample of the Spanish population. A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey of 3480 people. The presence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was evaluated with screening tests from 14 March. Sociodemographic and Covid-19-related data was collected. Additionally, spiritual well-being, loneliness, social support, discrimination and sense of belonging were assessed. Descriptive analyses were carried out and linear regression models compiled. The 18.7% of the sample revealed depressive, 21.6% anxiety and 15.8% PTSD symptoms. Being in the older age group, having economic stability and the belief that adequate information had been provided about the pandemic were negatively related to depression, anxiety and PTSD. However, female gender, previous diagnoses of mental health problems or neurological disorders, having symptoms associated with the virus, or those with a close relative infected were associated with greater symptomatology in all three variables. Predictive models revealed that the greatest protector for symptomatology was spiritual well-being, while loneliness was the strongest predictor of depression, anxiety and PTSD. The impact on our mental health caused by the pandemic and the measures adopted during the first weeks to deal with it are evident. In addition, it is possible to identify the need of greater psychological support in general and in certain particularly vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 11-17, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719332

ABSTRACT

The severe 2019 outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first reported in Wuhan, would be expected to impact the mental health of local medical and nursing staff and thus lead them to seek help. However, those outcomes have yet to be established using epidemiological data. To explore the mental health status of medical and nursing staff and the efficacy, or lack thereof, of critically connecting psychological needs to receiving psychological care, we conducted a quantitative study. This is the first paper on the mental health of medical and nursing staff in Wuhan. Notably, among 994 medical and nursing staff working in Wuhan, 36.9% had subthreshold mental health disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 2.4), 34.4% had mild disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 5.4), 22.4% had moderate disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 9.0), and 6.2% had severe disturbance (mean PHQ-9: 15.1) in the immediate wake of the viral epidemic. The noted burden fell particularly heavily on young women. Of all participants, 36.3% had accessed psychological materials (such as books on mental health), 50.4% had accessed psychological resources available through media (such as online push messages on mental health self-help coping methods), and 17.5% had participated in counseling or psychotherapy. Trends in levels of psychological distress and factors such as exposure to infected people and psychological assistance were identified. Although staff accessed limited mental healthcare services, distressed staff nonetheless saw these services as important resources to alleviate acute mental health disturbances and improve their physical health perceptions. These findings emphasize the importance of being prepared to support frontline workers through mental health interventions at times of widespread crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Mental Health Services , Middle Aged , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248916, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575923

ABSTRACT

Since the first nationwide movement control order was implemented on 18 March 2020 in Malaysia to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, to what extent the uncertainty and continuous containment measures have imposed psychological burdens on the population is unknown. This study aimed to measure the level of mental health of the Malaysian public approximately 2 months after the pandemic's onset. Between 12 May and 5 September 2020, an anonymous online survey was conducted. The target group included all members of the Malaysian population aged 18 years and above. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess mental health. There were increased depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms throughout the study period, with the depression rates showing the greatest increase. During the end of the data collection period (4 August-5 September 2020), there were high percentages of reported depressive (59.2%) and anxiety (55.1%) symptoms compared with stress (30.6%) symptoms. Perceived health status was the strongest significant predictor for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Individuals with a poorer health perception had higher odds of developing depression (odds ratio [OR] = 5.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.81-8.47) and anxiety (OR = 3.50; 95%CI 2.37-5.17) compared with those with a higher health perception. By demographics, young people-particularly students, females and people with poor financial conditions-were more vulnerable to mental health symptoms. These findings provide an urgent call for increased attention to detect and provide intervention strategies to combat the increasing rate of mental health problems in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Depressive Disorder/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 240-254, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support, coping strategies, anxiety, and depression symptoms among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by comparing them with a matched control group in terms of age, gender, and education level. METHOD: The patient group (n = 84) and the healthy controls (HCs, n = 92) filled in the questionnaire including the socio-demographic form, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced through the online survey link. RESULTS: The COVID-19 patients had higher perceived social support and coping strategies scores than the HCs. However, anxiety and depression scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. In logistic regression analysis performed in COVID-19 patients, the presence of chest CT finding (OR = 4.31; 95% CI = 1.04-17.95) was a risk factor for anxiety and the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.73-0.99) had a negative association with anxiety. In addition, the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.98) and high perceived social support (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.93- 0,99) had a negative association with depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies involving the return to normality phase of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed to investigate the effects of factors such as coping strategies and perceived social support that could increase the psychological adjustment and resilience of individuals on anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Inpatients/psychology , Social Support , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
9.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 210-227, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease which is believed to have initially originated in Wuhan city of China at the end of 2019 was declared as pandemic by March 2020 by WHO. This pandemic significantly impacted the mental health of communities around the globe. This project draws data from available research to quantify COVID-19 mental health issues and its prevalence in China during the early period of the COVID-19 crisis. It is believed that this pooling of data will give fair estimate of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. METHODS: We conducted this study in accordance with PRISMA guidelines 2009. The protocol for this review is registered and published in PROSPERO (CRD42020182893). The databases used were Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar and Scopus. The studies were extracted according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and risk of bias assessment was conducted. The Meta-analysis was done using OpenMeta [analyst]. RESULTS: Total of 62382 participants in nineteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Stress was the most prevalent (48.1%) mental health consequence of Covid-19 pandemic, followed by depression (26.9%) and anxiety (21.8%). After performing subgroup analysis, prevalence of depression and anxiety in both females and frontline health care workers were high as compared to the prevalence in general Chinese population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression and anxiety is moderately high whereas pooled prevalence of stress was found to be very high in Chinese people during this Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 43-49, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446898

ABSTRACT

Several studies revealed that mental disorders' prevalence increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in young and female individuals. Such studies represent individuals' subjective perceptions and not the number of mental health cases treated in primary care. Thus, this study aimed to describe the changes in depression, anxiety, and stress disorder diagnoses in General Practitioner (GP) practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. More than three million patients of 757 German GP practices were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to assess changes in the number of incident depression, anxiety disorders, and reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders documented by GPs in 2020 compared to the average of the years 2017-2019. There was a tremendous decrease in mental health diagnoses during the first lockdown that was only slightly compensated later. Overall populations and the entire year 2020, there was no change in documented depression (0%) and stress disorders (1%), but anxiety disorders were more often documented (+19%), especially for the elderly population (>80 years; +24%). This population group also received more frequently new depression (+12%) and stress disorder diagnoses (23%). The younger population was diagnosed more frequently at the end of 2020, nine months after the first lockdown. Anxiety disorders but not depression and stress diagnoses were elevated, which is not in line with previously published studies. We speculate that the elderly population was affected most by the pandemic immediately after the first lockdown was announced. The younger population has probably become more and more affected the longer the pandemic lasts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 946-953, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During previous pandemics people who use drugs (PWUD) were categorized among the most vulnerable. In the current study, firstly, we wanted to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders among PWUD. Furthermore, we wanted to compare the prevalence of these disorders with that of members from the general population who did not use drugs. METHODS: We used a matched cohort design based on two separate repeated cross-sectional online surveys (April and November 2020) among PWUD and the general population. Results of GAD-7 and PHQ-9 were used as outcome variables. We calculated absolute and relative risks for matched pairs for both affective disorders, and logistic regression to compare affective disorders over both waves for PWUD. RESULTS: In April, the prevalence of affective disorders was similar for PWUD and the general population. In November, the risks for anxiety disorders increased with 64% for PWUD compared to non-PWUD (RR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.42-1.88), whereas the risks for depressive disorders more than doubled (RR = 2.29, 95%CI 1.97-2.67). Having a job and being male were protective factors for PWUD for both anxiety and depressive disorders. LIMITATIONS: As this study used self-reported data, GAD-7 and PHQ-9 give an indication of the presence of anxiety and depression which might differ from a clinician's judgement. CONCLUSIONS: PWUD might be disproportionally affected by COVID-19. Health care providers should be attentive to substance use as an indicator for increased risk of mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adult , Anxiety , Belgium/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389140

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During health disaster events such as the current devastating havoc being inflicted on countries globally by the SARS-CoV-19 pandemic, mental health problems among survivors and frontline workers are likely concerns. However, during such health disaster events, stakeholders tend to give more precedence to the socio-economic and biomedical health consequences at the expense of mental health. Meanwhile, studies show that regardless of the kind of disaster/antecedent, all traumatic events trigger similar post-traumatic stress symptoms among survivors, families, and frontline workers. Thus, our study investigated the prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms among survivors of the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease that plagued the West African sub-region. METHODS: We systematically retrieved peer-reviewed articles published between 1970 and 2019 from seven electronic databases, including Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science on Ebola and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. A comprehensive hand search complemented this literature search. Of the 87 articles retrieved, only 13 met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. RESULTS: After heterogeneity, influence, and publication bias analysis, our meta-analysis pooled proportion effects estimates showed a moderate to a high prevalence of anxiety (14%; 99% CI: 0.05-0.30), depression (15%; 99% CI: 0.11-0.21), and insomnia (22%; 99% CI: 0.13-0.36). Effect estimates ranging from (0.13; 99% CI: 0.05, 0.28) through to (0.11; 99% CI: 0.05-0.22), (0.15; 99% CI: 0.09-0.25) through to (0.13; 99% CI: 0.08-0.21) and (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) to (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) were respectively reported for anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. These findings suggest a significant amount of EVD survivors are struggling with anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study provided the first-ever meta-analysis evidence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms among EVD survivors, and suggest that the predominant biomedical health response to regional and global health disasters should be complemented with trauma-related mental health services.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Depression/complications , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Ebolavirus/isolation & purification , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Survivors
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256932, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare providers are vulnerable in the fight against COVID-19 and may experience significant psychological and mental health consequences. This study aimed to compare the levels of depressive symptoms among frontline and non-frontline healthcare providers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in two government hospitals managing COVID-19-related cases in Kelantan, Malaysia from May to July 2020 to identify and compared depressive symptoms levels of frontline and non-frontline healthcare providers. Convenient sampling was applied in the selection of eligible participants and those diagnosed as having any psychiatric illnesses were excluded. The self-administered questionnaires for the Malay versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to measure depressive symptoms score and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey to measure social support score as an important confounder. A descriptive analysis, independent t-test and ANCOVA were performed using SPSS version 26. RESULTS: A total of 306 respondents from healthcare providers were recruited which 160 were frontline healthcare providers and 146 were non-frontline healthcare providers. The level of depressive symptoms (HADS score >8) was 27.5% for the frontline healthcare providers and 37.7% for the non-frontline healthcare providers. The mean depressive symptoms score for the non-frontline healthcare providers was 0.75 points higher than that of the frontline healthcare providers after adjusting for gender, duration of employment and social support. CONCLUSION: Non-frontline healthcare providers are also experiencing psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic even though they do not have direct contact with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/pathology , Health Personnel/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256441, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376626

ABSTRACT

ABO blood types could be a biological predisposition for depression. The present cross-sectional analysis was conducted amid the second wave of COVID-19 in Japan during July 2020. We wanted to investigate the association between ABO blood types and depressive symptoms among workers (352 men and 864 women, aged 21-73 years) of a medical institution in Tokyo, Japan, which took a leading role in the response to COVID-19 in the country. A Poisson regression model with a robust variance estimator was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for depressive symptoms associated with ABO blood types. Overall, the prevalence of depressive symptoms (using two questions employed from a Two-question case-finding instrument) was 22.0%. The adjusted PRs (95% CI) for depressive symptoms, comparing the carriers of blood type O, A, and AB with those of type B, were 0.88 (0.66, 1.18), 0.81 (0.62, 1.07), and 1.07 (0.74, 1.53), respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of depressive symptoms between non-B and B carriers. The present study did not support the association of ABO blood types with depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256690, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374152

ABSTRACT

Despite the greater adverse economic impacts in low and middle-income (LAMI) compared to high-income countries, fewer studies have investigated the associations between COVID-19-related stressor and mental health in LAMI countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between COVID-19-related stressors and anxiety and depressive symptoms while controlling for known risk and protective factors and to investigate any sex differences. An online survey was carried out to assess sociodemographic, psychosocial (previous mental health conditions, sexual orientation, intimate partner violence and perceived social support) and COVID-19-related variables. Hierarchical linear regression was carried out with anxiety and depressive symptoms as separate outcomes. Of the COVID-19-related factors, testing positive for COVID-19 infection, having COVID-19 symptoms, having other medical conditions, self-isolating due to COVID-19 symptoms, worry about infection, perception of the pandemic as a threat to income and isolation during the lockdown were significantly associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. Of these, worry about infection, isolation during lockdown and disruption due to the pandemic retained independent associations with both outcomes. The variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms explained by COVID-19-related factors was larger in women (11.8%) compared to men (6.1% and 0.8% respectively). COVID-19-related stressors are associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms, with these effects being larger in men compared to women. Enhancing social support can be an affordable strategy to mitigate this risk but this needs to be investigated using appropriate designs.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Nigeria/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121934, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370361

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting conditions may negatively affect adolescents. Objective: To examine aspects of self-reported mental and physical health among adolescents in Norway before and during the pandemic, including the role of pandemic-associated anxiety. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a diverse nationwide sample of grade 11 students from the longitudinal MyLife study in Norway. The original study recruitment of all 8th, 9th, and 10th graders from the same middle schools facilitated identification of 2 sociodemographically comparable cohorts assessed in October to December 2018 and 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, and October to December 2020, during the pandemic. School entry and enrollment in Norway is determined by the birth year, and students usually start high school (11th grade) during the fall of the year of their 16th birthday. Data were analyzed from March to June 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated conditions in Norway. Main Outcomes and Measures: In grades 10 and 11, adolescents reported their depression symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (cutoff scores for moderate/severe depression, ≥15), number of close friends, physical health, and organized sports participation. Cohort differences were examined with a set of nested regression models, incrementally controlling for sociodemographic covariates and grade 10 outcomes. Results: A sample of 2536 adolescents (1505 [59.4%] girls) was analyzed, including 1621 adolescents before the pandemic and 915 adolescents during the pandemic, of whom 158 adolescents (17.3%) reported high pandemic anxiety. The only significant difference in outcomes between the COVID-19 cohort and the pre-COVID-19 cohort were lower odds of organized sports participation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87). However, in subanalyses comparing adolescents with high anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic with adolescents in the pre-COVID-19 cohort, adolescents with high pandemic anxiety were more likely to experience clinical-level depression symptoms (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.39-3.37) and poor physical health (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.31). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Norwegian adolescents, adolescents who started high school during the pandemic year had lower odds of organized sports participation in late 2020, but were otherwise comparable in terms of self-reported mental and physical health with their pre-COVID-19 counterparts. However, adolescents in the COVID-19 cohort experiencing high pandemic-related anxiety had significantly greater odds of poorer mental and physical health than adolescents in the pre-COVID-19 cohort. Strategies aiming to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 may benefit from identifying youth disproportionally affected by the pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Status , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sports
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286068

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
20.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 23(2)2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among hospital staff working in a tertiary care private hospital in India during the early period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted May 5-25, 2020, among 347 hospital staff (nursing and other hospital staff, with the exception of doctors). Depression, anxiety, and insomnia were measured using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and the Insomnia Severity Index, respectively. RESULTS: Of respondents, 16.4% reported clinically significant depression, 13.8% reported clinically significant anxiety, and 13.3% reported insomnia. Among the nursing staff, 20.9% reported clinically significant depression, 15.9% reported clinically significant anxiety, and 17.0% reported insomnia. There was significantly higher depression (P = .000), anxiety (P = .002), and insomnia (P = .007) among nursing staff compared with other hospital staff in 2-tailed t tests. There was a significantly higher prevalence of insomnia among females (χ2 = 5.85, df = 2, P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Study results show that more than 1 in 10 hospital staff suffer from mental health conditions, even during the beginning of the pandemic, and there is a need for active psychiatric support for the hospital staff during this pandemic. Depression, anxiety, and insomnia are significantly higher among nurses compared to other hospital staff. The results of this research suggest that comprehensive support measures should be implemented to protect and maintain mental health of hospital staff, especially nurses, while fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
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