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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580544

ABSTRACT

There are many ways to regulate emotions. People use both adaptive (e.g., regulation by music) and maladaptive (e.g., regulation by food) strategies to do this. We hypothesized that participants with a high level of food-based regulatory strategies and a low level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the least adaptive form of emotion regulation) would have significantly greater levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress, as well as a significantly lower level of healthy eating behaviours than those with a low level of food-based regulatory strategies and a high level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the greatest adaptive form of emotion regulation). Participants (N = 410; Mage = 31.77, SD = 13.53) completed: the Brief Music in Mood Regulation Scale, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behavior Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and a socio-demographic survey. The four clusters were identified: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 148): low food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (b) Cluster 2 (N = 42): high food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (c) Cluster 3 (N = 70): high food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies; (d) Cluster 4 (N = 150): low food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies. Overall, our outcomes partially support our hypothesis, as higher levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress were observed in participants with high food-based and low music-based regulatory strategies as compared with adults with low food-based and high music-based regulatory strategies. To sum up, the results obtained indicate that during the COVID-19 pandemic the group of people regulating their emotional state and unhealthy eating predominantly with food is potentially characterized by worse functioning than the group of people regulating with music. Therefore, it can be concluded that people who regulate their functioning using food should be included in preventive measures by specialists. During the visit, psychologists and primary care physicians can ask patients about their daily strategies and based on this information specialists can estimate the potential risk of developing high levels of stress and anxiety, depressive disorders and unhealthy eating habits and provide specific (match) intervention.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Music/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cluster Analysis , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Emotional Regulation , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 240-254, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support, coping strategies, anxiety, and depression symptoms among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by comparing them with a matched control group in terms of age, gender, and education level. METHOD: The patient group (n = 84) and the healthy controls (HCs, n = 92) filled in the questionnaire including the socio-demographic form, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced through the online survey link. RESULTS: The COVID-19 patients had higher perceived social support and coping strategies scores than the HCs. However, anxiety and depression scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. In logistic regression analysis performed in COVID-19 patients, the presence of chest CT finding (OR = 4.31; 95% CI = 1.04-17.95) was a risk factor for anxiety and the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.73-0.99) had a negative association with anxiety. In addition, the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.98) and high perceived social support (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.93- 0,99) had a negative association with depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies involving the return to normality phase of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed to investigate the effects of factors such as coping strategies and perceived social support that could increase the psychological adjustment and resilience of individuals on anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Inpatients/psychology , Social Support , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 210-227, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease which is believed to have initially originated in Wuhan city of China at the end of 2019 was declared as pandemic by March 2020 by WHO. This pandemic significantly impacted the mental health of communities around the globe. This project draws data from available research to quantify COVID-19 mental health issues and its prevalence in China during the early period of the COVID-19 crisis. It is believed that this pooling of data will give fair estimate of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. METHODS: We conducted this study in accordance with PRISMA guidelines 2009. The protocol for this review is registered and published in PROSPERO (CRD42020182893). The databases used were Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar and Scopus. The studies were extracted according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and risk of bias assessment was conducted. The Meta-analysis was done using OpenMeta [analyst]. RESULTS: Total of 62382 participants in nineteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Stress was the most prevalent (48.1%) mental health consequence of Covid-19 pandemic, followed by depression (26.9%) and anxiety (21.8%). After performing subgroup analysis, prevalence of depression and anxiety in both females and frontline health care workers were high as compared to the prevalence in general Chinese population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression and anxiety is moderately high whereas pooled prevalence of stress was found to be very high in Chinese people during this Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholics/psychology , Depression/therapy , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholic Intoxication/psychology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/trends , Referral and Consultation , Substance Abuse Detection/methods
7.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(3): 179-184, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238117

ABSTRACT

The novel 2019 SARS-2-CoV causing COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the entire world. COVID-19 is a broad-based stressor, and research to date has documented increases in mental health problems, including anxiety, depression, and substance use, since the onset of COVID-19. By taking a transdiagnostic approach, scholars can help elucidate mechanisms and vulnerability as well as resiliency related to behavioral health problems in the context of COVID-19. The aim of the current special issue of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy was to showcase ongoing research focused on transdiagnostic factors in the context of COVID-19. The purpose of this issue is to highlight the significance of this work in the pandemic for research and practice; illustrate some of the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches; and explicate fruitful areas for programmatic study. We hope that readers will recognize the important role of transdiagnostic models and their potential to offset the mental, addictive, and physical health disease burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety/diagnosis , Behavior, Addictive/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
8.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(3): 780-781, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231996

ABSTRACT

The older population and medically frail persons are at higher risk of severe infections and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Long-term care (LTC) facilities are encouraged to take various actions to safeguard residents and reduce the spread of COVID-19 including by restricting visitors, which leads to isolation. The imposed isolation undermines the autonomy of older adults living in LTC facilities, especially those with dementia, and the isolation from loved ones can worsen cognition and depression. The purpose of this case report is to highlight isolation practices implemented to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in an LTC facility, which increased the social isolation and worsened cognition and depression in a resident with dementia and depression. Because many residents of LTC facilities have dementia, this case is an example of the need for interventions to support the mental health of persons living in LTC facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dementia/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Long-Term Care/psychology , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans
9.
Global Health ; 17(1): 40, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of and risk factors for adolescent mental health problems during the COVID-19 outbreak. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, their association with study-relevant problems, and the moderating effect of parent-child relationship among Chinese adolescents during the school closures. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected in middle and high schools in Taizhou, China. Students completed an online survey between April 16 and May 14, 2020. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory. Three types of study problems were recorded, including having difficulty in studying at home, dislike of remote learning, and excessive screen entertainment time. Parental relationships were categorized into good or normal relationship and poor relationship. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between study-relevant problems and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Using data from 6435 adolescents, we found that the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17.7%. All the study problem measures were associated with more severe depressive symptoms. There was a moderating effect of the parental relationship on the associations between study problems and depressive symptoms. The association between number of study problems and depressive symptoms was stronger in adolescents with a poor parent-child relationship (regression coefficient 4.34 [95% CI 2.97, 5.72]) than those with a good or normal relationship (2.55 [2.35, 2.75]), p for interaction 0.002, on multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Study problems due to school closures were particularly problematic for adolescents who had poor parent-child relationships. Public health initiatives could help students to adjust study habits and improve parent-child relationships, thereby protecting against the development of depression.


Subject(s)
Academic Success , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113905, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164345

ABSTRACT

Few studies have examined changes in mental health before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. We examined changes in the prevalence of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) between February 2019 and March-April 2020; if there were changes in major depression and GAD during six weeks of nationwide lockdown; and we identified factors that predicted major depression and GAD across the six-week lockdown period. Nationally representative samples of Irish adults were gathered using identical methods in February 2019 (N = 1020) and March-April 2020 (N = 1041). The latter was reassessed six weeks later. Significantly more people screened positive for depression in February 2019 (29.8% 95% CI = 27.0, 32.6) than in March-April 2020 (22.8% 95% CI = 20.2, 25.3), and there was no change in GAD. There were no significant changes in depression and GAD during the lockdown. Major depression was predicted by younger age, non-city dwelling, lower resilience, higher loneliness, and higher somatic problems. GAD was predicted by a broader set of variables including several COVID-19 specific variables. These findings indicate that the prevalence of major depression and GAD did not increase as a result of, or during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Loneliness , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
11.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1631-1639, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154594

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: The COVID-19 outbreak is known to increase stress levels of most patients with chronic diseases. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are highly susceptible to environmental stress. In the current study, we aimed to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic psychologically affected patients with chronic progressive diseases such as AS and RA and the effects of these psychological factors on disease activity. Materials and methods: Age and sex-matched patients with AS (n = 80), RA (n = 80), and healthy controls (n = 80) were included in the study. All participants were evaluated with the "Perceived COVID-19 Threat Form (PCTF)", "Suicide-Ideation Scale (SIS)", "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)", "The Ability to Cope with Trauma (PACT)", and "Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB)" scales. BASDAI was used in patients with AS, and DAS28 was used in patients with RA to assess disease severity. Results: Compared to healthy individuals, patients with RA and AS had lower PGWB scores and higher HADS depression and anxiety subscale scores. Almost all psychometric assessment test scores were worse in AS patients with high-disease activity compared to those in low-disease activity. PACT scores were higher in patients with moderate RA compared to patients with mild RA (p = 0.006). While a positive correlation was identified between BASDAI and most of the psychometric assessment test scores (r = 0 .36 for PCTF, r = 0.53 for depressive scores, r = 0.54 for anxiety scores, r = 0.57 for suicidal ideation), DAS28 scores were found to be associated only with PACT total and PACT perceived forward-focused subscale scores (r = ­.26 and r = .33, respectively). Conclusion: Psychologically, AS and RA patients were found to be worse off compared to healthy controls. The perceived COVID threat and psychological status were associated with disease activity in AS, but not RA patients. Patients with chronic illnesses may be more vulnerable to the psychological effects of the pandemic, which can worsen disease activity.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/psychology , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/psychology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 103, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 210,000 medical workers have fought against the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei in China since December 2019. However, the prevalence of mental health problems in frontline medical staff after fighting COVID-19 is still unknown. METHODS: Medical workers in Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province were invited to participate a cross-sectional and convenience sampling online survey, which assessed the prevalence of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: A total of 1,091 responses (33% male and 67% female) were valid for statistical analysis. The prevalence was anxiety 53%, insomnia 79%, depression 56%, and PTSD 11%. Healthcare workers in Wuhan were more likely to face risks of anxiety (56% vs. 52%, P = 0.03) and PTSD (15% vs. 9%, P = 0.03) than those in other cities of Hubei. In terms of educational attainment, those with doctoral and masters' (D/M) degrees may experience more anxiety (median of 7.0, [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-8.5] vs. median 5.0 [IQR 5.0-8.0], P = 0.02) and PTSD (median 26.0 [IQR 19.5-33.0] vs. median 23.0 [IQR 19.0-31.0], P = 0.04) than those with lower educational degrees. CONCLUSIONS: The mental problems were an important issue for the healthcare workers after COVID-19. Thus, an early intervention on such mental problems is necessary for healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Prevalence , Psychometrics , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
J Behav Addict ; 10(1): 169-180, 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127815

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly impacted aspects of human life globally. Playing videogames has been encouraged by several organizations to help individuals cope with the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures. This longitudinal study was the first to examine gaming in the context of the pandemic and its association with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods: The sample comprised 1,778 children and adolescents (50.7% male) who were part of the Project of School Mental Health in Southwest China. Data were collected at two-time intervals: before the COVID-19 pandemic (October to November 2019 - [T1]) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (April to May 2020 - [T2]). Data were collected on perceived COVID-19 impacts, videogame use, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Cross-lagged panel models were computed to examine longitudinal relationships. Results: The results indicated that both videogame use and IGD increased significantly for adolescents at T2. The cross-lagged panel model results suggested that depressive and anxiety symptoms at T1 positively predicted IGD and videogame use at T2 (especially for boys), but not inversely. Perceived COVID-19 impacts mediated the relationship between depressive and anxiety symptoms at T1 and IGD at T2. Conclusion: Children and adolescents both increased videogame use at T2, but only adolescents significantly increased IGD severity at T2. The findings supported the compensatory hypothesis, and are consistent with the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution model as individual responses to COVID-19 may function as a mediator between personal predisposing variables and IGD.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/complications , Internet Addiction Disorder/complications , Video Games/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Child , China , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(4): 276-294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127267

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents unique stressors (e.g. social isolation) that may increase substance use risk among young adults with a history of emotional disturbance. This study examined whether emotional disorder symptoms and transdiagnostic vulnerabilities during adolescence predicted young adult substance use during COVID-19, and whether using substances to cope with the pandemic's social conditions mediated these associations. Adolescents (N = 2,120) completed baseline surveys assessing transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities (anhedonia, distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency) and symptoms (major depression[MD], generalized anxiety[GAD], panic disorder[PD], social phobia[SP], obsessive-compulsive disorder[OCD]) in adolescence (September-December 2016; M[SD] age = 17.45[0.38]). At follow-up (May-August 2020; M[SD] age = 21.16[0.39]), past 30-day substance use and using substances to cope with social isolation during the pandemic were reported. Adjusted models showed that baseline distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency, and MD symptoms each significantly predicted higher number of past-month single-substance using days and number of substances used at follow-up (ßs = 0.04-0.06). In each case, associations were mediated by tendency to use substances to cope with the pandemic (ßindirect range: 0.028-0.061). To mitigate disproportionate escalation of substance use in young adults with a history of certain types of emotional disturbance, interventions promoting healthy coping strategies to deal with the pandemic's social conditions warrant consideration.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Recreational Drug Use/psychology , Affective Symptoms/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Young Adult
15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(2): 121-129, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in people with pre-existing mental health disorders is unclear. In three psychiatry case-control cohorts, we compared the perceived mental health impact and coping and changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, worry, and loneliness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic between people with and without lifetime depressive, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders. METHODS: Between April 1 and May 13, 2020, online questionnaires were distributed among the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons, and Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association cohorts, including people with (n=1181) and without (n=336) depressive, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders. The questionnaire contained questions on perceived mental health impact, fear of COVID-19, coping, and four validated scales assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, worry, and loneliness used in previous waves during 2006-16. Number and chronicity of disorders were based on diagnoses in previous waves. Linear regression and mixed models were done. FINDINGS: The number and chronicity of disorders showed a positive graded dose-response relation, with greater perceived impact on mental health, fear, and poorer coping. Although people with depressive, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders scored higher on all four symptom scales than did individuals without these mental health disorders, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, they did not report a greater increase in symptoms during the pandemic. In fact, people without depressive, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders showed a greater increase in symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas individuals with the greatest burden on their mental health tended to show a slight symptom decrease. INTERPRETATION: People with depressive, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders are experiencing a detrimental impact on their mental health from the COVID-19 pandemic, which requires close monitoring in clinical practice. Yet, the COVID-19 pandemic does not seem to have further increased symptom severity compared with their prepandemic levels. FUNDING: Dutch Research Council.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Loneliness , Mental Health , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/physiopathology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/physiopathology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
J Community Psychol ; 49(6): 2134-2143, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103312

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess depression and anxiety levels among individuals, who are deaf during the lockdown throughout the first wave of the pandemic United Arab Emirates. The sample of the study consisted of 36 (n = 36) individuals aged 20.3 ± 1.2 years, who were deaf from birth. The respondents were divided into two groups; (1) those who were living with their parents (n = 20), (2) those who were independently living on their own (n = 16). Results of the study indicated that from May to October, there was decrease in the number of normal mental health cases among those living with parents (p ≤ 0.05). The results of the study show that in the time of the pandemic, deaf people constitute a vulnerable portion of the population. The correlation between living alone and stress levels was 0.78. The correlation between living with parents and stress levels was -0.85.


Subject(s)
Aggression/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Deafness/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e8, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101609

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID-19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Income , Internet , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Quality of Life/psychology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Fam Community Health ; 44(2): 87-98, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075639

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and related quarantine orders will impact the mental health of millions of individuals in the United States. Mental health difficulties, including depression, anxiety, traumatic stress, and other negative mental health sequelae are likely and likely to persist. These challenges will require response from the psychotherapeutic and medical community that addresses the mental health needs of the population. Using binary logistic regression (n = 322 at time 1, and n = 189 at time 2), researchers in the present study examined promotive factors related to having sought medical or behavioral health treatment during a 30-day period in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Approximately 10% of the sample indicated having sought either type of help. Results from the binary logistic regressions indicated those who sought counseling or medical help were those who reported increased depression symptoms at time 1. The likelihood of help seeking was heightened for those who reported greater caregiving burden, highlighting the need to consider the availability of services for those caring for children during this community-wide crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Help-Seeking Behavior , Parents/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1015-1021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060642

ABSTRACT

We explored the impact of the Spanish COVID-19 strict home confinement on mental health and cognition in non-infected subjects (N = 16, 60-80 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive decline and APOEɛ3/ɛ4 carriers. Mental health was monitored for 2 months on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, and compared to pre-confinement values. Emotional distress, anxiety, and depression scores increased to pathological threshold values during and after confinement. Those with lower mood during confinement experienced a decline in their mood after confinement. Cognition did not change. These preliminary results suggest that mental health consequences of corona measures in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease should be further evaluated.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Quarantine/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Apolipoprotein E3/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/genetics , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Distress , Risk , Spain
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