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1.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(7): 1265-1279, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908084

ABSTRACT

There is a pressing need for host-directed therapeutics that elicit broad-spectrum antiviral activities to potentially address current and future viral pandemics. Apratoxin S4 (Apra S4) is a potent Sec61 inhibitor that prevents cotranslational translocation of secretory proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to anticancer and antiangiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Since Sec61 has been shown to be an essential host factor for viral proteostasis, we tested Apra S4 in cellular models of viral infection, including SARS-CoV-2, influenza A virus, and flaviviruses (Zika, West Nile, and Dengue virus). Apra S4 inhibited viral replication in a concentration-dependent manner and had high potency particularly against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus, with subnanomolar activity in human cells. Characterization studies focused on SARS-CoV-2 revealed that Apra S4 impacted a post-entry stage of the viral life-cycle. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Apra S4 blocked formation of stacked double-membrane vesicles, the sites of viral replication. Apra S4 reduced dsRNA formation and prevented viral protein production and trafficking of secretory proteins, especially the spike protein. Given the potent and broad-spectrum activity of Apra S4, further preclinical evaluation of Apra S4 and other Sec61 inhibitors as antivirals is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Depsipeptides , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy
2.
Antiviral Res ; 200: 105270, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763566

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has made evident the need for broad-spectrum, efficient antiviral treatments to combat emerging and re-emerging viruses. Plitidepsin is an antitumor agent of marine origin that has also shown a potent pre-clinical efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Plitidepsin targets the host protein eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha) and affects viral infection at an early, post-entry step. Because electron microscopy is a valuable tool to study virus-cell interactions and the mechanism of action of antiviral drugs, in this work we have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate the effects of plitidepsin in SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured Vero E6 cells 24 and 48h post-infection. In the absence of plitidepsin, TEM morphological analysis showed double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), organelles that support coronavirus genome replication, single-membrane vesicles with viral particles, large vacuoles with groups of viruses and numerous extracellular virions attached to the plasma membrane. When treated with plitidepsin, no viral structures were found in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells. Immunogold detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) provided clear signals in cells infected in the absence of plitidepsin, but complete absence in cells infected and treated with plitidepsin. The present study shows that plitidepsin blocks the biogenesis of viral replication organelles and the morphogenesis of virus progeny. Electron microscopy morphological analysis coupled to immunogold labeling of SARS-CoV-2 products offers a unique approach to understand how antivirals such as plitidepsin work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depsipeptides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
3.
Nature ; 603(7899): 25-27, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730273

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/economics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Guanidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Internationality , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Mice , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 141: 105171, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scientists are still battling severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic so human lives can be saved worldwide. Secondary fungal metabolites are of intense interest due to their broad range of pharmaceutical properties. Beauvericin (BEA) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Although promising anti-viral activity has previously been reported for BEA, studies investigating its therapeutic potential are limited. METHODS: The objective of this study was to assess the potential usage of BEA as an anti-viral molecule via protein-protein docking approaches using MolSoft. RESULTS: In-silico results revealed relatively favorable binding energies for BEA to different viral proteins implicated in the vital life stages of this virus. Of particular interest is the capability of BEA to dock to both the main coronavirus protease (Pockets A and B) and spike proteins. These results were validated by molecular dynamic simulation (Gromacs). Several parameters, such as root-mean-square deviation/fluctuation, the radius of gyration, H-bonding, and free binding energy were analyzed. Computational analyses revealed that interaction of BEA with the main protease pockets in addition to the spike glycoprotein remained stable. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results suggest that BEA might be considered as a potential competitive and allosteric agonist inhibitor with therapeutic options for treating COVID-19 pending in vitro and in vivo validation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
Amino Acids ; 54(2): 205-213, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has shaken all the countries across the globe and researchers are trying to find promising antiviral to cure the patients suffering from infection and can decrease the death. Even, different nations are using repurposing drugs to cure the symptoms and these repurposing drugs are hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir, and recently, India has recently given the approval for the 2-deoxy-D-glucose for emergency purpose to cure the patients suffering from the COVID-19. Plitidepsin is a popular molecule and can be used in treatment of myeloma. Plitidepsin was explored by scientists experimentally against the COVID-19 and was given to the patient. It is found to be more a promising repurposing drug against the COVID-19 than the remdesivir. Therefore, there is a need to understand the interaction of plitidepsin with the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking of the plitidepsin against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 was performed and the binding energy was found to be - 137.992 kcal/mol. Furthermore, authors have performed the molecular dynamics simulations of the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 in presence of plitidepsin at 300 and 325 K. It was found that the plitidepsin binds effectively with the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 at 300 K.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Depsipeptides/chemistry , Depsipeptides/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Molecular Structure , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(2): e202100719, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527422

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication depends on the interaction between the viral proteins and the human translation machinery. The cytotoxic peptide plitidepsin was found to inhibit CoV-2 up to 90 % at a concentration of 0.88 nM. In vitro studies suggest that this activity may be attributed to the inhibition of the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A). However, recent reports raised the potential for other cellular targets which plitidepsin may use to exert its potent antiviral activity. The lack of data about these potential targets represents a major limitation for its structural optimization. This work describes the use of a molecular modeling approach to rationalize the in vitro antiviral activity of plitidepsin and to identify potential cellular targets. The developed protocol involves an initial molecular docking step followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations. The results reveal the potential for plitidepsin to bind to the active site of the key enzyme SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. The results also highlight the importance of van der Waals interactions for proper binding with the enzyme. We believe that the results presented in this study could provide the grounds for the optimization of plitidepsin analogs as SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Depsipeptides/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1289-1301, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, has resulted in a massive global health crisis. Bioactive molecules extracted or synthesized using starting material obtained from marine species, including griffithsin, plitidepsin and fingolimod are in clinical trials to evaluate their anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-HIV efficacies. The current review highlights the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of marine-derived phytochemicals explored using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. The current literature suggests that these molecules have the potential to bind with various key drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, many of these agents have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potentials and thus could play a role in the attenuation of COVID-19 complications. Overall, these agents may play a role in the management of COVID-19, but further preclinical and clinical studies are still required to establish their role in the mitigation of the current viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Oceans and Seas , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Depsipeptides , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/chemistry , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Humans , Lectins , Marine Biology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Phycocyanin/pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Plant Lectins/chemistry , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Seaweed , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
9.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(5): 402-407, 2021 Oct.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204479

ABSTRACT

The knowledge of the replicative cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and its interactions with cellular proteins has opened a new therapeutic possibility based on blocking those essential for the virus. The cellular protein elongation factor eEF1A could be a good target. Among its natural inhibitors are didemnins and their related chemical compounds such as plitidepsin. In human cell culture, this compound is capable of inhibiting the virus with a potency 27,5 times that of remdesivir. It must be administered intravenously. Of the ribonucleoside analogues, molnupiravir (MK-4483/EIDD-2801) (hydroxy-cytidine) determines a lethal mutagenesis on SARS-CoV-2. In animals, after oral administration, the pulmonary viral load decreases 25,000 times and when administered as prophylaxis, approximately 100,000 times. It prevents the transmission of the virus and eliminates its presence in the oropharynx. Both chemicals have started Phase I / II human clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ribonucleosides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Depsipeptides , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Peptide Elongation Factors , Peptides, Cyclic , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110462

ABSTRACT

Currently, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has infected people among all countries and is a pandemic as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). SARS-CoVID-2 main protease is one of the therapeutic drug targets that has been shown to reduce virus replication, and its high-resolution 3D structures in complex with inhibitors have been solved. Previously, we had demonstrated the potential of natural compounds such as serine protease inhibitors eventually leading us to hypothesize that FDA-approved marine drugs have the potential to inhibit the biological activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Initially, field-template and structure-activity atlas models were constructed to understand and explain the molecular features responsible for SARS-CoVID-2 main protease inhibitors, which revealed that Eribulin Mesylate, Plitidepsin, and Trabectedin possess similar characteristics related to SARS-CoVID-2 main protease inhibitors. Later, protein-ligand interactions are studied using ensemble molecular-docking simulations that revealed that marine drugs bind at the active site of the main protease. The three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) studies show that marine drugs displace water molecules at the active site, and interactions observed are favorable. These computational studies eventually paved an interest in further in vitro studies. Finally, these findings are new and indeed provide insights into the role of FDA-approved marine drugs, which are already in clinical use for cancer treatment as a potential alternative to prevent and treat infected people with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Catalytic Domain , Depsipeptides/chemistry , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Furans/chemistry , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Ketones/chemistry , Ketones/pharmacology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides, Cyclic , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Trabectedin/chemistry , Trabectedin/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Science ; 371(6532): 884-885, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105401
12.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079668
13.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(4)2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072688

ABSTRACT

Finding antivirals to reduce coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) morbidity and mortality has been challenging. Large randomized clinical trials that aimed to test four repurposed drugs, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon beta 1a, and remdesivir, have shown that these compounds lack an impact on the COVID-19 course. Although the phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial results are encouraging, the search for effective COVID-19 therapeutics should not stop. Recently, plitidepsin (aplidin) demonstrated highly effective preclinical activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its antiviral activity was 27.5-fold more potent than that of remdesivir (K. M. White, R. Rosales, S. Yildiz, T. Kehrer, et al., Science, 2021, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/01/22/science.abf4058). Plitidepsin, a repurposed drug developed for the treatment of multiple myeloma, targets the host translation cofactor eEF1A. Plitidepsin has shown efficacy in animal models and phase I/II human trials. Although plitidepsin is administered intravenously and its toxicity profile remains to be fully characterized, this compound may be a promising alternative COVID-19 therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Science ; 371(6532): 926-931, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048642

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins interact with the eukaryotic translation machinery, and inhibitors of translation have potent antiviral effects. We found that the drug plitidepsin (aplidin), which has limited clinical approval, possesses antiviral activity (90% inhibitory concentration = 0.88 nM) that is more potent than remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by a factor of 27.5, with limited toxicity in cell culture. Through the use of a drug-resistant mutant, we show that the antiviral activity of plitidepsin against SARS-CoV-2 is mediated through inhibition of the known target eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A). We demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of plitidepsin treatment in two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a reduction of viral replication in the lungs by two orders of magnitude using prophylactic treatment. Our results indicate that plitidepsin is a promising therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Depsipeptides/administration & dosage , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation , Peptides, Cyclic , Phosphoproteins/biosynthesis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
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