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Antiviral Res ; 200: 105270, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763566


The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has made evident the need for broad-spectrum, efficient antiviral treatments to combat emerging and re-emerging viruses. Plitidepsin is an antitumor agent of marine origin that has also shown a potent pre-clinical efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Plitidepsin targets the host protein eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha) and affects viral infection at an early, post-entry step. Because electron microscopy is a valuable tool to study virus-cell interactions and the mechanism of action of antiviral drugs, in this work we have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate the effects of plitidepsin in SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured Vero E6 cells 24 and 48h post-infection. In the absence of plitidepsin, TEM morphological analysis showed double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), organelles that support coronavirus genome replication, single-membrane vesicles with viral particles, large vacuoles with groups of viruses and numerous extracellular virions attached to the plasma membrane. When treated with plitidepsin, no viral structures were found in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells. Immunogold detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) provided clear signals in cells infected in the absence of plitidepsin, but complete absence in cells infected and treated with plitidepsin. The present study shows that plitidepsin blocks the biogenesis of viral replication organelles and the morphogenesis of virus progeny. Electron microscopy morphological analysis coupled to immunogold labeling of SARS-CoV-2 products offers a unique approach to understand how antivirals such as plitidepsin work.

COVID-19 , Depsipeptides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
Nature ; 603(7899): 25-27, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730273

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/economics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Guanidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Internationality , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Mice , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors
Comput Biol Med ; 141: 105171, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588029


BACKGROUND: Scientists are still battling severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic so human lives can be saved worldwide. Secondary fungal metabolites are of intense interest due to their broad range of pharmaceutical properties. Beauvericin (BEA) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Although promising anti-viral activity has previously been reported for BEA, studies investigating its therapeutic potential are limited. METHODS: The objective of this study was to assess the potential usage of BEA as an anti-viral molecule via protein-protein docking approaches using MolSoft. RESULTS: In-silico results revealed relatively favorable binding energies for BEA to different viral proteins implicated in the vital life stages of this virus. Of particular interest is the capability of BEA to dock to both the main coronavirus protease (Pockets A and B) and spike proteins. These results were validated by molecular dynamic simulation (Gromacs). Several parameters, such as root-mean-square deviation/fluctuation, the radius of gyration, H-bonding, and free binding energy were analyzed. Computational analyses revealed that interaction of BEA with the main protease pockets in addition to the spike glycoprotein remained stable. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results suggest that BEA might be considered as a potential competitive and allosteric agonist inhibitor with therapeutic options for treating COVID-19 pending in vitro and in vivo validation.

Antiviral Agents , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
Amino Acids ; 54(2): 205-213, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527473


COVID-19 has shaken all the countries across the globe and researchers are trying to find promising antiviral to cure the patients suffering from infection and can decrease the death. Even, different nations are using repurposing drugs to cure the symptoms and these repurposing drugs are hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir, and recently, India has recently given the approval for the 2-deoxy-D-glucose for emergency purpose to cure the patients suffering from the COVID-19. Plitidepsin is a popular molecule and can be used in treatment of myeloma. Plitidepsin was explored by scientists experimentally against the COVID-19 and was given to the patient. It is found to be more a promising repurposing drug against the COVID-19 than the remdesivir. Therefore, there is a need to understand the interaction of plitidepsin with the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking of the plitidepsin against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 was performed and the binding energy was found to be - 137.992 kcal/mol. Furthermore, authors have performed the molecular dynamics simulations of the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 in presence of plitidepsin at 300 and 325 K. It was found that the plitidepsin binds effectively with the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 at 300 K.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Depsipeptides/chemistry , Depsipeptides/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Molecular Structure , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110462


Currently, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has infected people among all countries and is a pandemic as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). SARS-CoVID-2 main protease is one of the therapeutic drug targets that has been shown to reduce virus replication, and its high-resolution 3D structures in complex with inhibitors have been solved. Previously, we had demonstrated the potential of natural compounds such as serine protease inhibitors eventually leading us to hypothesize that FDA-approved marine drugs have the potential to inhibit the biological activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Initially, field-template and structure-activity atlas models were constructed to understand and explain the molecular features responsible for SARS-CoVID-2 main protease inhibitors, which revealed that Eribulin Mesylate, Plitidepsin, and Trabectedin possess similar characteristics related to SARS-CoVID-2 main protease inhibitors. Later, protein-ligand interactions are studied using ensemble molecular-docking simulations that revealed that marine drugs bind at the active site of the main protease. The three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) studies show that marine drugs displace water molecules at the active site, and interactions observed are favorable. These computational studies eventually paved an interest in further in vitro studies. Finally, these findings are new and indeed provide insights into the role of FDA-approved marine drugs, which are already in clinical use for cancer treatment as a potential alternative to prevent and treat infected people with SARS-CoV-2.

Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Catalytic Domain , Depsipeptides/chemistry , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Furans/chemistry , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Ketones/chemistry , Ketones/pharmacology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides, Cyclic , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Trabectedin/chemistry , Trabectedin/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Replication/drug effects
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079668
Science ; 371(6532): 926-931, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048642


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins interact with the eukaryotic translation machinery, and inhibitors of translation have potent antiviral effects. We found that the drug plitidepsin (aplidin), which has limited clinical approval, possesses antiviral activity (90% inhibitory concentration = 0.88 nM) that is more potent than remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by a factor of 27.5, with limited toxicity in cell culture. Through the use of a drug-resistant mutant, we show that the antiviral activity of plitidepsin against SARS-CoV-2 is mediated through inhibition of the known target eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A). We demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of plitidepsin treatment in two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a reduction of viral replication in the lungs by two orders of magnitude using prophylactic treatment. Our results indicate that plitidepsin is a promising therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Depsipeptides/administration & dosage , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation , Peptides, Cyclic , Phosphoproteins/biosynthesis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects