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2.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14528, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917742

ABSTRACT

Given the current lack of a therapeutic vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), preventive measures including mask wearing are crucial in slowing the transmission of cases. However, prolonged wearing of protective respirators, medical and fabric masks can easily generate excessive sweating, moisture and friction. Closed and warm environments heighten the skin's permeability and sensitivity to physical or chemical irritants, leading to chronic cumulative irritant contact dermatitis or, rarely, even allergic contact dermatitis. Although not representing a life-threatening condition, contact dermatitis can have a significant impact on emergency management, as it is potentially able to reduce work performance and create emotional discomfort due to the involvement of evident body areas. To minimize the skin breakdown, adherence to standards on wearing protective and safe equipments and avoidance of overprotection should be performed. At the same time, some measures of skin care are recommended. Here, we offer some tips on how to prevent and manage contact dermatitis due to masks not only in health care workers, but also in the general population during this COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Contact/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Occupational/prevention & control , Facial Dermatoses/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Masks/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Skin Care , Administration, Cutaneous , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Anti-Allergic Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis, Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(12): 1437-1449, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892266

ABSTRACT

Numerous unexplained pneumonia cases were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by Wuhan, China, in December 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a zoonotic pathogen, came into sight, spreading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) all over the globe. Association of cutaneous signs and symptoms with COVID-19 is being studied worldwide, principally, to determine if these dermatoses can help in early recognition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These dermatological manifestations can range from erythematous rash, urticaria to livedo reticularis, and acrocyanosis in patients of all age groups. Correspondingly, dermatologists treating COVID-19 patients, suffering from inflammatory dermatoses, with biologics or immunomodulators should exert caution and use specific protocols to adjust the doses of these medications. Prevention of person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 is being promoted universally, with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand washes, and hand sanitizers around the clock. However, an array of cutaneous adverse effects such as contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, friction blisters, contact urticaria, acne, and infections are associated with the use of PPE. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 are still emerging in the community, and physicians and researchers are working together globally to strengthen the clinical management of these patients. Cases of COVID-19 continue to rise across the world, and an unprecedented approach has been taken to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic strategies against existing and forthcoming mutagenic strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Contact/epidemiology , Dermatology/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Skin Diseases, Infectious/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Contact/etiology , Dermatology/standards , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases, Infectious/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Infectious/virology
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