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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5756-5767, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432444

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant health problem globally. The virus has spread widely and become a global pandemic. The pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 has not been explained clearly. It has been associated with several multiorgan symptoms, among which its dermatological manifestations are of great interest. Primarily, there has been no report of skin features among COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, recently there have been several reports regarding COVID-19 patients who presented with cutaneous manifestations. In the current review, we focus on the various cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/pathology , Dermatitis, Occupational/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Eruptions/diagnosis , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/pathology , Drug Eruptions/therapy , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/therapy
2.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 101(9): adv00543, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370975

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to enhanced hygiene procedures and use of personal protective equipment, but also to increased attention to occupational skin disease in healthcare workers. The occurrence of hand and facial skin disease in > 5,000 Swedish healthcare workers was investigated in a questionnaire survey. Levels of skin exposure related to hygiene procedures and personal protective equipment were recorded. Caring for patients with COVID-19 entailed higher levels of wet work and face mask exposures, and was associated with higher 1-year prevalence of both hand eczema (36%) and facial skin disease (32%) compared with not being directly engaged in COVID-19 care (28% and 22%, respectively). Acne and eczema were the most common facial skin diseases; for both, a dose-dependent association with face mask use was found. Dose-dependent associations could be shown between hand eczema and exposure to soap and gloves, but not to alcohol-based hand disinfectants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Occupational , Eczema , Hand Dermatoses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Eczema/diagnosis , Eczema/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Dermatol Clin ; 39(4): 555-568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252651

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to the dramatic increase in use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among health care providers and the general public. Herein the authors discuss the various occupational dermatoses including allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and rosacea related to frequent handwashing, disinfecting of surfaces, and prolonged wear of various PPE including face masks, gloves, and gowns. The authors provide an overview of published PPE-associated occupational dermatoses during the COVID-19 pandemic and also discuss prevention strategies and treatment options to help patients with these complaints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Irritant/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Gloves, Protective/adverse effects , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Humans
6.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(4): 26, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155324

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to summarize some recent trends in occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), including dermatitis related to pandemic-level personal protective equipment in healthcare workers, hazards patients may experience when working from home, and occupational perspectives on the recent American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) allergens of the year and ACDS Core Allergen Series updates. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent ACDS Allergens of the Year may be particularly relevant to healthcare workers, including isobornyl acrylate, which is present in glucose sensors and propylene glycol present in hand cleansers and disinfectants. Lavender, limonene, and linalool, all of which are new additions to the ACDS Core Allergen Series, have been reported as causes for occupational ACD in massage therapists and aromatherapists. Isothiazolinone allergy continues to rise in both consumer and occupational settings. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a wave of occupational ACD in healthcare workers to personal protective equipment, and revealed new potential allergens for individuals working from home. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis continues to exert a significant occupational disease burden. Remaining aware of the current trends in allergens may allow for earlier recognition, diagnosis, and treatment, subsequently helping our patients to work in healthier and safer environments.


Subject(s)
Allergens/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Acrylates , Acyclic Monoterpenes/adverse effects , Allergy and Immunology/trends , Camphanes , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatology/trends , Health Personnel , Humans , Lavandula/adverse effects , Limonene/adverse effects , Pandemics , Patch Tests/adverse effects , Propylene Glycol , Societies, Medical , United States
7.
Dermatitis ; 32(2): 78-85, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus infectious disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in health care workers donning personal protective equipment (PPE) for extended periods. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to review facial PPE (surgical masks and N95 respirators) ingredients, to identify facial PPE resterilization techniques, and to recommend strategies for prevention and management of facial PPE-related dermatoses. METHODS: Twenty-one facial PPE (11 N95 respirators, 10 surgical masks) were reviewed. Resterilization techniques were identified. Personal protective equipment-induced occupational dermatoses and management strategies were explored. RESULTS: Polypropylene is the most common chemical identified in facial PPE. Most masks contain aluminum at the nosepiece. Two surgical masks released nickel. Facial PPE dermatoses include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, acne, and contact urticaria. Strategies for prevention and management of facial PPE occupational dermatoses are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There are increasing reports of occupational dermatoses associated with facial PPE. This review discusses the components of facial PPE, mask resterilization methods, and strategies for prevention and management of facial PPE dermatoses.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/chemically induced , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/diagnosis , Humans
8.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14528, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917742

ABSTRACT

Given the current lack of a therapeutic vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), preventive measures including mask wearing are crucial in slowing the transmission of cases. However, prolonged wearing of protective respirators, medical and fabric masks can easily generate excessive sweating, moisture and friction. Closed and warm environments heighten the skin's permeability and sensitivity to physical or chemical irritants, leading to chronic cumulative irritant contact dermatitis or, rarely, even allergic contact dermatitis. Although not representing a life-threatening condition, contact dermatitis can have a significant impact on emergency management, as it is potentially able to reduce work performance and create emotional discomfort due to the involvement of evident body areas. To minimize the skin breakdown, adherence to standards on wearing protective and safe equipments and avoidance of overprotection should be performed. At the same time, some measures of skin care are recommended. Here, we offer some tips on how to prevent and manage contact dermatitis due to masks not only in health care workers, but also in the general population during this COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Contact/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Occupational/prevention & control , Facial Dermatoses/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Masks/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Skin Care , Administration, Cutaneous , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Anti-Allergic Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis, Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14396, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840549

ABSTRACT

Frequency of hand disinfection and adverse skin reactions among health care workers dramatically increased since the COVID-19 outbreak and consensus recommendations on hand hygiene were presented. The aim of the present study was to check the efficacy of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) Task Force (TF) on Contact Dermatitis (CD) recommendations in a real life and to search if providing products mentioned in that recommendations may increase its efficacy. Doctors and nurses who worked with patients during COVID-19 pandemic and use hand disinfectants received adopted recommendations of the EADV TF on CD only or together with mentioned in that recommendations gel with ethanol and glycerin and emollient. Prevalence of adverse skin reactions on hand disinfectants at baseline was 80.21%. In a month significant improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-assessed improvement of hand skin (P < .01 for both) was reported in "products" group only. Number of participants that had no impact on their HRQoL became higher and the Dermatology Life Quality Index scores lower than in "recommendations only" group (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively). Our results showed that recommendations of the EADV TF on CD may significantly improve HRQoL and hand skin status in health care professionals but provision with products mentioned in that recommendations is crucial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Occupational/prevention & control , Emollients/administration & dosage , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Hand Dermatoses/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Infection Control , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Physicians , Administration, Cutaneous , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Female , Gels , Hand Dermatoses/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14346, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799142

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin problems and dermatological life quality of the health care workers (HCWs) due to personal protection equipment (PPE) use, who are at high risk for COVID-19 infection. A questionnaire about HCWs' PPE use, their skin symptoms, and prevention, management methods and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was fulfilled. The median age of 440 participants was 33.5 (21.0-65.0) years old. Skin problems were found to be 90.2%, the most common were dryness, itching, cracking, burning, flaking, peeling and lichenification. The presence of skin problems (P < .001) was higher in those who did not use moisturizers. Of all, 22.3% (n = 98) stated that the use of PPE increased the severity of their previously diagnosed skin diseases and allergies (P < .01). Only 28.0% (n = 123) stated that they know the skin symptoms that may develop by using PPE. The proper hand washing rate was higher as education level increased (P < .001). Skin problems were higher in those using mask with metal nose bridge (P: .02 and P: .003, respectively). As the mask using period prolonged, acne was more common (P: .02). DLQI was significantly affected in women (P = .003), and with increased skin problems related to PPE (P < .001). It is important to organize trainings on prevention and management of possible skin symptoms due to PPE use according to guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Disinfection , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personnel, Hospital , Quality of Life , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/therapy , Facial Dermatoses/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/therapy , Female , Hand Dermatoses/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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