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J Cutan Pathol ; 49(1): 34-41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320386


BACKGROUND: As more people become vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reports of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are beginning to emerge. METHODS: In this IRB-approved retrospective case series, biopsy specimens of potential cutaneous adverse reactions from the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccine were identified and reviewed. Clinical information was obtained through the requisition form, referring clinician, or medical chart review. RESULTS: Twelve cases were included. Histopathological features from two injection-site reactions showed a mixed-cell infiltrate with eosinophils and a spongiotic dermatitis with eosinophils. Three biopsy specimens came from generalized eruptions that showed interface changes consistent with an exanthematous drug reaction. Three biopsy specimens revealed a predominantly spongiotic pattern, consistent with eczematous dermatitis. Small-vessel vascular injury was seen in two specimens, which were diagnosed as urticarial vasculitis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis, respectively. There were two cases of new-onset bullous pemphigoid supported by histopathological examination and direct immunofluorescence studies. Eosinophils were seen in 10 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatopathologists should be aware of potential cutaneous adverse reactions to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Histopathological patterns include mixed-cell infiltrates, epidermal spongiosis, and interface changes. Eosinophils are a common finding but are not always present. Direct immunofluorescence studies may be helpful for immune-mediated cutaneous presentations such as vasculitis or bullous pemphigoid.

COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/pathology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/pathology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dermatitis/etiology , Dermatitis/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Eosinophils/pathology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct/methods , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pemphigoid, Bullous/diagnosis , Pemphigoid, Bullous/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Skin/pathology , Vasculitis/chemically induced , Vasculitis/pathology
Hum Pathol ; 107: 39-45, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065107


The clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 is getting wider with the exponential increase of patients worldwide. Initially described with flu-like symptoms, variable cutaneous manifestations have been reported, with only few histopathological descriptions. Detection of the virus in cutaneous samples has been assessed in very few cases until now, and the causative role of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not been proven for every type of cutaneous manifestations yet. We aimed to describe histological features of cutaneous eruptions occurring concomitantly to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess by immunochemistry and in situ hybridization using RNAscope validation techniques the presence of the virus in skin lesions. We retrieved all skin biopsies received in the departments of pathology and dermatopathology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, performed in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presenting concomitant cutaneous manifestations since March 2020. In situ hybridization and immunostaining using a polyclonal SARS nucleocapsid protein antibody were performed on each sample. Skin biopsies from six patients presenting morbilliform eruption concomitant to SARS-CoV-2 infection were available for evaluation. All six samples showed varying degrees of spongiosis, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates of the dermis, and, for some of them, discrete interface dermatitis. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were negative in all cutaneous samples. Morbilliform rash concomitant to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by mild and unspecific histopathological features with no detectable viral RNA and protein and appears then not to be directly caused by the virus. Even if, at least for a few cases, the differential diagnosis with drug hypersensitivity reaction can be difficult, these cutaneous eruptions seem to rather correspond to paraviral rashes.

COVID-19/complications , Dermatitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Diseases/virology , Dermatitis/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases/pathology
Arch Dermatol Res ; 313(9): 805-808, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746571


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows rapid spread around the world. Its classic presentation is a respiratory illness. However, cutaneous manifestations have rarely been described as the first clinical manifestation in patients with this infection. The aim of this article is to describe cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 through three case reports.

COVID-19/pathology , Dermatitis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult