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Rheumatol Int ; 42(9): 1629-1641, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877826


Anti-MDA5 (Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) myositis is a rare subtype of dermatomyositis (DM) characterized by distinct ulcerative, erythematous cutaneous lesions and a high risk of rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD). It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) replicates rapidly in lung and skin epithelial cells, which is sensed by the cytosolic RNA-sensor MDA5. MDA5 then triggers type 1 interferon (IFN) production, and thus downstream inflammatory mediators (EMBO J 40(15):e107826, 2021); (J Virol, 2021, ); (Cell Rep 34(2):108628, 2021); (Sci Rep 11(1):13638, 2021); (Trends Microbiol 27(1):75-85, 2019). It has also been shown that MDA5 is triggered by the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with resultant activated dendritic cells (Nat Rev Immunol 21(4):195-197, 2021). Our literature review identified one reported case of MDA5-DM from the COVID-19 vaccine (Chest J, 2021, ). We present six additional cases of MDA5-DM that developed shortly after the administration of different kinds of COVID-19 vaccines. A review of other similar cases of myositis developing from the COVID-19 vaccine was also done. We aim to explore and discuss the evidence around recent speculations of a possible relation of MDA5-DM to COVID-19 infection and vaccine. The importance of vaccination during a worldwide pandemic should be maintained and our findings are not intended to discourage individuals from receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Dermatomyositis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Dermatomyositis/etiology , Humans , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(5): e32, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674310


Dermatomyositis (DM) is one of the uncommon multi-organ idiopathic inflammatory myopathies that has been reported following the hepatitis B, Influenza, tetanus toxoid, H1N1, and BCG vaccines. However, an association with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is yet to be reported. In this case, we present the case of a 43-year-old Asian Indian female who was diagnosed with DM 10 days after receiving the second dosage of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, in the absence of any additional triggering factors. The diagnosis was established based on physical examination, serological antibodies, magnetic resonance imaging of the muscles, skin biopsy, and electromyography. She received standard treatment for DM, including oral high doses of prednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, mycophenolate, and physiotherapy. The treatment successfully reversed skin changes and muscle weakness. This is the first reported case of classic DM complicated by interstitial lung disease following COVID-19 vaccination. More clinical and functional studies are needed to elucidate this association. Clinicians should be aware of this unexpected adverse event following COVID-19 vaccination and arrange for appropriate management.

BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Dermatomyositis/etiology , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skin/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(8): 63, 2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293439


PURPOSE: Myositis as a rare manifestation of COVID-19 is only recently being reported. This review examines the current literature on COVID-19-induced myositis focusing on etiopathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnostic practices, and therapeutic challenges with immunosuppression, and the difficulties experienced by rheumatologists in established myositis in the COVID-19 era. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 is associated with a viral myositis attributable to direct myocyte invasion or induction of autoimmunity. COVID-19-induced myositis may be varied in presentation, from typical dermatomyositis to rhabdomyolysis, and a paraspinal affliction with back pain. It may or may not present with acute exponential elevations of enzyme markers such as creatine kinase (CK). Virus-mediated muscle inflammation is attributed to ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme) receptor-mediated direct entry and affliction of muscle fibers, leading on to innate and adaptive immune activation. A greater recognition of the stark similarity between anti-MDA5-positive myositis with COVID-19 has thrown researchers into the alley of exploration - finding common etiopathogenic basis as well as therapeutic strategies. For patients with established myositis, chronic care was disrupted during the pandemic with several logistic challenges and treatment dilemmas leading to high flare rates. Teleconsultation bridged the gap while ushering in an era of patient-led care with the digital transition to tools of remote disease assessment. COVID-19 has brought along greater insight into unique manifestations of COVID-19-related myositis, ranging from direct virus-induced muscle disease to triggered autoimmunity and other etiopathogenic links to explore. A remarkable shift in the means of delivering chronic care has led patients and caregivers worldwide to embrace a virtual shift with teleconsultation and opened doorways to a new era of patient-led care.

COVID-19/physiopathology , Myositis/physiopathology , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autoantibodies/immunology , Back Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Creatine Kinase/metabolism , Dermatomyositis/etiology , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Dermatomyositis/metabolism , Dermatomyositis/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Myasthenia Gravis/etiology , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Myasthenia Gravis/metabolism , Myasthenia Gravis/physiopathology , Myositis/etiology , Myositis/immunology , Myositis/metabolism , Paraspinal Muscles/physiopathology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Rhabdomyolysis/immunology , Rhabdomyolysis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2