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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4191, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799570

ABSTRACT

Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) provide effective protection against diseases spread through airborne infectious droplets and particles. The widespread use of FFRs during the COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to supply shortages, but the disposal of single-use facemasks also threatens the environment with a new kind of plastic pollution. While limited reuse of filtering facepiece respirators has been permitted as a crisis capacity strategy, there are currently no standard test methods available for decontamination before their repeated use. The decontamination of respirators can compromise the structural and functional integrity by reducing the filtration efficiency and breathability. Digital segmentation of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans of the meltblown nonwoven layers of a specific N95 respirator model (Venus-4400) after treatment with one and five cycles of liquid hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, moist heat, and aqueous soap solution enabled us to perform filtration simulations of decontaminated respirators. The computed filtration efficiencies for 0.3 µm particles agreed well with experimental measurements, and the distribution of particle penetration depths was correlated with the structural changes resulting from decontamination. The combination of X-ray microCT imaging with numerical simulations thus provides a strategy for quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination treatments for a specific respirator model.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Equipment Reuse , Filtration , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Masks/virology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , X-Ray Microtomography
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625435

ABSTRACT

Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains a single-span transmembrane (TM) domain and plays roles in receptor binding, viral attachment and viral entry to the host cells. The TM domain of spike protein is critical for viral infectivity. Herein, the TM domain of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was reconstituted in detergent micelles and subjected to structural analysis using solution NMR spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the TM domain of the protein forms a helical structure in detergent micelles. An unstructured linker is identified between the TM helix and heptapeptide repeat 2 region. The linker is due to the proline residue at position 1213. Side chains of the three tryptophan residues preceding to and within the TM helix important for the function of S-protein might adopt multiple conformations which may be critical for their function. The side chain of W1212 was shown to be exposed to solvent and the side chains of residues W1214 and W1217 are buried in micelles. Relaxation study shows that the TM helix is rigid in solution while several residues have exchanges. The secondary structure and dynamics of the TM domain in this study provide insights into the function of the TM domain of spike protein.


Subject(s)
Detergents/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cross-Linking Reagents/pharmacology , Detergents/chemistry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Micelles , Models, Molecular , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Protein Domains/drug effects , Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Bioanalysis ; 13(5): 387-394, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116300

ABSTRACT

Aim: For oncolytic virus trials, regulatory agencies often require pharmaceutical industry to evaluate risks of released viruses from patients to environment. This study was to establish a real-time PCR method to assess viral shedding and viral stability in human urine. Results/methodology: Herein, we describe an incubation of viral drug product in human urine and use of real-time PCR as a simple, efficient and high throughput assay to assess the level and stability of a nonenveloped and single stranded RNA virus. The viral stability issue is critical to the collection, transport, storage and testing of clinical samples. Discussion/conclusion: In summary, this simple method provides useful viral stability information at various temperatures and detergents. A similar approach may apply to other RNA viruses (including SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Humans , RNA Stability , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/urine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Temperature , Virus Diseases/virology
4.
J Virol Methods ; 289: 114062, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic real time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) is usually done using nucleic acid (NA) purified from the sample. In the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic reagents and utensils for NA purification has been in short supply. This has generated interest in methods that eliminate the need for NA purification. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if addition of detergent to rRT-PCR master mix (MM) enabled in-well direct lysis and detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical eSwab specimens. STUDY DESIGN: IGEPAL-CA-630 (IGEPAL) was added to SARS-CoV-2 MM to 0.3 % final concentration and crude sample was added directly to the PCR well containing MM. Cycle of positivity (Cp) and categorical agreement was compared in samples tested in standard rRT-PCR after NA purification and in in-well lysis, direct rRT-PCR. RESULTS: In-well lysis direct rRT-PCR detected SARS-CoV-2 in 27/30 previously SARS-CoV-2+ samples with an average bias of 3.26 cycles (95 %CI: 0.08-6.43 cycles). All 30 previously test negative samples remained negative when tested in in-well lysis, direct PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of detergent to MM was shown to be useful for the detection of SARS CoV-2 in eSwab specimens (COPAN) by direct rRT-PCR without prior NA purification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Detergents/chemistry , Humans
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11432-11439, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Soap has been used by humankind since ancient times and was probably already known to the Sumerians. It is a fatty acid salt obtained from the reaction of a strong base with a fatty substance of animal (tallow) or plant origin (oil). This reaction is called saponification. Syndets, on the other hand, are much more recent and have been in use for about a century. In the case of liquid syndets, they are mainly alkyl sulphates and their derivatives alkyl ether sulphates while isethionates and sarcosinates are more commonly found in solid syndets. Synthetic soaps and detergents are surfactants and, as such, they have detergent properties. The way soap works accounts for its antimicrobial properties. Thanks to its amphiphilic structure, it is able to interact with the lipid membranes of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.) and inactivate them. In this coronavirus pandemic period, health authorities worldwide recommend hand washing with soap and water. We therefore wanted to provide a summary of the chemical characteristics and applications of soaps, on the one hand, and synthetic detergents, on the other. Soap is not the only product used for hand hygiene and, given the current situation, alternatives are complex and varied.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Detergents/pharmacology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Soaps/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/standards , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Detergents/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps/chemistry , Soaps/standards
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