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1.
Nature ; 618(7965): 575-582, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241955

ABSTRACT

Poverty is an important social determinant of health that is associated with increased risk of death1-5. Cash transfer programmes provide non-contributory monetary transfers to individuals or households, with or without behavioural conditions such as children's school attendance6,7. Over recent decades, cash transfer programmes have emerged as central components of poverty reduction strategies of many governments in low- and middle-income countries6,7. The effects of these programmes on adult and child mortality rates remains an important gap in the literature, however, with existing evidence limited to a few specific conditional cash transfer programmes, primarily in Latin America8-14. Here we evaluated the effects of large-scale, government-led cash transfer programmes on all-cause adult and child mortality using individual-level longitudinal mortality datasets from many low- and middle-income countries. We found that cash transfer programmes were associated with significant reductions in mortality among children under five years of age and women. Secondary heterogeneity analyses suggested similar effects for conditional and unconditional programmes, and larger effects for programmes that covered a larger share of the population and provided larger transfer amounts, and in countries with lower health expenditures, lower baseline life expectancy, and higher perceived regulatory quality. Our findings support the use of anti-poverty programmes such as cash transfers, which many countries have introduced or expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, to improve population health.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality , Developing Countries , Mortality , Poverty , Adult , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Child Mortality/trends , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries/economics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/prevention & control , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Life Expectancy , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends , Mortality/trends
3.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(3): e1318, ago.2020.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2253460

ABSTRACT

La pandemia Covid- 19 está generando una gran crisis global en la que los países en desarrollo parecen ser los más afectados; en América Latina y el Caribe resulta preocupante dadas las precarias condiciones laborales y al alto índice de pobreza. El mercado laboral colombiano está seriamente perjudicado por el aislamiento social adoptado para desacelerar los contagios de COVID-19, sin embargo, son incontables las pérdidas humanas y económicas por esta pandemia que no discrimina. Enfrentar este enemigo invisible con prudencia y sensatez será la hazaña más grande de nuestra historia y la forma de lograrlo será nuestro más preciado legado para las generaciones venideras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Developing Countries/economics , COVID-19/economics , Health Policy , Colombia
4.
Lancet ; 398(10308): 1317-1343, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: We estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050. FINDINGS: In 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7-8·8) or $1132 (1119-1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geographical regions. Of this total, $40·4 billion (0·5%, 95% UI 0·5-0·5) was development assistance for health provided to low-income and middle-income countries, which made up 24·6% (UI 24·0-25·1) of total spending in low-income countries. We estimate that $54·8 billion in development assistance for health was disbursed in 2020. Of this, $13·7 billion was targeted toward the COVID-19 health response. $12·3 billion was newly committed and $1·4 billion was repurposed from existing health projects. $3·1 billion (22·4%) of the funds focused on country-level coordination and $2·4 billion (17·9%) was for supply chain and logistics. Only $714·4 million (7·7%) of COVID-19 development assistance for health went to Latin America, despite this region reporting 34·3% of total recorded COVID-19 deaths in low-income or middle-income countries in 2020. Spending on health is expected to rise to $1519 (1448-1591) per person in 2050, although spending across countries is expected to remain varied. INTERPRETATION: Global health spending is expected to continue to grow, but remain unequally distributed between countries. We estimate that development organisations substantially increased the amount of development assistance for health provided in 2020. Continued efforts are needed to raise sufficient resources to mitigate the pandemic for the most vulnerable, and to help curtail the pandemic for all. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries/economics , Economic Development , Healthcare Financing , International Agencies/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financing, Government/economics , Financing, Government/organization & administration , Global Health/economics , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/trends , Gross Domestic Product , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Expenditures/trends , Humans , International Agencies/organization & administration , International Cooperation
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263751, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, a lower income is associated with poorer health status and reduced quality of life (QOL). However, more research is needed on how being older may influence QOL in lower-income households, particularly as older age is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and care needs. To this end, the current study attempts to determine the health-related QOL (HRQOL) among individuals from lower-income households aged 60 years and over compared to lower-income adults aged less than 60 years. METHODS: Participants were identified from the Department of Statistics Malaysia sampling frame. Surveys were carried out with individual households aged 18 years and older through self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected on demographics, household income, employment status, number of diseases, and HRQOL assessed using the EuroQol 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) tool. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1899 participants, 620 (32.6%) were female and 328 (17.3%) were aged 60 years and above. The mean (SD) age was 45.2 (14.1) and mean (SD) household income was RM2124 (1356). Compared with younger individuals, older respondents were more likely to experience difficulties in mobility (32.1% vs 9.7%, p<0.001), self-care (11.6% vs 3.8%, p<0.001), usual activities (24.5% vs 9.1%, p<0.001), pain/discomfort (38.8% vs 16.5%, p<0.001) and anxiety/depression (21.4% vs 13.5%, p<0.001). The mean (SD) EQ-5D index scores were lower among older respondents, 0.89 (0.16) vs 0.95 (0.13), p = 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, age was a significant influencing factor (p = 0.001) for mobility (OR = 2.038, 95% CI:1.439-2.885), usual activities (OR = 1.957, 95% CI:1.353-2.832) and pain or discomfort (OR = 2.241, 95% CI:1.690-2.972). CONCLUSION: Lower-income older adults had poorer HRQOL compared to their younger counterparts. This has important implications concerning intervention strategies that incorporate active ageing concepts on an individual and policy-making level to enhance the QOL and wellbeing, particularly among the older lower-income population.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Quality of Life/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries/economics , Female , Health Status , Humans , Income , Malaysia/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Self Care , Sociodemographic Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(10): 1775-1780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562450

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, SARS-COV-2 disease was firstly discovered in Wuhan, China and then it infected millions of people worldwide. Later, the World Health Organization (WHO) described COVID-19 as the first pandemic invading the world in the 21st century. The WHO has declared that the emerging infection will last long enough to force adjustments not only in people's lifestyles but also in the health care system. This amendment is expected to spread through many medical practices and specialties. A lot of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have been proposed for COVID-19 management. The best strategy for the management of patients requires a multi-disciplinary team approach with correct decisions regarding the right timing of each modality of treatment. The participating multidisciplinary team for COVID-19 management includes six infectious diseases experts in Tanta University; one critical care management expert, an emergency medicine expert and two pharmacists in Tanta University. In this review, we reported our multi-disciplinary team experience with up to date literature guidance to propose a valid protocol for the management of COVID-19 patients in a limited resources setting.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Disease Management , Health Resources , Patient Care Team , Academic Medical Centers/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries/economics , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Resources/economics , Humans , Patient Care Team/economics
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22914, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537336

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred controversies related to whether countries manipulate reported data for political gains. We study the association between accuracy of reported COVID-19 data and developmental indicators. We use the Newcomb-Benford law (NBL) to gauge data accuracy. We run an OLS regression of an index constructed from developmental indicators (democracy level, gross domestic product per capita, healthcare expenditures, and universal healthcare coverage) on goodness-of-fit measures to the NBL. We find that countries with higher values of the developmental index are less likely to deviate from the Newcomb-Benford law. The relationship holds for the cumulative number of reported deaths and total cases but is more pronounced for the death toll. The findings are robust for second-digit tests and for a sub-sample of countries with regional data. The NBL provides a first screening for potential data manipulation during pandemics. Our study indicates that data from autocratic regimes and less developed countries should be treated with more caution. The paper further highlights the importance of independent surveillance data verification projects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Data Accuracy , Data Collection/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Developed Countries/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Gross Domestic Product , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Health Insurance
18.
World Neurosurg ; 155: e142-e149, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease identified in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed neurosurgery protocols to provide ongoing care for patients while ensuring the safety of health care workers. In Brazil, the rapid spread of the disease led to new challenges in the health system. Neurooncology practice was one of the most affected by the pandemic due to restricted elective procedures and new triage protocols. We aim to characterize the impact of the pandemic on neurosurgery in Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 112 different types of neurosurgical procedures, with special detail in 11 neurooncology procedures, listed in the Brazilian Hospital Information System records in the DATASUS database between February and July 2019 and the same period in 2020. Linear regression and paired t-test analyses were performed and considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: There was an overall decrease of 21.5% (28,858 cases) in all neurosurgical procedures, impacting patients needing elective procedures (-42.46%) more than emergency surgery (-5.93%). Neurooncology procedures decreased by 14.89%. Nonetheless, the mortality rate during hospitalization increased by 21.26%. Linear regression analysis in hospitalizations (Slope = 0.9912 ± 0.07431; CI [95%] = 0.8231-1.159) and total cost (Slope = 1.03 ± 0.03501; CI [95%] = 0.9511-1.109) in the 11 different types of neurooncology procedures showed a P < 0.0001. The mean cost per type of procedure showed an 11.59% increase (P = 0.0172) between 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased mortality, decreased hospitalizations, and therefore decreased overall costs, despite increased costs per procedure for a variety of neurosurgical procedures. Our study serves as a stark example of the effect of the pandemic on neurosurgical care in settings of limited resources and access to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Developing Countries , Hospital Information Systems/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Health Personnel/economics , Health Personnel/trends , Hospital Information Systems/economics , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
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