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2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the era of COVID-19 where there is emphasis on the importance of wearing a mask, wearing it rightly is equally important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of wearing a mask in the general population of a developing country at three major tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were patients and attendants at three major tertiary care hospital of Karachi Pakistan. Selected participants, through non-probability convenient sampling technique, were interviewed regarding knowledge, attitude, and practice of wearing mask using an Urdu translated version of a questionnaire used in an earlier study. Three summary scores (0 to 100) were computed to indicate participants' mask wearing practice, technique of putting it on, and technique of taking if off. Collected data were analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS version 19. RESULTS: A total of 370 selected individuals were interviewed, out of which 51.9% were male and mean age was 37.65±11.94 years. For more than 90% of the participants, wearing a face mask was a routine practicing during the pandemic. The mean practice score was 65.69±25.51, score for technique of putting on a face mask was 67.77±23.03, and score of technique of taking off a face mask was 51.01±29.23. Education level of participant tends to have positive relationship with all three scores, while presence of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as co-morbid had negative impact on mask wearing practice. CONCLUSION: We have observed suboptimal knowledge, attitude and practice of wearing mask among the selected individuals. There is a continued need to spread awareness and educate general population about the importance of using a face mask, as well as the proper technique of wearing and taking off a face mask.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/trends , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Knowledge , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 32(3): 446-450, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731295

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forever affected healthcare and posed an incredible challenge to our society to care for our sick. Patients with cancer were found early on to have higher rates of complications with COVID-19. Radiation therapy is an integral part of treatment for many types of gynecologic cancer and adaptation on its utilization during the pandemic varied across the globe. In this review, we detail certain guidelines for the use of radiation in gynecologic cancers during the pandemic as well as real world accounts of how different countries adapted to these guidelines or created their own based on individualized resources, staffing, government restrictions, and societal norms. Critically, this review demonstrates the breadth of fractionation schemes and technologies used when resources were limited but highlights the importance of long term follow-up for many of our patients during this time.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Genital Diseases, Female/therapy , Radiotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Genital Diseases, Female/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Internet , Middle Aged , Radiotherapy/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(3): e348-e359, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia accounts for around 15% of all deaths of children younger than 5 years globally. Most happen in resource-constrained settings and are potentially preventable. Hypoxaemia is one of the strongest predictors of these deaths. We present an updated estimate of hypoxaemia prevalence among children with pneumonia in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review using the following key concepts "children under five years of age" AND "pneumonia" AND "hypoxaemia" AND "low- and middle-income countries" by searching in 11 bibliographic databases and citation indices. We included all articles published between Nov 1, 2008, and Oct 8, 2021, based on observational studies and control arms of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. We excluded protocol papers, articles reporting hypoxaemia prevalence based on less than 100 pneumonia cases, and articles published before 2008 from the review. Quality appraisal was done with the Joanna Briggs Institute tools. We reported pooled prevalence of hypoxaemia (SpO2 <90%) by classification of clinical severity and by clinical settings by use of the random-effects meta-analysis models. We combined our estimate of the pooled prevalence of pneumonia with a previously published estimate of the number of children admitted to hospital due to pneumonia annually to calculate the total annual number of children admitted to hospital with hypoxaemic pneumonia. FINDINGS: We identified 2825 unique records from the databases, of which 57 studies met the eligibility criteria: 26 from Africa, 23 from Asia, five from South America, and four from multiple continents. The prevalence of hypoxaemia was 31% (95% CI 26-36; 101 775 children) among all children with WHO-classified pneumonia, 41% (33-49; 30 483 children) among those with very severe or severe pneumonia, and 8% (3-16; 2395 children) among those with non-severe pneumonia. The prevalence was much higher in studies conducted in emergency and inpatient settings than in studies conducted in outpatient settings. In 2019, we estimated that over 7 million children (95% CI 5-8 million) were admitted to hospital with hypoxaemic pneumonia. The studies included in this systematic review had high τ2 (ie, 0·17), indicating a high level of heterogeneity between studies, and a high I2 value (ie, 99·6%), indicating that the heterogeneity was not due to chance. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019126207. INTERPRETATION: The high prevalence of hypoxaemia among children with severe pneumonia, particularly among children who have been admitted to hospital, emphasises the importance of overall oxygen security within the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Even among children with non-severe pneumonia that is managed in outpatient and community settings, the high prevalence emphasises the importance of rapid identification of hypoxaemia at the first point of contact and referral for appropriate oxygen therapy. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research (Global Health Research Unit on Respiratory Health [RESPIRE]; 16/136/109).


Subject(s)
Hypoxia/epidemiology , Internationality , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Poverty , Prevalence
7.
Circ Res ; 128(7): 808-826, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597870

ABSTRACT

In recent decades low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been witnessing a significant shift toward raised blood pressure; yet in LMICs, only 1 in 3 are aware of their hypertension status, and ≈8% have their blood pressure controlled. This rising burden widens the inequality gap, contributes to massive economic hardships of patients and carers, and increases costs to the health system, facing challenges such as low physician-to-patient ratios and lack of access to medicines. Established risk factors include unhealthy diet (high salt and low fruit and vegetable intake), physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use, and obesity. Emerging risk factors include pollution (air, water, noise, and light), urbanization, and a loss of green space. Risk factors that require further in-depth research are low birth weight and social and commercial determinants of health. Global actions include the HEARTS technical package and the push for universal health care. Promising research efforts highlight that successful interventions are feasible in LMICs. These include creation of health-promoting environments by introducing salt-reduction policies and sugar and alcohol tax; implementing cost-effective screening and simplified treatment protocols to mitigate treatment inertia; pooled procurement of low-cost single-pill combination therapy to improve adherence; increasing access to telehealth and mHealth (mobile health); and training health care staff, including community health workers, to strengthen team-based care. As the blood pressure trajectory continues creeping upward in LMICs, contextual research on effective, safe, and cost-effective interventions is urgent. New emergent risk factors require novel solutions. Lowering blood pressure in LMICs requires urgent global political and scientific priority and action.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Hypertension , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Blood Pressure Monitors/standards , Blood Pressure Monitors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diet/adverse effects , Environment , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Health Behavior , Heart Diseases/mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Nurses/supply & distribution , Obesity/complications , Physicians/supply & distribution , Prevalence , Research , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Social Determinants of Health , Stroke/mortality , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Urbanization
8.
Global Health ; 17(1): 111, 2021 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430460

ABSTRACT

Ten years of the Syrian war had a devastating effect on Syrian lives, including millions of refugees and displaced people, enormous destruction in the infrastructure, and the worst economic crisis Syria has ever faced. The health sector was hit hard by this war, up to 50% of the health facilities have been destroyed and up to 70% of the healthcare providers fled the country seeking safety, which increased the workload and mental pressure for the remaining medical staff. Five databases were searched and 438 articles were included according to the inclusion criteria, the articles were divided into categories according to the topic of the article.Through this review, the current health status of the Syrian population living inside Syria, whether under governmental or opposition control, was reviewed, and also, the health status of the Syrian refugees was examined according to each host country. Public health indicators were used to summarize and categorize the information. This research reviewed mental health, children and maternal health, oral health, non-communicable diseases, infectious diseases, occupational health, and the effect of the COVID - 19 pandemic on the Syrian healthcare system. The results of the review are irritating, as still after ten years of war and millions of refugees there is an enormous need for healthcare services, and international organization has failed to respond to those needs. The review ended with the current and future challenges facing the healthcare system, and suggestions about rebuilding the healthcare system.Through this review, the major consequences of the Syrian war on the health of the Syrian population have been reviewed and highlighted. Considerable challenges will face the future of health in Syria which require the collaboration of the health authorities to respond to the growing needs of the Syrian population. This article draws an overview about how the Syrian war affected health sector for Syrian population inside and outside Syria after ten years of war which makes it an important reference for future researchers to get the main highlight of the health sector during the Syrian crisis.


Subject(s)
Public Health/standards , Refugees/statistics & numerical data , Warfare/statistics & numerical data , Altruism , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Resources/trends , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends , Syria
10.
Retrovirology ; 18(1): 21, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365362

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 persists in infected individuals despite years of antiretroviral therapy (ART), due to the formation of a stable and long-lived latent viral reservoir. Early ART can reduce the latent reservoir and is associated with post-treatment control in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, even in post-treatment controllers, ART cessation after a period of time inevitably results in rebound of plasma viraemia, thus lifelong treatment for viral suppression is indicated. Due to the difficulties of sustained life-long treatment in the millions of PLWH worldwide, a cure is undeniably necessary. This requires an in-depth understanding of reservoir formation and dynamics. Differences exist in treatment guidelines and accessibility to treatment as well as social stigma between low- and-middle income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries. In addition, demographic differences exist in PLWH from different geographical regions such as infecting viral subtype and host genetics, which can contribute to differences in the viral reservoir between different populations. Here, we review topics relevant to HIV-1 cure research in LMICs, with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world bearing the greatest burden of HIV-1. We present a summary of ART in LMICs, highlighting challenges that may be experienced in implementing a HIV-1 cure therapeutic. Furthermore, we discuss current research on the HIV-1 latent reservoir in different populations, highlighting research in LMIC and gaps in the research that may facilitate a global cure. Finally, we discuss current experimental cure strategies in the context of their potential application in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/standards , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Virus Latency/drug effects , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Cost of Illness , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5516344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic of pneumonia spreading around the world, leading to serious threats to public health and attracting enormous attention. There is an urgent need for sensitive diagnostic testing implementation to control and manage SARS-CoV-2 in public health laboratories. The quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) assay is the gold standard method, but the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 testing are dependent on a number of factors. METHODS: We synthesized RNA based on the genes published to estimate the concentration of inactivated virus samples in a biosafety level 3 laboratory. The limit of detection (LOD), linearity, accuracy, and precision were evaluated according to the bioanalytical method validation guidelines. RESULTS: We found that the LOD reached around 3 copies/reaction. Furthermore, intra-assay precision, accuracy, and linearity met the accepted criterion with an RSD for copies of less than 25%, and linear regression met the accepted R 2 of 0.98. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that synthesized RNA based on the database of the NCBI gene bank for estimating the concentration of inactivated virus samples provides a potential opportunity for reliable testing to diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as limit the spread of the disease. This method may be relatively quick and inexpensive, and it may be useful for developing countries during the pandemic era. In the long term, it is also applicable for evaluation, verification, validation, and external quality assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Validation Studies as Topic
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(10): 892-900, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is widespread concern over the impact of public health measures, such as lockdowns, associated with COVID-19 on mental health, including suicide. High-quality evidence from low-income and middle-income countries, where the burden of suicide and self-harm is greatest, is scarce. We aimed to determine the effect of the pandemic on hospital presentations for self-poisoning. METHODS: In this interrupted time-series analysis, we established a new self-poisoning register at the tertiary care Teaching Hospital Peradeniya in Sri Lanka, a lower-middle-income country. Using a standard extraction sheet, data were gathered for all patients admitted to the Toxicology Unit with self-poisoning between Jan 1, 2019, and Aug 31, 2020. Only patients classified by the treating clinician as having intentionally self-poisoned were included. Data on date of admission, age or date of birth, sex, and poisoning method were collected. No data on ethnicity were available. We used interrupted time-series analysis to calculate weekly hospital admissions for self-poisoning before (Jan 1, 2019-March 19, 2020) and during (March 20-Aug 31, 2020) the pandemic, overall and by age (age <25 years vs ≥25 years) and sex. Individuals with missing date of admission were excluded from the main analysis. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2019, and Aug 31, 2020, 1401 individuals (584 [41·7%] males, 761 [54·3%] females, and 56 [4·0%] of unknown sex) presented to the hospital with self-poisoning and had date of admission data. A 32% (95% CI 12-48) reduction in hospital presentations for self-poisoning in the pandemic period compared with pre-pandemic trends was observed (rate ratio 0·68, 95% CI 0·52-0·88; p=0·0032). We found no evidence that the impact of the pandemic differed by sex (rate ratio 0·64, 95% CI 0·44-0·94, for females vs 0·85, 0·57-1·26, for males; pinteraction=0·43) or age (0·64, 0·44-0·93, for patients aged <25 years vs 0·81, 0·57-1·16, for patients aged ≥25 years; pinteraction=0·077). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study from a lower-middle-income country to estimate the impact of the pandemic on self-harm (non-fatal) accounting for underlying trends. If the fall in hospital presentations during the pandemic reflects a reduction in the medical treatment of people who have self-poisoned, rather than a true fall in incidence, then public health messages should emphasise the importance of seeking help early. FUNDING: Elizabeth Blackwell Institute University of Bristol, Wellcome Trust, and Centre for Pesticide Suicide Prevention. TRANSLATIONS: For the Sinhalese and Tamil translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Poisoning/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Male , Poisoning/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
14.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1574-1579, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310945

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a unique set of challenges to medical education globally. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have faced unique barriers in transitioning to virtual modalities, and many medical students in LMICs experienced dramatically reduced educational time. The authors created the Global Medical Education Collaborative (GMEC) to address this problem by providing free, online, case-based tutorials to medical students in LMICs during the pandemic. APPROACH: The authors developed a needs assessment to gauge students' educational requirements, which informed GMEC's 2 primary goals: to provide free access to interactive online tutorials for students in LMICs and to bridge the physical distance between educators and learners via an online platform. A pilot program in Nigeria (April 26-May 26, 2020) helped inform the current strategy and logistics. Tutors and students were recruited via social media and medical education networks at the authors' home institutions. OUTCOMES: Within the first 2 months (April 26-June 26, 2020), 324 students representing 12 countries and 20+ medical schools joined GMEC. Additionally, 95 physicians and trainees joined as tutors and, collectively, delivered 52 tutorials. Students responded to a needs assessment querying confidence in various clinical domains, interest in covering clinical topics, barriers to virtual learning, and the effect of the pandemic on their education. Tutors held 1-hour, interactive tutorials over Zoom covering a variety of clinical topics. According to surveys, 91% of students (71 of 78) felt more confident in the material related to the tutorial's topic after participating. NEXT STEPS: GMEC will continue to engage students, tutors, and collaborators to facilitate the delivery of innovative, high-quality tutorials to students affected by COVID-19 in LMICs. To ensure that the platform is sustainable and aligned with GMEC's mission to promote equity in global medical education, the collaborative will need to be agile and responsive.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/ethics , Students, Medical/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Curriculum , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Human Rights , Humans , Interdisciplinary Placement/organization & administration , Learning , Nigeria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , User-Computer Interface
15.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1885, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A small country in the Arabian Peninsula, Qatar experienced rapid economic growth in the last 3 decades accompanied by major socio-demographic shifts towards a younger and more highly educated population. To date, no national epidemiological study has examined the prevalence, associated factors, or sequelae of mental disorders in Qatar's general population. METHODS: The World Mental Health Qatar (WMHQ) is a national mental health needs assessment survey and is the first carried out in collaboration with the World Mental Health Survey initiative to assess the prevalence and burden of psychiatric illnesses among the full Arabic speaking population (nationals and non-nationals) within the same country. RESULTS: Standard translation and harmonization procedures were used to develop the WMHQ instrument. A survey quality control system with standard performance indicators was developed to ensure interviewer adherence to standard practices. A pilot study was then carried out just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Endorsement from public health authorities and sequential revision of the interview schedule led to full survey completion (as opposed to partial completion) and good overall response rate. CONCLUSIONS: The WMHQ survey will provide timely and actionable information based on quality enhancement procedures put in place during the development and piloting of the study.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys/methods , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk Factors
17.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 581-586, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171161

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic, it has several specificities influencing its outcomes due to the entwinement of several factors, which anthropologists have called "syndemics". Drawing upon Singer and Clair's syndemics model, I focus on synergistic interaction among chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and COVID-19 in Pakistan. I argue that over 36 million people in Pakistan are standing at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, developing severe complications, and losing their lives. These two diseases, but several other socio-cultural, economic, and political factors contributing to structured vulnerabilities, would function as confounders. To deal with the critical effects of these syndemics the government needs appropriate policies and their implementation during the pandemic and post-pandemic. To eliminate or at least minimize various vulnerabilities, Pakistan needs drastic changes, especially to overcome (formal) illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, gender difference, and rural and urban difference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Syndemic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Climate Change/economics , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Developing Countries/economics , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/economics , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Literacy/economics , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Politics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/economics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
19.
Pathog Glob Health ; 115(3): 178-187, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117439

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 pandemic, rich countries employed lockdown and physical distancing policies for transmission control. However, the question still remains whether these measures are also suitable in countries with a fragile economy, which rests mainly on the informal sector. The impacts of lockdown measures in disadvantaged population strata in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) were reviewed using i) 93 media reports and ii) 17 published scientific papers. This review showed that those who suffered the most from the lockdown were migrants, workers in the large informal sector, small businesses, slum dwellers, women and elderly, revealing the social, cultural and economic inequalities of societies. Financial and food support for the poor was inadequate and sometimes mismanaged. In the better organized societies, the resilience was stronger (South Korea, Kerala/India) but here also the poor had to suffer the most. It is strongly recommended that outbreak response strategies should particularly focus on the poor and vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Publications/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 24(3): 271-275, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101914

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, continues to plague children across the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The situation has worsened alongside the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic because of major systemic disruptions to food supply, healthcare, and employment. Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) is a potential strategy for improving micronutrient intakes through the addition of vitamins and minerals to staple foods and improving the nutritional status of populations at large. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence unquestionably supports the use of LSFF to improve micronutrient status. Evidence syntheses have also demonstrated impact on some functional outcomes, including anemia, wasting, underweight, and neural tube defects, that underpin poor health and development. Importantly, many of these effects have also been reflected in effectiveness studies that examine LSFF in real-world situations as opposed to under-controlled environments. However, programmatic challenges must be addressed in LMICs in order for LSFF efforts to reach their full potential. SUMMARY: LSFF is an important strategy that has the potential to improve the health and nutrition of entire populations of vulnerable children. Now more than ever, existing programs should be strengthened and new programs implemented in areas with widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health/trends , Child Nutrition Disorders/therapy , Food, Fortified/supply & distribution , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
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