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1.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 68(2): 56-65, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  There is a lack of data on the features of dysglycemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) confirmed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). AIM:  to study the glycemic profile in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus by continuous glucose monitoring and the role of steroid therapy in dysglycemiadevelopment. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  We examined 21 patients with COVID-19 and DM 2 and 21 patients with DM 2 without COVID-19 (control group) using a professional 4-7-day CGM. We also compared two subgroups of patients with COVID-19 and DM 2: 1) patients received systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCS) during CGM and 2) patients in whomCGMwas performed after discontinuation of GCS. RESULTS:  Compared with controls, patients with COVID-19 and DM2 had lesser values of glycemic «time in range¼ (32.7 ± 20.40 vs 48.0 ± 15.60%, p = 0.026) andhigher parameters of mean glycemia (p <0.05) but similar proportion of patients with episodes of hypoglycemia (33.3% vs 38.1%, p = 0.75). Patients who received dexamethasone during CGM were characterized by higher hyperglycemia and the absence of episodes of hypoglycemia. In patients who hadCGM after dexamethasone discontinuation, hyperglycemia was less pronounced, but 60% of them had episodes of hypoglycemia, often nocturnal, clinically significant and not detected by routine methods. CONCLUSION:  Patients with COVID-19 and DM 2had severe and persistent hyperglycemia but a third of them hadalso episodes of hypoglycemia. During therapy with dexamethasone, they had the most pronounced hyperglycemia without episodes of hypoglycemia. In patients who underwent CGM after discontinuation of dexamethasone, hyperglycemia was less pronounced but 60% of them have episodes of hypoglycemia, often nocturnal, clinically significant and not diagnosed by routine methods. It would be advisable to recommend at least a 5-6-fold study of the blood glucose level (with its obligatory assessment at night) even for stable patients with COVID-19 and DM 2after the end of GCS treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Steroids
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(3): JC33, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818636

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Munch MW, Myatra SN, Vijayaraghavan BK, et al. Effect of 12 mg vs 6 mg of dexamethasone on the number of days alive without life support in adults with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia: the COVID STEROID 2 randomized trial. JAMA. 2021;326:1807-17. 34673895.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 119(4): 332-341, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786273

ABSTRACT

We examined 171 patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with liver injury in the respiratory failure groups and the nonrespiratory failure groups and investigated 41 patients with moderate II COVID-19 with respiratory failure who received dexamethasone (Dex) monotherapy in the liver injury group and the nonliver injury group at the time before treatment. The respiratory failure group had 64% more liver damage than the nonrespiratory failure group, was older, had more men, and had significantly more complications from lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Obesity was more common in the liver injury group prior to Dex monotherapy, and the liver CT value was significantly lower than in the nonliver injury group. Liver injury worsened in 41% of patients after Dex monotherapy, but there was no significant difference in the frequency before Dex monotherapy between the liver injury group and the nonliver injury group, and the degree of liver injury was mild in all cases, improving in 38% of the liver injury group. Dex monotherapy was a safe treatment for moderate II COVID-19, which frequently resulted in liver injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Liver , Male
4.
J Reprod Immunol ; 151: 103619, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763859

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone has been widely used in clinical practice to promote fetal lung maturity and reduce neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and perinatal mortality. Nevertheless, its administration is a double-edged sword, as a large number of studies have shown that there are obvious disadvantages in pregnant women and fetal development. In this review, we comprehensively retrospect the latest literature on the toxicological effects and mechanisms of dexamethasone on fetal development, in an attempt to provide a valuable basis for further studies and clinical trials in the future. Overall, prenatal dexamethasone exposure could lead to some adverse consequences on fetal organ systems through intrauterine programming based on the results of current animal and human researches. Potential sequelae include osteoarthritis, hypertension, fatty liver, glomerulosclerosis, depression, diabetes and infertility, some of which can pass on to the next generation. It must be noted that the evidence in humans is preliminary and limited by the small sample size. More studies in large-scale populations are needed to confirm if it raises the risk of sequelae in humans. In addition, we strongly support the application of dexamethasone as a pharmaceutical therapy in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 before a better therapy is developed. However, the adverse side effects that may arise also cannot be ignored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Development , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 277, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the RECOVERY trial showed that dexamethasone was efficacious for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its impact on the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and other serious procoagulant events was not assessed. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a previously healthy 83-year-old woman with COVID-19, without any genetic predisposition to thrombosis. She developed moderate respiratory distress 12 days after symptom onset and a 10-day course of dexamethasone therapy was initiated. Her clinical condition and imaging findings improved initially; however, they deteriorated after the completion of dexamethasone therapy, despite the improvement in her pneumonia and viral clearance. Laboratory tests showed markedly raised serum D-dimer, ferritin, and sIL-2R levels, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left iliac vein and PE of the right pulmonary artery. The DVT and PE were successfully treated using intravenous heparin administration. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the potential risk of rebound inflammation and procoagulant events following dexamethasone withdrawal. We believe that COVID-19-induced DVT and PE can be affected by dexamethasone therapy. Although dexamethasone reduces procoagulant factors, increases anticoagulant factors, and modulates cytokines, which can suppress/delay thrombus formation during treatment, it confers the risk for rebound cytokine production after treatment completion, triggering cytokine and coagulation cascades that can lead to thromboembolic diseases. In this critical clinical period, the patient's deteriorating condition may be overlooked because of the masking effects of dexamethasone treatment on fever and other clinical conditions and laboratory changes. Clinicians should follow-up coagulation markers carefully and contrast-enhanced computed tomography is useful for detecting coagulation; and, if PE occurs, therapeutic heparin administration is essential because emboli can also generate cytokines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 107: 108689, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone and tocilizumab in the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: During a prospective cohort study, hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 received intravenous methylprednisolone (250-500 mg daily up to three doses), weight-based tocilizumab (maximum 800 mg, one or two doses as daily interval) or dexamethasone (8 mg daily). The primary outcome was time to onset of clinical response. Secondary outcomes were improvement rate of oxygen saturation and CRP, need for ICU admission, duration of hospitalization and 28-day mortality. During study, adverse events of the treatments were recorded. RESULTS: Although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.090), clinical response occurred faster in the tocilizumab group than other groups (10 vs. 16 days). Clinical response was detected in 74.19%, 81.25%, and 60% of patients in the methylprednisolone, tocilizumab, and dexamethasone groups respectively (p = 0.238). Based on the Cox regression analysis and considering dexamethasone as the reference group, HR (95% CI) of clinical response was 1.08 (0.65-1.79) and 1.46 (0.89-2.39) in the methylprednisolone and tocilizumab groups respectively. Improvement rate of oxygen saturation and CRP was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.791 and p = 0.372 respectively). Also need for ICU admission and 28-day mortality was comparable between the groups (p = 0.176 and p = 0.143 respectively). Compared with methylprednisolone, tocilizumab caused more sleep disturbances (p = 0.019). Other adverse events were comparable among patients in the groups. CONCLUSION: When or where access to tocilizumab is a problem, methylprednisolone may be considered as an alternative for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154014, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexamethasone is the only drug that has consistently reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, especially in patients needing oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation. However, there is a growing concern about the relation of dexamethasone with the unprecedented rates of ICU-acquired respiratory tract infections (ICU-RTI) observed in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study; conducted in ten countries in Latin America and Europe. We included patients older than 18 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 requiring ICU admission. A multivariate logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was conducted to determine the relation between dexamethasone treatment and ICU-RTI. RESULTS: A total of 3777 patients were included. 2065 (54.7%) were treated with dexamethasone within the first 24 h of admission. After performing the PSM, patients treated with dexamethasone showed significantly higher proportions of VAP (282/1652 [17.1%] Vs. 218/1652 [13.2%], p = 0.014). Also, dexamethasone treatment was identified as an adjusted risk factor of ICU-RTI in the multivariate logistic regression model (OR 1.64; 95%CI: 1.37-1.97; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients treated with dexamethasone for severe COVID-19 had a higher risk of developing ICU-acquired respiratory tract infections after adjusting for days of invasive mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay, suggesting a cautious use of this treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Trials ; 23(1): 148, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By end December of 2021, COVID-19 has infected around 276 million individuals and caused over 5 million deaths worldwide. Infection results in dysregulated systemic inflammation, multi-organ dysfunction, and critical illness. Cells of the central nervous system are also affected, triggering an uncontrolled neuroinflammatory response. Low doses of glucocorticoids, administered orally or intravenously, reduce mortality among moderate and severe COVID-19 patients. However, low doses administered by these routes do not reach therapeutic levels in the CNS. In contrast, intranasally administered dexamethasone can result in therapeutic doses in the CNS even at low doses. METHODS: This is an approved open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of intranasal versus intravenous dexamethasone administered in low doses to moderate and severe COVID-19 adult patients. The protocol is conducted in five health institutions in Mexico City. A total of 120 patients will be randomized into two groups (intravenous vs. intranasal) at a 1:1 ratio. Both groups will be treated with the corresponding dexamethasone scheme for 10 days. The primary outcome of the study will be clinical improvement, defined as a statistically significant reduction in the NEWS-2 score of patients with intranasal versus intravenous dexamethasone administration. The secondary outcome will be the reduction in mortality during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This protocol is currently in progress to improve the efficacy of the standard therapeutic dexamethasone regimen for moderate and severe COVID-19 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04513184 . Registered November 12, 2020. Approved by La Comisión Federal para la Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS) with identification number DI/20/407/04/36. People are currently being recruited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 78(5): 733-753, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653434

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has affected millions all over the world and has been declared pandemic, as of 11 March 2020. In addition to the ongoing research and development of vaccines, there is still a dire need for safe and effective drugs for the control and treatment against the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Numerous repurposed drugs are under clinical investigations whose reported adverse events can raise worries about their safety. The aim of this review is to illuminate the associated adverse events related to the drugs used in a real COVID-19 setting along with their relevant mechanism(s). METHOD: Through a literature search conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar database, various adverse events suspected to be induced by eight drugs, including dexamethasone, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin, and tocilizumab, administered in COVID-19 patients in clinical practice and studies were identified in 30 case reports, 3 case series, and 10 randomized clinical trials. RESULTS: Mild, moderate, or severe adverse events of numerous repurposed and investigational drugs caused by various factors and mechanisms were observed. Gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting were the most frequently followed by cardiovascular, cutaneous, and hepatic adverse events. Few other rare adverse drug reactions were also observed. CONCLUSION: In light of their ineffectiveness against COVID-19 as evident in large clinical studies, drugs including hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ivermectin should neither be used routinely nor in clinical studies. While lack of sufficient data, it creates doubt regarding the reliability of chloroquine and favipiravir use in COVID-19 patients. Hence, these two drugs can only be used in clinical studies. In contrast, ample well-conducted studies have approved the use of remdesivir, tocilizumab, and dexamethasone under certain conditions in COVID-19 patients. Consequently, it is significant to establish a strong surveillance system in order to monitor the proper safety and toxicity profile of the potential anti-COVID-19 drugs with good clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Reproducibility of Results , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Trials ; 23(1): 35, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people worldwide. In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in need of oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, dexamethasone 6 mg per day is currently recommended. However, the dose of 6 mg of dexamethasone is currently being reappraised and may miss important therapeutic potential or may prevent potential deleterious effects of higher doses of corticosteroids. METHODS: REMED is a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing the superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg (dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1-5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg on days 6-10) vs 6 mg administered once daily intravenously for 10 days in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. Three hundred participants will be enrolled and followed up for 360 days after randomization. Patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. The following stratification factors will be applied: age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, CRP levels and trial centre. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation. The secondary endpoints are mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; dynamics of the inflammatory marker, change in WHO Clinical Progression Scale at day 14; and adverse events related to corticosteroids and independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by the Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. The study will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. DISCUSSION: We aim to compare two different doses of dexamethasone in patients with moderate to severe ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation regarding efficacy and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT No. 2020-005887-70. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04663555. Registered on December 11, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(2): e98-e110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen), an alkylating peptide-drug conjugate, plus dexamethasone showed clinical activity and manageable safety in the phase 2 HORIZON study. We aimed to determine whether melflufen plus dexamethasone would provide a progression-free survival benefit compared with pomalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, head-to-head, phase 3 study (OCEAN), adult patients (aged ≥18 years) were recruited from 108 university hospitals, specialist hospitals, and community-based centres in 21 countries across Europe, North America, and Asia. Eligible patients had an ECOG performance status of 0-2; must have had relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, refractory to lenalidomide (within 18 months of randomisation) and to the last line of therapy; and have received two to four previous lines of therapy (including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by age, number of previous lines of therapy, and International Staging System score, to either 28-day cycles of melflufen and dexamethasone (melflufen group) or pomalidomide and dexamethasone (pomalidomide group). All patients received dexamethasone 40 mg orally on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle. In the melflufen group, patients received melflufen 40 mg intravenously over 30 min on day 1 of each cycle and in the pomalidomide group, patients received pomalidomide 4 mg orally daily on days 1 to 21 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by an independent review committee in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03151811, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 12, 2017, and Sept 3, 2020, 246 patients were randomly assigned to the melflufen group (median age 68 years [IQR 60-72]; 107 [43%] were female) and 249 to the pomalidomide group (median age 68 years [IQR 61-72]; 109 [44%] were female). 474 patients received at least one dose of study drug (melflufen group n=228; pomalidomide group n=246; safety population). Data cutoff was Feb 3, 2021. Median progression-free survival was 6·8 months (95% CI 5·0-8·5; 165 [67%] of 246 patients had an event) in the melflufen group and 4·9 months (4·2-5·7; 190 [76%] of 249 patients had an event) in the pomalidomide group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·79, [95% CI 0·64-0·98]; p=0·032), at a median follow-up of 15·5 months (IQR 9·4-22·8) in the melflufen group and 16·3 months (10·1-23·2) in the pomalidomide group. Median overall survival was 19·8 months (95% CI 15·1-25·6) at a median follow-up of 19·8 months (IQR 12·0-25·0) in the melflufen group and 25·0 months (95% CI 18·1-31·9) in the pomalidomide group at a median follow-up of 18·6 months (IQR 11·8-23·7; HR 1·10 [95% CI 0·85-1·44]; p=0·47). The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (143 [63%] of 228 in the melflufen group vs 26 [11%] of 246 in the pomalidomide group), neutropenia (123 [54%] vs 102 [41%]), and anaemia (97 [43%] vs 44 [18%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 95 (42%) patients in the melflufen group and 113 (46%) in the pomalidomide group, the most common of which were pneumonia (13 [6%] vs 21 [9%]), COVID-19 pneumonia (11 [5%] vs nine [4%]), and thrombocytopenia (nine [4%] vs three [1%]). 27 [12%] patients in the melflufen group and 32 [13%] in the pomalidomide group had fatal treatment-emergent adverse events. Fatal treatment-emergent adverse events were considered possibly treatment related in two patients in the melflufen group (one with acute myeloid leukaemia, one with pancytopenia and acute cardiac failure) and four patients in the pomalidomide group (two patients with pneumonia, one with myelodysplastic syndromes, one with COVID-19 pneumonia). INTERPRETATION: Melflufen plus dexamethasone showed superior progression-free survival than pomalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. FUNDING: Oncopeptides AB.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Multiple Myeloma , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lenalidomide/adverse effects , Male , Melphalan/adverse effects , Melphalan/analogs & derivatives , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Phenylalanine/adverse effects , Phenylalanine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2 , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives
15.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211063976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582484

ABSTRACT

The underlying cause of many complications associated with severe COVID-19 is attributed to the inflammatory cytokine storm that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which appears to be the leading cause of death in COVID-19. Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory activity through repression of pro-inflammatory genes and inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, which makes them a potential medical intervention to diminish the upregulated inflammatory response. Early in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the role of corticosteroids was unclear. Corticosteroid use in other indications such as ARDS and septic shock has proven benefit while its use in other respiratory viral pneumonias is associated with reduced viral clearance and increased secondary infections. This review article evaluates the benefits and harms of systemic corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 to assist clinicians in improving patient outcomes, including patient safety. Dexamethasone up to 10 days is the preferred regimen to reduce mortality risk in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen support, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. If dexamethasone is unavailable, other corticosteroids can be substituted at equivalent doses. Higher doses of corticosteroids may be beneficial in patients who develop ARDS. Corticosteroids should be avoided early in the disease course when patients do not require oxygen support because of potential harms.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/adverse effects , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
16.
Pharmacol Rep ; 74(1): 229-240, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The goals of the present study were to compare the efficacy and safety of different doses of dexamethasone in the treatment of patients with a diagnosis of moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of moderate to severe COVID-19 were assigned to intravenous low-dose (8 mg once daily), intermediate-dose (8 mg twice daily) or high-dose (8 mg thrice daily) dexamethasone for up to 10 days or until hospital discharge. Clinical response, 60-day survival and adverse effects were the main outcomes of the study. RESULTS: In the competing risk survival analysis, patients in the low-dose group had a higher clinical response than the high-dose group when considering death as a competing risk (HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.23-3.33, p = 0.03). Also, the survival was significantly longer in the low-dose group than the high-dose group (HR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15-0.83, p = 0.02). Leukocytosis and hyperglycemia were the most common side effects of dexamethasone. Although the incidence was not significantly different between the groups, some adverse effects were numerically higher in the intermediate-dose and high-dose groups than in the low-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Higher doses of dexamethasone not only failed to improve efficacy but also resulted in an increase in the number of adverse events and worsen survival in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 compared to the low-dose dexamethasone. (IRCT20100228003449N31).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Incidence , Leukocytosis/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
17.
JAMA ; 326(18): 1807-1817, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527380

ABSTRACT

Importance: A daily dose with 6 mg of dexamethasone is recommended for up to 10 days in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, but a higher dose may benefit those with more severe disease. Objective: To assess the effects of 12 mg/d vs 6 mg/d of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2020 and May 2021 at 26 hospitals in Europe and India and included 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 requiring at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation. End of 90-day follow-up was on August 19, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to 12 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 503) or 6 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 497) for up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive without life support (invasive mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, or kidney replacement therapy) at 28 days and was adjusted for stratification variables. Of the 8 prespecified secondary outcomes, 5 are included in this analysis (the number of days alive without life support at 90 days, the number of days alive out of the hospital at 90 days, mortality at 28 days and at 90 days, and ≥1 serious adverse reactions at 28 days). Results: Of the 1000 randomized patients, 982 were included (median age, 65 [IQR, 55-73] years; 305 [31%] women) and primary outcome data were available for 971 (491 in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 480 in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group). The median number of days alive without life support was 22.0 days (IQR, 6.0-28.0 days) in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 20.5 days (IQR, 4.0-28.0 days) in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted mean difference, 1.3 days [95% CI, 0-2.6 days]; P = .07). Mortality at 28 days was 27.1% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 32.3% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.86 [99% CI, 0.68-1.08]). Mortality at 90 days was 32.0% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 37.7% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.87 [99% CI, 0.70-1.07]). Serious adverse reactions, including septic shock and invasive fungal infections, occurred in 11.3% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 13.4% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.83 [99% CI, 0.54-1.29]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia, 12 mg/d of dexamethasone compared with 6 mg/d of dexamethasone did not result in statistically significantly more days alive without life support at 28 days. However, the trial may have been underpowered to identify a significant difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973 and ctri.nic.in Identifier: CTRI/2020/10/028731.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Life Support Care , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic/etiology , Single-Blind Method
19.
JAMA ; 326(18): 1807-1817, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482066

ABSTRACT

Importance: A daily dose with 6 mg of dexamethasone is recommended for up to 10 days in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, but a higher dose may benefit those with more severe disease. Objective: To assess the effects of 12 mg/d vs 6 mg/d of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2020 and May 2021 at 26 hospitals in Europe and India and included 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 requiring at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation. End of 90-day follow-up was on August 19, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to 12 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 503) or 6 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 497) for up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive without life support (invasive mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, or kidney replacement therapy) at 28 days and was adjusted for stratification variables. Of the 8 prespecified secondary outcomes, 5 are included in this analysis (the number of days alive without life support at 90 days, the number of days alive out of the hospital at 90 days, mortality at 28 days and at 90 days, and ≥1 serious adverse reactions at 28 days). Results: Of the 1000 randomized patients, 982 were included (median age, 65 [IQR, 55-73] years; 305 [31%] women) and primary outcome data were available for 971 (491 in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 480 in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group). The median number of days alive without life support was 22.0 days (IQR, 6.0-28.0 days) in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 20.5 days (IQR, 4.0-28.0 days) in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted mean difference, 1.3 days [95% CI, 0-2.6 days]; P = .07). Mortality at 28 days was 27.1% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 32.3% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.86 [99% CI, 0.68-1.08]). Mortality at 90 days was 32.0% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 37.7% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.87 [99% CI, 0.70-1.07]). Serious adverse reactions, including septic shock and invasive fungal infections, occurred in 11.3% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 13.4% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.83 [99% CI, 0.54-1.29]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia, 12 mg/d of dexamethasone compared with 6 mg/d of dexamethasone did not result in statistically significantly more days alive without life support at 28 days. However, the trial may have been underpowered to identify a significant difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973 and ctri.nic.in Identifier: CTRI/2020/10/028731.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Life Support Care , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic/etiology , Single-Blind Method
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