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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1277, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several anti-cytokine therapies were tested in the randomized trials in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (COVID-19). Previously, dexamethasone demonstrated a reduction of case-fatality rate in hospitalized patients with respiratory failure. In this matched control study we compared dexamethasone to a Janus kinase inhibitor, ruxolitinib. METHODS: The matched cohort study included 146 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and oxygen support requirement. The control group was selected 1:1 from 1355 dexamethasone-treated patients and was matched by main clinical and laboratory parameters predicting survival. Recruitment period was April 7, 2020 through September 9, 2020. RESULTS: Ruxolitinib treatment in the general cohort of patients was associated with case-fatality rate similar to dexamethasone treatment: 9.6% (95% CI [4.6-14.6%]) vs 13.0% (95% CI [7.5-18.5%]) respectively (p = 0.35, OR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.31-1.57]). Median time to discharge without oxygen support requirement was also not different between these groups: 13 vs. 11 days (p = 0.13). Subgroup analysis without adjustment for multiple comparisons demonstrated a reduced case-fatality rate in ruxolitnib-treated patients with a high fever (≥ 38.5 °C) (OR 0.33, 95% CI [0.11-1.00]). Except higher incidence of grade 1 thrombocytopenia (37% vs 23%, p = 0.042), ruxolitinib therapy was associated with a better safety profile due to a reduced rate of severe cardiovascular adverse events (6.8% vs 15%, p = 0.025). For 32 patients from ruxolitinib group (21.9%) with ongoing progression of respiratory failure after 72 h of treatment, additional anti-cytokine therapy was prescribed (8-16 mg dexamethasone). CONCLUSIONS: Ruxolitinib may be an alternative initial anti-cytokine therapy with comparable effectiveness in patients with potential risks of steroid administration. Patients with a high fever (≥ 38.5 °C) at admission may potentially benefit from ruxolitinib administration. Trial registration The Ruxolitinib Managed Access Program (MAP) for Patients Diagnosed With Severe/Very Severe COVID-19 Illness NCT04337359, CINC424A2001M, registered April, 7, 2020. First participant was recruited after registration date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Nitriles , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262462, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630364

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir and dexamethasone are the only drugs providing reductions in the lengths of hospital stays for COVID-19 patients. We assessed the impacts of remdesivir on hospital-bed resources and budgets affected by the COVID-19 outbreak. A stochastic agent-based model was combined with epidemiological data available on the COVID-19 outbreak in France and data from two randomized control trials. Strategies involving treating with remdesivir only patients with low-flow oxygen and patients with low-flow and high-flow oxygen were examined. Treating all eligible low-flow oxygen patients during the entirety of the second wave would have decreased hospital-bed occupancy in conventional wards by 4% [2%; 7%] and intensive care unit (ICU)-bed occupancy by 9% [6%; 13%]. Extending remdesivir use to high-flow-oxygen patients would have amplified reductions in ICU-bed occupancy by up to 14% [18%; 11%]. A minimum remdesivir uptake of 20% was required to observe decreases in bed occupancy. Dexamethasone had effects of similar amplitude. Depending on the treatment strategy, using remdesivir would, in most cases, generate savings (up to 722€) or at least be cost neutral (an extra cost of 34€). Treating eligible patients could significantly limit the saturation of hospital capacities, particularly in ICUs. The generated savings would exceed the costs of medications.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/economics , Bed Occupancy/economics , Dexamethasone/economics , Adenosine Monophosphate/economics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/economics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/virology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , France , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623660

ABSTRACT

The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to describe pre-treatment characteristics, treatment patterns, health resource use, and clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States (US) who initiated common treatments for COVID-19. The Optum® COVID-19 electronic health records database was used to identify patients >18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to an inpatient setting and received treatments of interest for COVID-19 between September 2020 and January 2021. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on index treatment use. Patient demographics, medical history, care setting, medical procedures, subsequent treatment use, patient disposition, clinical improvement, and outcomes were summarized descriptively. Among a total of 26,192 patients identified, the most prevalent treatments initiated were dexamethasone (35.4%) and dexamethasone + remdesivir (14.9%), and dexamethasone was the most common subsequent treatment. At day 14 post-index, <10% of patients received any treatments of interest. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) patient age was 65.6 (15.6) years, and the most prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (44.8%), obesity (35.4%), and diabetes (25.7%). At the end of follow-up, patients had a mean (SD) 8.1 (6.6) inpatient days and 1.4 (4.1) days with ICU care. Oxygen supplementation, non-invasive, or invasive ventilation was required by 4.5%, 3.0%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 84.2% of patients had evidence of clinical improvement, 3.1% remained hospitalized, 83.8% were discharged, 4% died in hospital, and 9.1% died after discharge. Although the majority of patients were discharged alive, no treatments appeared to alleviate the inpatient morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This highlights an unmet need for effective treatment options for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom has seen two waves; the first starting in March 2020 and the second in late October 2020. It is not known whether outcomes for those admitted with severe Covid were different in the first and second waves. METHODS: The study population comprised all patients admitted to a 1,500-bed London Hospital Trust between March 2020 and March 2021, who tested positive for Covid-19 by PCR within 3-days of admissions. Primary outcome was death within 28-days of admission. Socio-demographics (age, sex, ethnicity), hypertension, diabetes, obesity, baseline physiological observations, CRP, neutrophil, chest x-ray abnormality, remdesivir and dexamethasone were incorporated as co-variates. Proportional subhazards models compared mortality risk between wave 1 and wave 2. Cox-proportional hazard model with propensity score adjustment were used to compare mortality in patients prescribed remdesivir and dexamethasone. RESULTS: There were 3,949 COVID-19 admissions, 3,195 hospital discharges and 733 deaths. There were notable differences in age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and admission disease severity between wave 1 and wave 2. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher during wave 1 (26.1% versus 13.1%). Mortality risk adjusted for co-variates was significantly lower in wave 2 compared to wave 1 [adjSHR 0.49 (0.37, 0.65) p<0.001]. Analysis of treatment impact did not show statistically different effects of remdesivir [HR 0.84 (95%CI 0.65, 1.08), p = 0.17] or dexamethasone [HR 0.97 (95%CI 0.70, 1.35) p = 0.87]. CONCLUSION: There has been substantial improvements in COVID-19 mortality in the second wave, even accounting for demographics, comorbidity, and disease severity. Neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir appeared to be key explanatory factors, although there may be unmeasured confounding present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity/trends , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , London , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Proportional Hazards Models
5.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 23-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593522

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 of 2019 (COVID-19) causes a pandemic that has been diagnosed in more than 70 million people worldwide. Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms include coughing, fever, myalgia, shortness of breath, and acute inflammatory lung injury (ALI). In contrast, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure occur in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19. ARDS is mediated, at least in part, by a dysregulated inflammatory response due to excessive levels of circulating cytokines, a condition known as the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Currently, there are FDA-approved therapies that attenuate the dysregulated inflammation that occurs in COVID-19 patients, such as dexamethasone or other corticosteroids and IL-6 inhibitors, including sarilumab, tocilizumab, and siltuximab. However, the efficacy of these treatments have been shown to be inconsistent. Compounds that activate the vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, GTS-21, attenuate ARDS/inflammatory lung injury by decreasing the extracellular levels of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the airways and the circulation. It is possible that HMGB1 may be an important mediator of the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Notably, high plasma levels of HMGB1 have been reported in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19, and there is a significant negative correlation between HMGB1 plasma levels and clinical outcomes. Nicotine can activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, which attenuates the up-regulation and the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Therefore, we hypothesize that low molecular weight compounds that activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as nicotine or GTS-21, may represent a potential therapeutic approach to attenuate the dysregulated inflammatory responses in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Benzylidene Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nicotine/metabolism , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Humans , Pandemics , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists
6.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
7.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211063976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582484

ABSTRACT

The underlying cause of many complications associated with severe COVID-19 is attributed to the inflammatory cytokine storm that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which appears to be the leading cause of death in COVID-19. Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory activity through repression of pro-inflammatory genes and inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, which makes them a potential medical intervention to diminish the upregulated inflammatory response. Early in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the role of corticosteroids was unclear. Corticosteroid use in other indications such as ARDS and septic shock has proven benefit while its use in other respiratory viral pneumonias is associated with reduced viral clearance and increased secondary infections. This review article evaluates the benefits and harms of systemic corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 to assist clinicians in improving patient outcomes, including patient safety. Dexamethasone up to 10 days is the preferred regimen to reduce mortality risk in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen support, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. If dexamethasone is unavailable, other corticosteroids can be substituted at equivalent doses. Higher doses of corticosteroids may be beneficial in patients who develop ARDS. Corticosteroids should be avoided early in the disease course when patients do not require oxygen support because of potential harms.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/adverse effects , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
8.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(12): 1129-1135, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma (MM) accounts for 1-2% of all malignancies but is the second most common hematological malignancy. It is characterized by a proliferation of malignant plasma cells. The treatment paradigm of MM in Australia is traditionally hospital-based, complex, and costly. While MM comprises 1-2% of cancer diagnoses, it appears in the top 10 cancer diagnoses requiring hospital admission. The cumulative time spent receiving treatment is a significant burden for patients. The ability to receive treatment at home and maximize time away from hospital-based settings is a key preference for patients receiving anticancer therapies over a prolonged period of time. METHODS: The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Hospital's combined Clinical Hematology Unit has collaborated with their Hospital in the Home departments to develop several innovative programs to address this. RESULTS: We describe our current active programs and potential developments in home-based MM therapy. CONCLUSION: We have enabled large numbers of patients to receive complex therapies in their own home and the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the pace of the roll out without any compromise in safety. We anticipate that the next raft of immunotherapies will be able to transition into the @Home treatment setting in the coming years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e306, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566642

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune condition characterized by platelet destruction through antibody-mediated mechanism. ITP is one of the manifestations of a coronavirus disease, as well as an adverse event occurring after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several cases of ITP have been described after vaccination with two mRNA-based vaccines-BTN162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)-against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we report a case of ITP occurring after vaccination with ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine in Korea. A 66-year-old woman presented with multiple ecchymoses on both upper and lower extremities and gingival bleeding, appearing 3 days after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Her laboratory results showed isolated severe thrombocytopenia without evidence of combined coagulopathy. She was diagnosed with ITP and successfully treated with high-dose dexamethasone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical suspicion to identify vaccine-related ITP is important to promptly initiate appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ecchymosis/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Periodontal Index , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112353, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544808

ABSTRACT

Almost 80% of people confronting COVID-19 recover from COVID-19 disease without any particular treatments. They experience heterogeneous symptoms; a wide range of respiratory symptoms, cough, dyspnea, fever, and viral pneumonia. However, some others need urgent intervention and special treatment to get rid of this widespread disease. So far, there isn't any unique drug for the potential treatment of COVID 19. However, some available therapeutic drugs used for other diseases seem beneficial for the COVID-19 treatment. On the other hand, there is a robust global concern for developing an efficient COVID-19 vaccine to control the COVID-19 pandemic sustainably. According to the WHO report, since 8 October 2021, 320 vaccines have been in progress. 194 vaccines are in the pre-clinical development stage that 126 of them are in clinical progression. Here, in this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed the most recent and updated information about coronavirus and its mutations, all the potential therapeutic approaches for treating COVID-19, developed diagnostic systems for COVID- 19 and the available COVID-19 vaccines and their mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , World Health Organization
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6605-6610, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544306

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We have previously demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency might be associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. The aim of our study was to explore this relationship with dexamethasone therapy. METHODS: We prospectively studied two cohorts of hospitalized Covid-19 patients between March and April and between September and December 2020 (n = 192). Patients were tested for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) levels during admission. The first cohort not treated with dexamethasone (n = 107) was divided into vitamin D deficient (25-OH-D ≤ 30 nmol/L) (n = 47) and replete subgroups (25-OH-D > 30 nmol/L) (n = 60). The second cohort treated with dexamethasone (n = 85) was similarly divided into deficient (25-OH-D ≤ 30 nmol/L) (n = 27) and replete subgroups (25-OH-D > 30 nmol/L) (n = 58). Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were elevation in markers of cytokine storm and ventilatory requirement. RESULTS: No mortality difference was identified between cohorts and subgroups. The "no dexamethasone" cohort 25-OH-D deplete subgroup recorded significantly higher peak D-Dimer levels (1874 vs. 1233 µgFEU/L) (p = 0.0309), CRP (177 vs. 107.5) (p = 0.0055), and ventilatory support requirement (25.5% vs. 6.67%) (p = 0.007) compared to the replete subgroup. Among the 25-OH-D deplete subgroup higher peak neutrophil counts, peak CRP, peak LDH, peak ferritin, and lower trough lymphocyte counts were observed, without statistical significance. In the "dexamethasone" cohort, there was no apparent association between 25-OH-D deficiency and markers of cytokine storm or ventilatory requirement. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with elevated markers of cytokine storm and higher ventilatory requirements in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Dexamethasone treatment appears to mitigate adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e306, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506220

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune condition characterized by platelet destruction through antibody-mediated mechanism. ITP is one of the manifestations of a coronavirus disease, as well as an adverse event occurring after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several cases of ITP have been described after vaccination with two mRNA-based vaccines-BTN162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)-against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we report a case of ITP occurring after vaccination with ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine in Korea. A 66-year-old woman presented with multiple ecchymoses on both upper and lower extremities and gingival bleeding, appearing 3 days after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Her laboratory results showed isolated severe thrombocytopenia without evidence of combined coagulopathy. She was diagnosed with ITP and successfully treated with high-dose dexamethasone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical suspicion to identify vaccine-related ITP is important to promptly initiate appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ecchymosis/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Periodontal Index , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1395-1403, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the use patterns of potential pharmacologic treatments of COVID-19 in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To use the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a large, multicenter, longitudinal cohort, to characterize the use of hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and dexamethasone, overall as well as across individuals, health systems, and time. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 43 health systems in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 137 870 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 28 February 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Inpatient use of hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, or dexamethasone. RESULTS: Among 137 870 persons hospitalized with confirmed or suspected COVID-19, 8754 (6.3%) received hydroxychloroquine, 29 272 (21.2%) remdesivir, and 53 909 (39.1%) dexamethasone during the study period. Since the release of results from the RECOVERY (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy) trial in mid-June, approximately 78% to 84% of people who have had invasive mechanical ventilation have received dexamethasone or other glucocorticoids. The use of hydroxychloroquine increased during March 2020, peaking at 42%, and started declining by April 2020. By contrast, remdesivir and dexamethasone use gradually increased over the study period. Dexamethasone and remdesivir use varied substantially across health centers (intraclass correlation coefficient, 14.2% for dexamethasone and 84.6% for remdesivir). LIMITATION: Because most N3C data contributors are academic medical centers, findings may not reflect the experience of community hospitals. CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone, an evidence-based treatment of COVID-19, may be underused among persons who are mechanically ventilated. The use of remdesivir and dexamethasone varied across health systems, suggesting variation in patient case mix, drug access, treatment protocols, and quality of care. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and National Institute on Aging.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1257-1262, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478145

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 infection management for a recipient of kidney transplant has debatable prognosis and treatment. We described the case of a COVID-19 infected 70 year old female, previously had renal transplantation in 2017. The patient took immunosuppressive agents as routine drugs for transplant recipient status and received lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone daily at the hospitalization. Specific question arises about renal transplant recipients being infected by COVID-19 - whether the infection will get worse compared to those without immunosuppresive agent. In this case, author decided to stop the immunosuppressive agent followed administration of combination lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone that gives a good clinical impact change to patient's condition after once getting worsened and mechanically ventilated. Nevertheless, the assessment of risk and benefit in continuing immunosuppressive drugs is concurrently essential due to the prevention of transplant rejection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Aged , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 687397, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477818

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like hyperinflammation and endothelial dysfunction, that can lead to respiratory and multi organ failure and death. Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and pulmonary fibrosis confer an increased risk for severe disease, while a subset of COVID-19-related ARDS surviving patients will develop a fibroproliferative response that can persist post hospitalization. Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D, largely responsible for the extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic signaling lysophospholipid with multiple effects in pulmonary and immune cells. In this review, we discuss the similarities of COVID-19, ARDS and ILDs, and suggest ATX as a possible pathologic link and a potential common therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/immunology
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26705, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475905

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) or cytokine storm is thought to be the cause of inflammatory lung damage, worsening pneumonia and death in patients with COVID-19. Steroids (Methylprednislone or Dexamethasone) and Tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, are approved for treatment of CRS in India. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of TCZ and steroid in COVID-19 associated CRS.This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Noble hospital and Research Centre (NHRC), Pune, India between April 2 and November 2, 2020. All patients administered TCZ and steroids during this period were included. The primary endpoint was incidence of all cause mortality. Secondary outcomes studied were need for mechanical ventilation and incidence of systemic and infectious complications. Baseline and time dependent risk factors significantly associated with death were identified by Relative risk estimation.Out of 2831 admitted patients, 515 (24.3% females) were administered TCZ and steroids. There were 135 deaths (26.2%), while 380 patients (73.8%) had clinical improvement. Mechanical ventilation was required in 242 (47%) patients. Of these, 44.2% (107/242) recovered and were weaned off the ventilator. Thirty seven percent patients were managed in wards and did not need intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Infectious complications like hospital acquired pneumonia, blood stream bacterial and fungal infections were observed in 2.13%, 2.13% and 0.06% patients respectively. Age ≥ 60 years (P = .014), presence of co-morbidities like hypertension (P = .011), IL-6 ≥ 100 pg/ml (P = .002), D-dimer ≥ 1000 ng/ml (P < .0001), CT severity index ≥ 18 (P < .0001) and systemic complications like lung fibrosis (P = .019), cardiac arrhythmia (P < .0001), hypotension (P < .0001) and encephalopathy (P < .0001) were associated with increased risk of death.Combination therapy of TCZ and steroids is likely to be safe and effective in management of COVID-19 associated cytokine release syndrome. Efficacy of this anti-inflammatory combination therapy needs to be validated in randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , India , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27373, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is an urgent need for effective therapies for patients with COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids in severe COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed across PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (up to June 26, 2021). The literature investigated the outcomes of interest were mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The search identified 13 studies with 6612 confirmed severe COVID-19 patients. Our meta-analysis found that using glucocorticoids could significantly decrease COVID-19 mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.79, P < .001), relative to non-use of glucocorticoids. Meanwhile, using glucocorticoids also could significantly decrease the risk of progression to invasive mechanical ventilation for severe COVID-19 patients (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.83, P < .001). Compared with using dexamethasone (HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.92, P = .012), methylprednisolone use had a better therapeutic effect for reducing the mortality of patients (HR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.64, P = .001). CONCLUSION: The result of this meta-analysis showed that using glucocorticoids could reduce mortality and risk of progression to invasive mechanical ventilation in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(3): 100312, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the comparative clinical effectiveness and safety of dexamethasone vs betamethasone for preterm birth. DATA SOURCES: The sources searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform without language restrictions until October 2019 in addition to the reference lists of included studies. Field experts were also contacted. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing any corticosteroids against each other or against placebo at any dose for preterm birth were included in the study. METHODS: Three researchers independently selected and extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies by using Early Review Organizing Software and Covidence software. Random-effects pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis were performed. The primary outcomes were chorioamnionitis, endometritis or puerperal sepsis, neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome, and neurodevelopmental disability. RESULTS: A total of 45 trials (11,227 women and 11,878 infants) were included in the study. No clinical or statistical difference was found between dexamethasone and betamethasone in neonatal death (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.84; moderate-certainty evidence), neurodevelopmental disability (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.33; moderate-certainty evidence), intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.78); low-certainty evidence), or birthweight (+5.29 g; 95% confidence interval, -49.79 to 58.97; high-certainty evidence). There was no statistically significant difference, but a potentially clinically important effect was found between dexamethasone and betamethasone in chorioamnionitis (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.06; moderate-certainty evidence), fetal death (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-2.41; low-certainty evidence), puerperal sepsis (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-6.06; low-certainty evidence), and respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-2.11; moderate-certainty evidence). Meta-regression, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses did not reveal important changes regarding the main analysis. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroids have proven effective for most neonatal and child-relevant outcomes compared with placebo or no treatment for women at risk of preterm birth. No important difference was found on neonatal death, neurodevelopmental disability, intraventricular hemorrhage, and birthweight between corticosteroids, and there was no statistically significant difference, but a potentially important difference was found in chorioamnionitis, fetal death, endometritis or puerperal sepsis, and respiratory distress syndrome. Further research is warranted to improve the certainty of evidence and inform health policies.


Subject(s)
Premature Birth , Bayes Theorem , Betamethasone , Child , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Network Meta-Analysis , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013101, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely given to children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Their use is still controversial and the decision to administer the intervention can vary by centre and/or by individual doctors within that centre. OBJECTIVES: This review is designed to assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic corticosteroids in children between birth and 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science in June 2020. We also searched four clinical trials registers and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, including single and multiple doses, and all types of corticosteroids administered via any route and at any time-point in the perioperative period. We excluded studies if steroids were administered therapeutically. We included individually randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with two or more groups (e.g. multi-drug or dose comparisons with a control group) but not 'head-to-head' trials without a placebo or a group that did not receive corticosteroids. We included studies in children, from birth up to 18 years of age, including preterm infants, undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB. We also excluded studies in patients undergoing heart or lung transplantation, or both; studies in patients already receiving corticosteroids; in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and in patients given steroids at the time of cardiac surgery for indications other than cardiac surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the Covidence systematic review manager to extract and manage data for the review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by consultation with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We found 3748 studies, of which 888 were duplicate records. Two studies had the same clinical trial registration number, but reported different populations and interventions. We therefore included them as separate studies. We screened titles and abstracts of 2868 records and reviewed full text reports for 84 studies to determine eligibility. We extracted data for 13 studies. Pooled analyses are based on eight studies. We reported the remaining five studies narratively due to zero events for both intervention and placebo in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, the final meta-analysis included eight studies with a combined population of 478 participants. There was a low or unclear risk of bias across the domains. There was moderate certainty of evidence that corticosteroids do not change the risk of in-hospital mortality (five RCTs; 313 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.07) for children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. There was high certainty of evidence that corticosteroids reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (six RCTs; 421 participants; mean difference (MD) 11.37 hours lower, 95% CI -20.29 to -2.45) after the surgery. There was high-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay (six RCTs; 421 participants; MD 0.28 days lower, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.24) and moderate-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of the postoperative hospital stay (one RCT; 176 participants; mean length of stay 22 days; MD -0.70 days, 95% CI -2.62 to 1.22). There was moderate certainty of evidence for no effect of the intervention on all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (five RCTs; 313 participants; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.07) or cardiovascular mortality at the longest follow-up (three RCTs; 109 participants; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.46). There was low certainty of evidence that corticosteroids probably make little to no difference to children separating from CPB (one RCT; 40 participants; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.92). We were unable to report information regarding adverse events of the intervention due to the heterogeneity of reporting of outcomes. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for several reasons, including imprecision due to small sample sizes, a single study providing data for an individual outcome, the inclusion of both appreciable benefit and harm in the confidence interval, and publication bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids  probably do not change the risk of mortality for children having heart surgery using CPB at any time point. They probably reduce the duration of postoperative ventilation in this context, but have little or no effect on the total length of postoperative ICU stay or total postoperative hospital stay. There was inconsistency in the adverse event outcomes reported which, consequently, could not be pooled. It is therefore impossible to provide any implications and policy-makers will be unable to make any recommendations for practice without evidence about adverse effects. The review highlighted the need for well-conducted RCTs powered for clinical outcomes to confirm or refute the effect of corticosteroids versus placebo in children having cardiac surgery with CPB. A core outcome set for adverse event reporting in the paediatric major surgery and intensive care setting is required.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Bias , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Heart-Lung Machine/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409704

ABSTRACT

Autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalyzing the extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic signaling phospholipid. Genetic and pharmacologic studies have previously established a pathologic role for ATX and LPA signaling in pulmonary injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Here, increased ENPP2 mRNA levels were detected in immune cells from nasopharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19 patients, and increased ATX serum levels were found in severe COVID-19 patients. ATX serum levels correlated with the corresponding increased serum levels of IL-6 and endothelial damage biomarkers, suggesting an interplay of the ATX/LPA axis with hyperinflammation and the associated vascular dysfunction in COVID-19. Accordingly, dexamethasone (Dex) treatment of mechanically ventilated patients reduced ATX levels, as shown in two independent cohorts, indicating that the therapeutic benefits of Dex include the suppression of ATX. Moreover, large scale analysis of multiple single cell RNA sequencing datasets revealed the expression landscape of ENPP2 in COVID-19 and further suggested a role for ATX in the homeostasis of dendritic cells, which exhibit both numerical and functional deficits in COVID-19. Therefore, ATX has likely a multifunctional role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, suggesting that its pharmacological targeting might represent an additional therapeutic option, both during and after hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
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