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1.
Demography ; 60(2): 343-349, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313455

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had overwhelming global impacts with deleterious social, economic, and health consequences. To assess the COVID-19 death toll, researchers have estimated declines in 2020 life expectancy at birth (e0). When data are available only for COVID-19 deaths, but not for deaths from other causes, the risks of dying from COVID-19 are typically assumed to be independent of those from other causes. In this research note, we explore the soundness of this assumption using data from the United States and Brazil, the countries with the largest number of reported COVID-19 deaths. We use three methods: one estimates the difference between 2019 and 2020 life tables and therefore does not require the assumption of independence, and the other two assume independence to simulate scenarios in which COVID-19 mortality is added to 2019 death rates or is eliminated from 2020 rates. Our results reveal that COVID-19 is not independent of other causes of death. The assumption of independence can lead to either an overestimate (Brazil) or an underestimate (United States) of the decline in e0, depending on how the number of other reported causes of death changed in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/mortality , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Cause of Death/trends , Life Tables , Life Expectancy/trends
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(3)2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273693

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an acute, life-threatening infection and isolated renal involvement is rare. Due to the angioinvasive nature of the disease, it is rapidly progressive and can be lethal if not managed expeditiously. In patients with underlying conditions of immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus, transplantation, COVID-19, intravenous drug and substance use and pyelonephritis, which is unable to be controlled via regular antibiotics, mucormycosis must be considered on the differential and antifungals must be empirically started. Most cases are often diagnosed on histopathology, which causes delayed treatment and resolution. We present a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis diagnosed on imaging and was later found to have mucormycosis on histopathological examination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Emphysema , Mucormycosis , Pyelonephritis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Pyelonephritis/diagnostic imaging , Pyelonephritis/drug therapy , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/pathology , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Emphysema/complications
3.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(1): 2-15, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270129

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are top two chronic comorbidities that increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, how SARS-CoV-2 alters the progression of chronic diseases remain unclear. Methods: We used adenovirus to deliver h-ACE2 to lung to enable SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. SARS-CoV-2's impacts on pathogenesis of chronic diseases were studied through histopathological, virologic and molecular biology analysis. Results: Pre-existing CVDs resulted in viral invasion, ROS elevation and activation of apoptosis pathways contribute myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection increased fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin response in DM model. Bone mineral density decreased shortly after infection, which associated with impaired PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Conclusion: We established mouse models mimicked the complex pathological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases. Pre-existing diseases could impair the inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which further aggravated the pre-existing diseases. This work provided valuable information to better understand the interplay between the primary diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Animals , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Drug Saf ; 45(12): 1477-1490, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129484

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Hong Kong, CoronaVac and BNT162b2 have been approved for emergency use owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Reactions towards the vaccine and the risk of post-vaccination adverse events may be different between recipients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of adverse events of special interest (AESI) and acute diabetic complications in the T2DM population after COVID-19 vaccination in Hong Kong. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Self-controlled case-series analysis was conducted. Patients with T2DM who received at least one dose of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac between 23 February 2021 and 31 January 2022 from electronic health records in Hong Kong were included. The incidence rates of 29 AESIs and acute diabetic complications (any of severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome) requiring hospitalization within 21 days after the first or second dose of vaccination were reported. The risks of these outcomes were evaluated using conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 141,224 BNT162b2 recipients and 209,739 CoronaVac recipients with T2DM, the incidence per 100,000 doses and incidence per 100,000 person-years of individual AESIs and acute diabetic complications ranged from 0 to 24.4 and 0 to 438.6 in BNT162b2 group, and 0 to 19.5 and 0 to 351.6 in CoronaVac group. We did not observe any significantly increased risk of individual AESIs or acute diabetic complications after first or second doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccine. Subgroup analysis based on HbA1c < 7% and ≥ 7% also did not show significantly excess risk after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM do not appear to have higher risks of AESI and acute diabetic complications after BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccination. Moreover, given the low incidence of AESIs and acute diabetic complications after vaccination, the absolute risk increment was likely minimal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(9): 3398-3402, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024720

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a huge impact on the health care system. Diversion of health care workforce toward management of a high number of COVID-19 cases and lockdown restrictions have affected the follow-up of patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of this situation on the control of diabetes, eventually resulting in related neuro-ophthalmological complications. Methods: This retrospective case series included diabetic patients visiting the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at a tertiary care eye center in India from 25 March 2020 to 25 September 2020 during the lockdown. The incidence of diabetes-related neuro-ophthalmological complications, including third, fourth, sixth nerve palsies and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) was evaluated and compared with that of the same period during 2019. Results: Overall disease incidence rate was significantly higher in the year 2020 (60.2%) compared to the previous year of 2019 (29.8%). The proportion of third nerve palsy (4.8% vs 16.3%, P < 0.001) and NAION (0.3% vs 14.3%, P < 0.001) had increased. Even though the percentage of sixth nerve palsy was 25% in 2020, this was not significantly different from 2019. There was a reduction in the percentage of fourth nerve palsy cases from the year 2019 to 2020. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in diabetes-related neuro-ophthalmic complications during the COVID-19 lockdown. This can possibly be attributed to worsening of glycemic control in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India , Retrospective Studies
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 925844, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933633

ABSTRACT

Objective: There are still not enough studies on the prediction of non-utilization of a complication test or a glycated hemoglobin test for preventing diabetes complications by using large-scale community-based big data. This study identified the ratio of not taking a diabetes complication test (fundus examination and microprotein urination test) among adult diabetic patients over 19 years using a national survey conducted in South Korea and developed a model for predicting the probability of not taking a diabetes complication test based on it. Methods: This study analyzed 25,811 subjects who responded that they had been diagnosed with diabetes by a doctor in the 2020 Community Health Survey. Outcome variables were defined as the utilization of the microprotein urination test and the fundus examination during the past year. This study developed a model for predicting the utilization of a diabetes complication test using logistic regression analysis and nomogram to understand the relationship of predictive factors on the utilization of a diabetes complication test. Results: The results of this study confirmed that age, education level, the recognition of own blood glucose level, current diabetes treatment, diabetes management education, not conducting the glycated hemoglobin test in the past year, smoking, single-person household, subjectively good health, and living in the rural area were independently related to the non-utilization of diabetes complication test after the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Additional longitudinal studies are required to confirm the causality of the non-utilization of diabetes complication screening tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917516

ABSTRACT

People with diabetes are more likely to have severe COVID-19 compared to the general population. Moreover, diabetes and COVID-19 demonstrate a certain parallelism in the mechanisms and organ damage. In this work, we applied bioinformatics analysis of associative molecular networks to identify key molecules and pathophysiological processes that determine SARS-CoV-2-induced disorders in patients with diabetes. Using text-mining-based approaches and ANDSystem as a bioinformatics tool, we reconstructed and matched networks related to hyperglycemia, diabetic complications, insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction with networks of SARS-CoV-2-targeted proteins. The latter included SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors (ACE2 and DPP4), SARS-CoV-2 entry associated proteases (TMPRSS2, CTSB, and CTSL), and 332 human intracellular proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2. A number of genes/proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2 (ACE2, BRD2, COMT, CTSB, CTSL, DNMT1, DPP4, ERP44, F2RL1, GDF15, GPX1, HDAC2, HMOX1, HYOU1, IDE, LOX, NUTF2, PCNT, PLAT, RAB10, RHOA, SCARB1, and SELENOS) were found in the networks of vascular diabetic complications and insulin resistance. According to the Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, the defined molecules are involved in the response to hypoxia, reactive oxygen species metabolism, immune and inflammatory response, regulation of angiogenesis, platelet degranulation, and other processes. The results expand the understanding of the molecular basis of diabetes and COVID-19 comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/genetics , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936370, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND 0ptviral pneumonia and bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis create a rapid acute respiratory distress syndrome. CASE REPORT A 59-year-old diabetic man with altered awareness was admitted as an emergency due to fever, shivering, and pain in the lap. Based on the accurate diagnosis, we concluded that the patient had bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis, as well as inflammatory changes in the lung parenchyma caused by coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2). Active therapy - nephrectomy - was ruled out due to the late detection of the gas collection in the kidneys, as well as the general condition caused by respiratory symptoms. With symptomatic, supportive, and antimicrobial therapy, such as percutaneous renal drainage, renal abnormalities improved. Unfortunately, the virus-induced parenchymal inflammation progressed and proved fatal. The inflammatory process in the urothelial cell is most likely where the linkage and potentiation of COVID-19 infection and emphysematous pyelonephritis begins. Local inflammation that obstructs the movement of the generated gas is one of the hypothesized processes of emphysematous pyelonephritis. The renal and urothelial tubular cells contain the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor, which is used by the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter human cells and may be a risk factor for simultaneous and direct viral injury to urinary tract cells. Sepsis was most likely caused by viral pneumonia, based on the resolution of changes in the kidneys. CONCLUSIONS The combination of EPN and COVID-19 is difficult to treat. Despite multidisciplinary treatment, it has been linked to a worse prognosis and fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Emphysema , Pneumonia , Pyelonephritis , Sepsis , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Emphysema/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Pyelonephritis/complications , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/complications , Treatment Outcome
9.
Circulation ; 143(8): 837-851, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883363

ABSTRACT

More than 40 years after the 1978 Bethesda Conference on the Declining Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease provided the scientific community with a blueprint for systematic analysis to understand declining rates of coronary heart disease, there are indications the decline has ended or even reversed despite advances in our knowledge about the condition and treatment. Recent data show a more complex situation, with mortality rates for overall cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke, decelerating, whereas those for heart failure are increasing. To mark the 40th anniversary of the Bethesda Conference, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association cosponsored the "Bending the Curve in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Bethesda + 40" symposium. The objective was to examine the immediate and long-term outcomes of the 1978 conference and understand the current environment. Symposium themes included trends and future projections in cardiovascular disease (in the United States and internationally), the evolving obesity and diabetes epidemics, and harnessing emerging and innovative opportunities to preserve and promote cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition, participant-led discussion explored the challenges and barriers in promoting cardiovascular health across the lifespan and established a potential framework for observational research and interventions that would begin in early childhood (or ideally in utero). This report summarizes the relevant research, policy, and practice opportunities discussed at the symposium.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Congresses as Topic , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/pathology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity/trends , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/pathology , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Urbanization
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2612-2618, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes conveys an increased risk of infectious diseases and related mortality. We investigated risk of ascertained SARS-CoV-2 infection in diabetes subjects from the Veneto Region, Northeastern Italy, as well as the risk of being admitted to hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), or mortality for COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetic subjects were identified by linkage of multiple health archives. The rest of the population served as reference. Information on ascertained infection by SARS-CoV-2, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and mortality in the period from February 21 to July 31, 2020 were retrieved from the regional registry of COVID-19. Subjects with ascertained diabetes were 269,830 (55.2% men; median age 72 years). Reference subjects were 4,681,239 (men 48.6%, median age 46 years). Ratios of age- and gender-standardized rates (RR) [95% CI] for ascertained infection, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and disease-related death in diabetic subjects were 1.31 [1.19-1.45], 2.11 [1.83-2.44], 2.45 [1.96-3.07], 1.87 [1.68-2.09], all p < 0.001. The highest RR of ascertained infection was observed in diabetic men aged 20-39 years: 1.90 [1.04-3.21]. The highest RR of ICU admission and death were observed in diabetic men aged 40-59 years: 3.47 [2.00-5.70] and 5.54 [2.23-12.1], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data, observed in a large population of ∼5 million people of whom ∼250,000 with diabetes, show that diabetes not only conveys a poorer outcome in COVID-19 but also confers an increased risk of ascertained infection from SARS-CoV-2. Men of young or mature age have the highest relative risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820251

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the implementation of diabetes complications screening in South Korea during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Data from the Korea Community Health Surveys conducted in 2019 and 2020 were used. This study included 51,471 participants. Multiple level analysis was used to investigate the relationships between screening for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy and variables of both individual- and community-level factors in 2019 and 2020, before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Diabetes nephropathy complications screening in 2020 had a lower odds ratio. However, regions heavily affected by COVID-19 showed a negative association with diabetes complications screening after the COVID-19 outbreak. For those being treated with medication for diabetes, there was a significant negative association with diabetic nephropathy screening after the outbreak. The COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a reduction in the use of diabetes nephropathy complications screening. Additionally, only regions heavily affected by COVID-19 spread showed a negative association with diabetes complications screening compared to before the COVID-19 outbreak. In this regard, it appears that many patients were unable to attend outpatient care due to COVID-19. As such, these patients should be encouraged to visit clinics for diabetes complications screening. Furthermore, alternative methods need to be developed to support these patients. Through these efforts, the development of diabetes-related complications should be prevented, and the costs associated with these complications will be reduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Diabetic Retinopathy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/complications , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 780663, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731765

ABSTRACT

There seems to be a bidirectional interplay between Diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On the one hand, people with diabetes are at higher risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 as well as COVID-19 related health complications compared to individuals without diabetes. On the other hand, clinical data so far suggest that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may result in metabolic dysregulation and in impaired glucose homeostasis. In addition, emerging data on new onset DM in previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 patients, reinforce the hypothesis of a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on glucose metabolism. Attempting to find the culprit, we currently know that the pancreas and the endothelium have been found to express Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, the main binding site of the virus. To move from bench to bedside, understanding the effects of COVID-19 on metabolism and glucose homeostasis is crucial to prevent and manage complications related to COVID-19 and support recovering patients. In this article we review the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms between COVID-19 and glucose dysregulation as well as the effects of antidiabetic treatment in patients with diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Causality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(2): 402-415, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662815

ABSTRACT

Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease are common comorbidities and dangerous factors for infection and serious COVID-19. Polymorphisms in genes associated with comorbidities may help observe susceptibility and disease severity variation. However, specific genetic factors and the extent to which they can explain variation in susceptibility of severity are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated candidate genes associated with COVID-19 and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. In particular, we performed searches against OMIM, NCBI, and other databases, protein-protein interaction network construction, and GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Results showed that the associated overlapping genes were TLR4, NLRP3, MBL2, IL6, IL1RN, IL1B, CX3CR1, CCR5, AGT, ACE, and F2. GO and KEGG analyses yielded 302 GO terms (q < 0.05) and 29 signaling pathways (q < 0.05), respectively, mainly including coronavirus disease-COVID-19 and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. IL6 and AGT were central in the PPI, with 8 and 5 connections, respectively. In this study, we identified 11 genes associated with both COVID-19 and three comorbidities that may contribute to infection and disease severity. The key genes IL6 and AGT are involved in regulating immune response, cytokine activity, and viral infection. Therefore, RAAS inhibitors, AGT antisense nucleotides, cytokine inhibitors, vitamin D, fenofibrate, and vaccines regulating non-immune and immune factors could be potential strategies to prevent and cure COVID-19. The study provides a basis for further investigation of genes and pathways with predictive value for the risk of infection and prognosis and could help guide drug and vaccine development to improve treatment efficacy and the development of personalised treatments, especially for COVID-19 individuals with common comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Mutation , Protein Interaction Maps
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1438, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655618

ABSTRACT

The protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants by pre-existing antibodies elicited due to the current vaccination or natural infection is a global concern. We aimed to investigate the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its clinical features among infection-naïve, infected, vaccinated, and post-infection-vaccinated individuals. A cohort was designed among icddr,b staff registered for COVID-19 testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Reinfection cases were confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. From 19 March 2020 to 31 March 2021, 1644 (mean age, 38.4 years and 57% male) participants were enrolled; where 1080 (65.7%) were tested negative and added to the negative cohort. The positive cohort included 750 positive patients (564 from baseline and 186 from negative cohort follow-up), of whom 27.6% were hospitalized and 2.5% died. Among hospitalized patients, 45.9% had severe to critical disease and 42.5% required oxygen support. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were found significantly higher among the hospitalised patients compared to out-patients; risk ratio 1.3 and 1.6 respectively. The risk of infection among positive cohort was 80.2% lower than negative cohort (95% CI 72.6-85.7%; p < 0.001). Genome sequences showed that genetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 strains were responsible for reinfections. Naturally infected populations were less likely to be reinfected by SARS-CoV-2 than the infection-naïve and vaccinated individuals. Although, reinfected individuals did not suffer severe disease, a remarkable proportion of naturally infected or vaccinated individuals were (re)-infected by the emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reinfection/diagnosis , Reinfection/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624913

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related major health consequences involve the lungs, a growing body of evidence indicates that COVID-19 is not inert to the pancreas either. This review presents a summary of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pancreatic dysfunction during the course of COVID-19, the comparison of the effects of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pancreatic function, and a summary of how drugs used in COVID-19 treatment may affect this organ. It appears that diabetes is not only a condition that predisposes a patient to suffer from more severe COVID-19, but it may also develop as a consequence of infection with this virus. Some SARS-CoV-2 inpatients experience acute pancreatitis due to direct infection of the tissue with the virus or due to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) accompanied by elevated levels of amylase and lipase. There are also reports that reveal a relationship between the development and treatment of pancreatic cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection. It has been postulated that evaluation of pancreatic function should be increased in post-COVID-19 patients, both adults and children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/complications , Pancreas/virology , Pancreatitis/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pancreas/injuries , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/metabolism
19.
J Diabetes ; 14(2): 144-157, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a cardiometabolic comorbidity that may predispose COVID-19 patients to worse clinical outcomes. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diabetes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and investigate the association of diabetes severe COVID-19, rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mortality, and need for mechanical ventilation by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Individual studies were selected using a defined search strategy, including results up until July 2021 from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate the proportions and level of association of diabetes with clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Forest plots were generated to retrieve the odds ratios (OR), and the quality and risk assessment was performed for all studies included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The total number of patients included in this study was 10 648, of whom 3112 had diabetes (29.23%). The overall pooled estimate of prevalence of diabetes in the meta-analysis cohort was 31% (95% CI, 0.25-0.38; z = 16.09, P < .0001). Diabetes significantly increased the odds of severe COVID-19 (OR 3.39; 95% CI, 2.14-5.37; P < .0001), ARDS (OR 2.55; 95% CI, 1.74-3.75; P = <.0001), in-hospital mortality (OR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.93-3.09; P < .0001), and mechanical ventilation (OR 3.03; 95% CI, 2.17-4.22; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that diabetes is significantly associated with increased odds of severe COVID-19, increased ARDS rate, mortality, and need for mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients. We also estimated an overall pooled prevalence of diabetes of 31% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 166-173, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes associated with readmission in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched to retrieve articles on readmitted COVID-19 patients, available up to September 25, 2021. All studies comparing characteristics of readmitted and non-readmitted COVID-19 patients were included. We also included articles reporting the reasons for readmission in COVID-19 patients. Data were pooled and meta-analyzed using random or fixed-effect models, as appropriate. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the place and duration of readmission. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 4823 readmitted and 63,413 non-readmitted COVID-19 patients. The re-hospitalization rate was calculated at 9.3% with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [5.5%-15.4%], mostly associated with respiratory or cardiac complications (48% and 14%, respectively). Comorbidities including cerebrovascular disease (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.812; 95% CI [1.547-2.121]), cardiovascular (2.173 [1.545-3.057]), hypertension (1.608 [1.319-1.960]), ischemic heart disease (1.998 [1.495-2.670]), heart failure (2.556 [1.980-3.300]), diabetes (1.588 [1.443-1.747]), cancer (1.817 [1.526-2.162]), kidney disease (2.083 [1.498-2.897]), chronic pulmonary disease (1.601 [1.438-1.783]), as well as older age (1.525 [1.175-1.978]), male sex (1.155 [1.041-1.282]), and white race (1.263 [1.044-1.528]) were significantly associated with higher readmission rates (P < 0.05 for all instances). The mortality rate was significantly lower in readmitted patients (OR = 0.530 [0.329-0.855], P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Male sex, white race, comorbidities, and older age were associated with a higher risk of readmission among previously admitted COVID-19 patients. These factors can help clinicians and policy-makers predict, and conceivably reduce the risk of readmission in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Diabetes Complications , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Race Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
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