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1.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211045902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is the most common of comorbidity in patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia. Coagulation abnormalities with D-dimer levels are increased in this disease. OBJECTIFS: We aimed to compare the levels of D-dimer in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with COVID 19. A link between D-dimer and mortality has also been established. MATERIALS: A retrospective study was carried out at the University Hospital Center of Oujda (Morocco) from November 01st to December 01st, 2020. Our study population was divided into two groups: a diabetic group and a second group without diabetes to compare clinical and biological characteristics between the two groups. In addition, the receiver operator characteristic curve was used to assess the optimal D-dimer cut-off point for predicting mortality in diabetics. RESULTS: 201 confirmed-COVID-19-patients were included in the final analysis. The median age was 64 (IQR 56-73), and 56% were male. Our study found that D-dimer levels were statistically higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. (1745 vs 845 respectively, P = 0001). D-dimer level > 2885 ng/mL was a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic patients with a sensitivity of 71,4% and a specificity of 70,7%. CONCLUSION: Our study found that diabetics with COVID-19 are likely to develop hypercoagulation with a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/immunology
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347578

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate calculated total plasma osmolality as a marker of outcome prediction, fluid and metabolic balance, thrombotic risk in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective data of RT-PCR confirmed hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients (total: n = 175 patients, including diabetic subset: n = 102) were analyzed. Clinically applicable cut-offs were derived using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for calculated total osmolality, eGFR, and D-dimer, and their correlations were studied. RESULTS: Among 175 severe COVID-19 patients, a significant association with mortality was seen with respect to calculated total osmolality (p < 0.001), eGFR (p < 0.001), and D-dimer (p < 0.001). In the total cohort, applicable cut-offs based on ROC curve in predicting outcome were, for total osmolality 299 mosm/kg (area under the curve (AUC)-0.773, odds ratio (OR)-1.09), eGFR 61.5 ml/min/m2 (AUC-0.789, OR-0.96), D-dimer 5.13 (AUC-0.814, OR-2.65) respectively. In diabetic subset, the cut-offs for total osmolality were 298 mosm/kg (AUC-0.794, OR-1.12), eGFR 44.9 ml/min/m2 (AUC-0.774, OR-0.96) and D-dimer 1.59 (AUC-0.769, OR-1.52) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Applicable cut-offs for calculated total plasma osmolality, eGFR, and D-dimer predicts clinical outcome in severe COVID-19 with and without diabetes. Correlation studies validated calculated total osmolality as a marker of the combined effect of fluid and metabolic imbalance, compromised renal function and hypercoagulability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Plasma/chemistry , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Osmolar Concentration , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology
4.
Hemoglobin ; 45(2): 124-128, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281786

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between Hb A1c levels and the clinical course of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) patients. Sixty-six COVID-19(+) patients with high Hb A1c and 46 with average Hb A1c and 30 COVID-19(-) patients with average Hb A1c were included. Hb A1c levels and parameters examined in COVID-19(+) patients were compared between groups, and correlation analysis was performed between these parameters and Hb A1c levels. The effect of Hb A1c levels on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was analyzed with the χ2 test. It was observed that hemoglobin (Hb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups was lower than the COVID-19 (-) group, while ferritin, D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were higher. The COVID-19 (+) group with high Hb A1c had higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), PCT and D-dimer levels than the other two groups, while Hb, partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) levels were lower. The Hb A1c levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups were positively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC), LDH, PCT and (K+) levels, while negatively correlated with Hb and PaO2 levels. Hb A1c was found to be associated with the inflammation process, coagulation disorders and low PaO2 in COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 patients with high Hb A1c levels had a higher mortality rate than other COVID-19 patients. Using Hb A1c measurements with other prognostic markers would contribute to the patient's risk of death assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hyperglycemia/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Complications/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
5.
Stem Cells Dev ; 30(15): 758-772, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254367

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is recognized as one of the factors contributing to organ failures and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Due to chronic inflammation, COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or renal disease (RD) have more severe symptoms and higher mortality. However, the factors that contribute to severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients with DM and RD have received little attention. In an effort to investigate potential treatments for COVID-19, recent research has focused on the immunomodulation functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, the correlation between DM and RD and the severity of COVID-19 was examined by a combined approach with a meta-analysis and experimental research. The results of a systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the odd of mortality in patients with both DM and RD was increased in comparison to those with a single comorbidity. In addition, in the experimental research, the data showed that high glucose and uremic toxins contributed to the induction of cytokine storm in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) in response to SARS-CoV Peptide Pools. Of note, the incorporation of Wharton's jelly MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (WJ-EVs) into SARS-CoV peptide-induced Calu-3 resulted in a significant decrease in nuclear NF-κB p65 and the downregulation of the cytokine storm under high concentrations of glucose and uremic toxins. This clearly suggests the potential for WJ-EVs to reduce cytokine storm reactions in patients with both chronic inflammation diseases and viral infection.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Wharton Jelly/cytology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Pregnancy , Toxins, Biological/metabolism , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Uremia/blood , Uremia/complications , Uremia/metabolism , Uremia/therapy
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234744

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with multiple organ failure and comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Risk factors, such as age, gender, and obesity, were associated with COVID-19 infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to use several host receptors for viral entry, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in the lung and other organs. However, ACE2 could be shed from the surface to be soluble ACE2 (sACE2) in the circulation. The epigenetic factors affecting ACE2 expression include a type of small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we aimed at exploring the status of the sACE2 as well as serum levels of several upstream novel miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers that might have a potential role in T2DM patients. Serum samples were collected from 50 T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls, and sACE2 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, RNA was extracted, and TaqMan miRNA reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to measure serum miRNA levels. Our results revealed that sACE2 is decreased in the T2DM patients and is affected by age, gender, and obesity level. Additionally, 4 miRNAs, which are revealed by in silico analysis to be potentially upstream of ACE2 were detectable in the serum. Among them, miR-421 level was found to be decreased in the serum of diabetic patients, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetic complications, as well as being differential in various body mass index (BMI) groups. The other 3 miRNAs (miR-3909, miR-212-5p, and miR-4677-3p) showed associations with multiple factors including age, gender, BMI, and serum markers, in addition to being correlated to each other. In conclusion, our study reveals a decline in the circulating serum levels of sACE2 in T2DM patients and identified 4 novel miRNAs that were associated with T2DM, which are influenced by different clinical and demographic factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/genetics
7.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 8812304, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a considerable global public health threat. This study sought to investigate whether blood glucose (BG) levels or comorbid diabetes are associated with inflammatory status and disease severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the clinical and biochemical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with or without diabetes were compared. The relationship among severity of COVID-19, inflammatory status, and diabetes or hyperglycemia was analyzed. The severity of COVID-19 in all patients was determined according to the diagnostic and treatment guidelines issued by the Chinese National Health Committee (7th edition). RESULTS: Four hundred and sixty-one patients were enrolled in our study, and 71.58% of patients with diabetes and 13.03% of patients without diabetes had hyperglycemia. Compared with patients without diabetes (n = 366), patients with diabetes (n = 95) had a higher leucocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). There was no association between severity of COVID-19 and known diabetes adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), known hypertension, and coronary heart disease. The leucocyte count, NLR, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased with increasing BG level. Hyperglycemia was an independent predictor of critical (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.72-9.30) or severe (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.47-8.58) COVID-19, and of increased inflammatory levels (high leucocyte count (OR 4.26, 95% CI 1.65-10.97), NLR (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.24-6.10), and CRP level (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.19-5.23)), after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, severity of illness, and known diabetes. CONCLUSION: Hyperglycemia was positively correlated with higher inflammation levels and more severe illness, and it is a risk factor for the increased severity of COVID-19. The initial measurement of plasma glucose levels after hospitalization may help identify a subset of patients who are predisposed to a worse clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/blood , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(3): 252-254, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088144

ABSTRACT

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with a high mortality rate among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited data on the clinical features, ethnicity, inpatient glycaemic control and outcomes in patients with diabetes related ESRD in the literature. We report the clinical features and outcomes of 39 consecutive ESRD patients (28 on haemodialysis [HD] and 11 with renal transplant) secondary to diabetic kidney disease admitted to a university hospital with COVID-19. We observed a high prevalence of patients of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity hospitalized with COVID-19 with a 73% and 54% prevalence in renal transplant and HD groups respectively. The mortality rate of our cohort was 36%. Nearly a one-third of HD patients and one-fifth of transplant patients had hypoglycaemic events during COVID-19 hospitalization. Adjustment of diabetes treatment was frequently required. Our data highlight the importance of integrated multidisciplinary care of patients with diabetes related ESRD hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Caribbean Region , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/ethnology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/ethnology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Patient Care Team , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 976-982, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although elevated glucose levels are reported to be associated with adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the optimal range of glucose in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the threshold of glycemia and its association with the outcomes of COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Glucose levels were assessed through intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring in 35 patients for an average period of 10.2 days. The percentages of time above range (TAR), time below range (TBR), time in range (TIR), and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Composite adverse outcomes were defined as either the need for admission to the intensive care unit, need for mechanical ventilation, or morbidity with critical illness. RESULTS: TARs using thresholds from 160 to 200 mg/dL were significantly associated with composite adverse outcomes after adjustment of covariates. Both TBR (<70 mg/dL) and TIR (70-160 mg/dL), but not mean sensor glucose level, were significantly associated with composite adverse outcomes and prolonged hospitalization. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of the CV of sensor glucose across tertiles for composite adverse outcomes of COVID-19 were 1.00, 1.18, and 25.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetes and COVID-19 have an increased risk of adverse outcomes with glucose levels >160 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL and a high CV. Therapies that improve these metrics of glycemic control may result in better prognoses for these patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 1055-1058, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The use of remote real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the hospital has rapidly emerged to preserve personal protective equipment and reduce potential exposures during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We linked a hybrid CGM and point-of-care (POC) glucose testing protocol to a computerized decision support system for continuous insulin infusion and integrated a validation system for sensor glucose values into the electronic health record. We report our proof-of-concept experience in a COVID-19 intensive care unit. RESULTS: All nine patients required mechanical ventilation and corticosteroids. During the protocol, 75.7% of sensor values were within 20% of the reference POC glucose with an associated average reduction in POC of 63%. Mean time in range (70-180 mg/dL) was 71.4 ± 13.9%. Sensor accuracy was impacted by mechanical interferences in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: A hybrid protocol integrating real-time CGM and POC is helpful for managing critically ill patients with COVID-19 requiring insulin infusion.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Diabetes Complications , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulin/administration & dosage , Remote Sensing Technology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Equipment and Supplies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , Proof of Concept Study , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1951-1954, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: - COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to myriad range of organ involvement including liver dysfunction. AIM: To analyse the liver function in patients with COVID-19 and their association with respect to age, sex, severity of disease and clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study done at Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. 91 patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study and divided into asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe groups. Liver function tests were compared among different severity groups. RESULTS: Of 91 patients with COVID-19, 70 (76.9%) had abnormal liver function. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin levels was 1-2 × ULN in 33(36.3%), 34(37.3%), 12(13.2%), 6(6.6%) cases and >2 × ULN in 20(22%), 18(19.8%), 7(7.7%) and 2 (2.2%) cases respectively. Mean AST and ALP levels among different severity groups of COVID-19 was statistically significant (p < 0.05) whereas mean ALT and total bilirubin levels was statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference between males and females with regard to abnormal liver function. Liver injury was seen in 64.3% cases of hypertension and 73.3% cases of diabetes. Fever, myalgia, headache and breathlessness were found to be correlated significantly with severity of disease. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is common in SARS-CoV-2 infection and is more prevalent in the severe disease group. Aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase are better indicators of covid-19 induced liver injury than alanine transaminase and total bilirubin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , India , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108341, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host dysregulation of immune response was highly involved in the pathological process of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially COVID-19 severe cases with DM. AIM: In this study we aimed at the dynamic change of peripheral lymphocyte and subsets during COVID-19 covery. METHODS: The peripheral lymphocyte and subsets of 95 confirmed cases with COVID-19 from baseline to four weeks were compared between critical illness and non-critical illness cases with or without DM. RESULTS: The dynamic characteristics of lymphocyte and subsets in COVID-19 patients was that it reduced significantly at one week, rapidly elevated to the peak at two weeks after onset, then gradually declined during recovery. The COVID-19 critical illness patients with DM had the lowest decline at one week and the slow lowest rise at two weeks after onset, while COVID-19 non-critical illness patients with DM had the rapid highest rise at two weeks after onset, both of them had similar lymphocyte and subsets at five weeks after onset and lower than those patients without DM. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a reference for clinicians that for COVID-19 patients with DM and the lowest decline of lymphocyte and subsets, immunomodulatory therapy as soon as possible might avoid or slow down disease progression; moreover for COVID-19 critical illness patients with or without DM and non-critical illness patients with DM, continuous immunomodulatory therapy in later stages of disease might speed up virus clearance, shorten hospital stay, improve disease prognosis in COVID-19 critical illness patients with DM.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD19 , Betacoronavirus , CD3 Complex , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD56 Antigen , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 32, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934642

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is considered a risk factor for complications due to COVID-19. In order to clarify this association, we are exploring the characteristics, the clinical signs, the outcomes and death in diabetic patients with COVID-19. In this retrospective observational study we are evaluating the demographic characteristics, the comorbidities of the patients, the clinical signs of the infection, the signs of clinical severity, the biological assessment at admission, the treatment, the outcomes and the deaths of 133 patients with COVID-19, of which 25 (19,4%) had diabetes. In the compared COVID-19 patients, with and without diabetes, the patients with diabetes were older, had higher blood pressure and more cardio-vascular diseases. Severe forms were more present in diabetic patients (56% versus 27.1%). Weight loss was higher in diabetic patients (6kg versus 3kg). Biologically, diabetic patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein (28 versus 5.8mg/l), procalcitonin (0.28 versus 0,13ng/l), ferritin (501 versus 140ng/ml), lactic dehydrogenase (268 versus 226IU/l) and of D. dimer (665 versus 444µg/l). Diabetic patients required more oxygen therapy (60% versus 26.9%), more mechanical ventilation (20% versus 8.3%) and more frequent admission to the intensive care unit (60% versus 27.8%). They presented more thromboembolic complications (12% versus 9%) but there were not significant differences in the other outcomes and in death rates. The excess of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes was still not fully clarified; the role of demographic factors, the interaction of mediations with ACE-2 receptors and the role of co-morbidities will all need to be studied in order to identify the patient at risk profile, i.e. who can develop severe forms of the diseases and more outcomes. The early identification of a possible hyper inflammation could be very valuable. More attention should be paid to patients with COVID-19 with diabetes because they are at a high risk of complications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
15.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(3): 252-254, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889796

ABSTRACT

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with a high mortality rate among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited data on the clinical features, ethnicity, inpatient glycaemic control and outcomes in patients with diabetes related ESRD in the literature. We report the clinical features and outcomes of 39 consecutive ESRD patients (28 on haemodialysis [HD] and 11 with renal transplant) secondary to diabetic kidney disease admitted to a university hospital with COVID-19. We observed a high prevalence of patients of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity hospitalized with COVID-19 with a 73% and 54% prevalence in renal transplant and HD groups respectively. The mortality rate of our cohort was 36%. Nearly a one-third of HD patients and one-fifth of transplant patients had hypoglycaemic events during COVID-19 hospitalization. Adjustment of diabetes treatment was frequently required. Our data highlight the importance of integrated multidisciplinary care of patients with diabetes related ESRD hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Caribbean Region , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/ethnology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/ethnology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Patient Care Team , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 1652403, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus- (SARS-CoV-2) infected pneumonia (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout China. This study is aimed at describing the characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan. METHODS: 199 COVID-19 patients were admitted to Wuhan Red Cross Hospital in China from January 24th to March 15th. The cases were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic groups according to the history of taking antidiabetic drugs or by plasma fasting blood glucose level at admission, and the difference between groups were compared. RESULTS: Among 199 COVID-19 patients, 76 were diabetic and 123 were nondiabetic. Compared with nondiabetics, patients with diabetes had an older age, high levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), D-dimer, white blood cell, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (TBIL), lower levels of lymphocyte, albumin and oxygen saturation (SaO2), and higher mortality (P < 0.05). The two groups showed no difference in clinical symptoms. Diabetes, higher level of D-dimer at admission, and lymphocyte count less than 0.6 × 109/L at admission were associated with increasing odds of death. Antidiabetic drugs were associated with decreasing odds of death. Treatment with low molecular weight heparin was not related to odds of death. CONCLUSION: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients with diabetes was significantly higher than those without diabetes. Diabetes, higher level of D-dimer, and lymphocyte count less than 0.6 × 109/L at admission were the risk factors associated with in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 168: 108374, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714006

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We investigated whether pre-existing diabetes, newly-diagnosed diabetes, and admission hyperglycemia were associated with COVID-19 severity independently from confounders. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on patients with COVID-19 hospitalized between February and April 2020 in an outbreak hospital in North-East Italy. Pre-existing diabetes was defined by self-reported history, electronic medical records, or ongoing medications. Newly-diagnosed diabetes was defined by HbA1c and fasting glucose. The primary outcome was a composite of ICU admission or death. RESULTS: 413 subjects were included, 107 of whom (25.6%) had diabetes, including 21 newly-diagnosed. Patients with diabetes were older and had greater comorbidity burden. The primary outcome occurred in 37.4% of patients with diabetes compared to 20.3% in those without (RR 1.85; 95%C.I. 1.33-2.57; p < 0.001). The association was stronger for newly-diagnosed compared to pre-existing diabetes (RR 3.06 vs 1.55; p = 0.004). Higher glucose level at admission was associated with COVID-19 severity, with a stronger association among patients without as compared to those with pre-existing diabetes (interaction p < 0.001). Admission glucose was correlated with most clinical severity indexes and its association with adverse outcome was mostly mediated by a worse respiratory function. CONCLUSION: Newly-diagnosed diabetes and admission hyperglycemia are powerful predictors of COVID-19 severity due to rapid respiratory deterioration.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Age of Onset , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20844, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616557

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a rapidly spreading communicable disease affecting individuals worldwide. Patients with diabetes are more vulnerable to the disease, and the mortality is higher than in those without diabetes. We reported a severe COVID-19 patient with diabetes and shared our experience with blood glucose management. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female diabetes patient was admitted to the intensive care unit due to productive coughing for 8 days without any obvious cause. The results of blood gas analysis indicated that the partial pressure of oxygen was 84 mm Hg with oxygen 8 L/min, and the oxygenation index was less than 200 mm Hg. In addition, postprandial blood glucose levels were abnormal (29.9 mmol/L). DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 (severe type) and type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Comprehensive interventions including establishing a multidisciplinary team, closely monitoring her blood glucose level, an individualized diabetes diet, early activities, psychological care, etc, were performed to control blood glucose while actively treating COVID-19 infection. OUTCOMES: After the comprehensive measures, the patient's blood glucose level gradually became stable, and the patient was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization. LESSONS: This case indicated that the comprehensive measures performed by a multidisciplinary team achieved good treatment effects on a COVID-19 patient with diabetes. Targeted treatment and nursing methods should be performed based on patients' actual situations in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/psychology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
19.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104431, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the death rate of COVID-19 is less than 3%, the fatality rate of severe/critical cases is high, according to World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, screening the severe/critical cases before symptom occurs effectively saves medical resources. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, all 336 cases of patients infected COVID-19 in Shanghai to March 12th, were retrospectively enrolled, and divided in to training and test datasets. In addition, 220 clinical and laboratory observations/records were also collected. Clinical indicators were associated with severe/critical symptoms were identified and a model for severe/critical symptom prediction was developed. RESULTS: Totally, 36 clinical indicators significantly associated with severe/critical symptom were identified. The clinical indicators are mainly thyroxine, immune related cells and products. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and optimized combination of age, GSH, CD3 ratio and total protein has a good performance in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. The area under receiving operating curve (AUROC) reached 0.9996 and 0.9757 in the training and testing dataset, respectively. When the using cut-off value as 0.0667, the recall rate was 93.33 % and 100 % in the training and testing datasets, separately. Cox multivariate regression and survival analyses revealed that the model significantly discriminated the severe/critical cases and used the information of the selected clinical indicators. CONCLUSION: The model was robust and effective in predicting the severe/critical COVID cases.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , CD3 Complex/blood , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronary Disease/blood , Coronary Disease/complications , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Glutathione/blood , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Support Vector Machine , Survival Analysis , Thyroxine/blood
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 58, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) has been proposed as a marker of insulin resistance. This study aims to evaluate the association of the TyG index with the severity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The study included a cohort of 151 patients with COVID-19 admitted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Wuhan. Regression models were used to investigate the association between TyG with severity and mortality of COVID-19. RESULTS: In this cohort, 39 (25.8%) patients had diabetes, 62 (41.1%) patients were severe cases, while 33 (22.0%) patients died in hospital. The TyG index levels were significantly higher in the severe cases and death group (mild vs. severe 8.7 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 0.6, P < 0.001; survivor vs. deceased 8.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.3 ± 0.7, P < 0.001), respectively. The TyG index was significantly associated with an increased risk of severe case and mortality, after controlling for potential confounders (OR for severe case, 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.3, P = 0.007; OR for mortality, 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.7, P = 0.016). The associations were not statistically significant for further adjustment of inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION: TyG index was closely associated with the severity and morbidity in COVID-19 patients, thus it may be a valuable marker for identifying poor outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications , Insulin Resistance , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Regression Analysis , Severity of Illness Index
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