Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109942, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471904

ABSTRACT

Anti-viral monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments may provide immediate but short-term immunity from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk populations, such as people with diabetes and the elderly; however, data on their efficacy in these populations are limited. We demonstrate that prophylactic mAb treatment blocks viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts in aged, type 2 diabetic rhesus macaques. mAb infusion dramatically curtails severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated stimulation of interferon-induced chemokines and T cell activation, significantly reducing development of interstitial pneumonia. Furthermore, mAb infusion significantly dampens the greater than 3-fold increase in SARS-CoV-2-induced effector CD4 T cell influx into the cerebrospinal fluid. Our data show that neutralizing mAbs administered preventatively to high-risk populations may mitigate the adverse inflammatory consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aging/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/immunology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Macaca mulatta , Male , Neuritis/immunology , Neuritis/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 559595, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119561

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled diabetes results in several metabolic alterations including hyperglycemia. Indeed, several preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that this condition may induce susceptibility and the development of more aggressive infectious diseases, especially those caused by some bacteria (including Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, among others) and viruses [such as coronavirus 2 (CoV2), Influenza A virus, Hepatitis B, etc.]. Although the precise mechanisms that link glycemia to the exacerbated infections remain elusive, hyperglycemia is known to induce a wide array of changes in the immune system activity, including alterations in: (i) the microenvironment of immune cells (e.g., pH, blood viscosity and other biochemical parameters); (ii) the supply of energy to infectious bacteria; (iii) the inflammatory response; and (iv) oxidative stress as a result of bacterial proliferative metabolism. Consistent with this evidence, some bacterial infections are typical (and/or have a worse prognosis) in patients with hypercaloric diets and a stressful lifestyle (conditions that promote hyperglycemic episodes). On this basis, the present review is particularly focused on: (i) the role of diabetes in the development of some bacterial and viral infections by analyzing preclinical and clinical findings; (ii) discussing the possible mechanisms by which hyperglycemia may increase the susceptibility for developing infections; and (iii) further understanding the impact of hyperglycemia on the immune system.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/etiology , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Disease Susceptibility , Hyperglycemia/complications , Virus Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): 1472-1481, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054860

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Demonstrating the ability to mount a neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of diabetes is crucial to understand COVID-19 pathogenesis, reinfection potential, and vaccine development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics and durability of neutralizing antibody (Nab) response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the presence of hyperglycemia. METHODS: Using a lentiviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay to measure Nabs, we characterized 150 patients randomly selected from a cohort of 509 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We analyzed Nab response according to the presence of diabetes or hyperglycemia, at the time of hospitalization and during the postdischarge follow-up: 1-, 3-, and 6-month outpatient visits. RESULTS: Among 150 randomly selected patients 40 (26.6%) had diabetes. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 8.9, P < .001), glucose levels (HR 1.25 × 1.1 mmol/L, P < .001), and glucose variability (HR 1.17 × 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. The neutralizing activity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with diabetes was superimposable, as for kinetics and extent, to that of patients without diabetes. It was similar across glucose levels and correlated with the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Positivity for Nabs at the time of hospital admission conferred protection on mortality, both in the presence (HR 0.28, P = .046) or absence of diabetes (HR 0.26, P = .030). The longevity of the Nab response was not affected by diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes and hyperglycemia do not affect the kinetics and durability of the neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. These findings provide the rational to include patients with diabetes in the early phase of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/complications
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 576818, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2), known as a highly contagious disease, currently affecting more than 200 countries worldwide. The main feature of SARS-CoV-2 that distinguishes it from other viruses is the speed of transmission combined with higher risk of mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). People with diabetes mellitus (DM), severe obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are more likely to get infected and are at a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. Among elderly patients who are at higher risk of death from COVID-19, 26.8% have DM. Although the reasons for this increased risk are yet to be determined, several factors may contribute to type-2 DM patients' increased susceptibility to infections. A possible factor that may play a role in increasing the risk in people affected by diabetes and/or obesity is the impaired innate and adaptive immune response, characterized by a state of chronic and low-grade inflammation that can lead to abrupt systemic metabolic alteration. SARS patients previously diagnosed with diabetes or hyperglycemia had higher mortality and morbidity rates when compared with patients who were under metabolic control. Similarly, obese individuals are at higher risk of developing complications from SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we will explore the current and evolving insights pertinent to the metabolic impact of coronavirus infections with special attention to the main pathways and mechanisms that are linked to the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Diabetes Complications , Immunity, Innate , Obesity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110448, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969015

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is able to produce an excessive host immune reaction and may leads to severe disease- a life-threatening condition occurring more often in patients suffering from comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Infection by human corona viruses highly depends on host microRNA (miR) involved in regulation of host innate immune response and inflammation-modulatory miR-146a is among the first miRs induced by immune reaction to a virus. Moreover, recent analysis showed that miR-146 is predicted to target at the SARS-CoV-2 genome. As the dominant regulator of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) downstream signaling, miR-146a may limit excessive inflammatory response to virus. Downregulation of circulating miR-146a was found in diabetes, obesity and hypertension and it is reflected by enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, systemic effects accompanying severe COVID-19. Thus it could be hypothesized that miR-146a deficiency may contribute to severe COVID-19 state observed in diabetes, obesity and hypertension but further investigations are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Hypertension/complications , MicroRNAs/genetics , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Down-Regulation , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/immunology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Models, Biological , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/immunology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Neuroscientist ; 27(4): 331-339, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797803

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease, originated in Wuhan City, China. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its biology is still poorly understood. Currently, there are no vaccines and drugs/or agents that can reduce severity of this new disease. Recent data suggest that patients with age-related comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and dementia are highly susceptible to severe respiratory illness due to coronavirus infection. Recent research also revealed that aged individuals with elevated baseline inflammation cause defects in T and B cells, leading to decreased body's immune response to viral infection. In the current article, we discuss the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on age-related chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Our article also highlights the interaction between coronavirus and immune cells, and how COVID-19 alters mitochondrial activities in host cells. Based on new and compelling evidence, we propose that mitochondrial fission is inhibited while fusion is promoted, causing mitochondrial elongation and providing a receptive intracellular environment for viral replication in infected cells. Further research is still needed to understand the cross talk between viral replication in mitochondria and disease progression in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Dementia/immunology , Dementia/pathology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Immune System/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular
11.
J Diabetes Investig ; 11(5): 1104-1114, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724172

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that is caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Data from several countries have shown higher morbidity and mortality among individuals with chronic metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. In this review, we explore the contributing factors for poorer prognosis in these individuals. As a significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 also have diabetes mellitus, this adds another layer of complexity to their management. We explore potential interactions between antidiabetic medications and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors with COVID-19. Suggested recommendations for the use of antidiabetic medications for COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus are provided. We also review pertinent clinical considerations in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis in COVID-19 patients. In addition, we aim to increase clinicians' awareness of the metabolic effects of promising drug therapies for COVID-19. Finally, we highlight the importance of timely vaccinations for patients with diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Resistance , Insulin Secretion , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/physiopathology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Pancreas/metabolism , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(4): 790-798, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is inconclusive and controversial evidence of the association between allergic diseases and the risk of adverse clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association of allergic disorders with the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and with clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, and death). METHODS: A propensity-score-matched nationwide cohort study was performed in South Korea. Data obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea from all adult patients (age, >20 years) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea between January 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, were analyzed. The association of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and allergic diseases in the entire cohort (n = 219,959) and the difference in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 were evaluated in patients with allergic diseases and SARS-CoV-2 positivity (n = 7,340). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing were evaluated to ascertain whether asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with an increased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. After propensity score matching, we found that asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. Patients with nonallergic asthma had a greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients with allergic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, allergic rhinitis and asthma, especially nonallergic asthma, confers a greater risk of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Adult , Aged , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/mortality , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Dermatitis, Atopic/mortality , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 665-669, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: As on date, no specific treatment is available for devastating COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This pandemic viral infection has affected over 200 countries within a very short time and created a calamitous situation across the globe. As per WHO guidelines, the treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. This clinical protocol has not proven sufficient to save the lives of COVID-19 patients suffering from diabetes or having underlying liver diseases; hence there is utmost need to tackle this situation by other means such as Convalescent Plasma (CP) therapy. METHODS: A comprehensive literature survey was carriedout using Elsevier, PubMed, Taylor & Francis, Springer, Nature and Google search engines. RESULTS: The patients suffering from diabetes or liver dysfunction or any other underlying diseases are at greatest risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. From the study, it is proved that plasma collected from the recovered patients of viral infection has considerable potential to treat the viral disease without the occurrence of adverse effects. CONCLUSION: The CP therapy can be a possible life saving alternative to treat critical COVID-19 patients having diabetes or underlying liver dysfunction. Hence, randomised clinical trials are recommended at the earliest to save the lives of infected individuals of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL