Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 38
Filter
1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 780663, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731765

ABSTRACT

There seems to be a bidirectional interplay between Diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On the one hand, people with diabetes are at higher risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 as well as COVID-19 related health complications compared to individuals without diabetes. On the other hand, clinical data so far suggest that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may result in metabolic dysregulation and in impaired glucose homeostasis. In addition, emerging data on new onset DM in previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 patients, reinforce the hypothesis of a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on glucose metabolism. Attempting to find the culprit, we currently know that the pancreas and the endothelium have been found to express Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, the main binding site of the virus. To move from bench to bedside, understanding the effects of COVID-19 on metabolism and glucose homeostasis is crucial to prevent and manage complications related to COVID-19 and support recovering patients. In this article we review the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms between COVID-19 and glucose dysregulation as well as the effects of antidiabetic treatment in patients with diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Causality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection and carries a significant morbidity and mortality. A number of cases of mucormycosis have been reported in association with COVID-19. In this study, a consortium of clinicians from various parts of India studied clinical profile of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) and this analysis is presented here. METHODS: Investigators from multiple sites in India were involved in this study. Clinical details included the treatment and severity of COVID-19, associated morbidities, as well as the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of mucormycosis. These data were collected using google spreadsheet at one centre. Descriptive analysis was done. RESULTS: There were 115 patients with CAM. Importantly, all patients had received corticosteroids. Diabetes was present in 85.2% of patients and 13.9% of patients had newly detected diabetes. The most common site of involvement was rhino-orbital. Mortality occurred in 25 (21.7%) patients. On logistic regression analysis, CT scan-based score for severity of lung involvement was associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Universal administration of corticosteroids in our patients is notable. A large majority of patients had diabetes, while mortality was seen in ∼1/5th of patients, lower as compared to recently published data.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Mucormycosis/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/chemically induced , Mucormycosis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109942, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471904

ABSTRACT

Anti-viral monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments may provide immediate but short-term immunity from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk populations, such as people with diabetes and the elderly; however, data on their efficacy in these populations are limited. We demonstrate that prophylactic mAb treatment blocks viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts in aged, type 2 diabetic rhesus macaques. mAb infusion dramatically curtails severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated stimulation of interferon-induced chemokines and T cell activation, significantly reducing development of interstitial pneumonia. Furthermore, mAb infusion significantly dampens the greater than 3-fold increase in SARS-CoV-2-induced effector CD4 T cell influx into the cerebrospinal fluid. Our data show that neutralizing mAbs administered preventatively to high-risk populations may mitigate the adverse inflammatory consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aging/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/immunology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Macaca mulatta , Male , Neuritis/immunology , Neuritis/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3534, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265954

ABSTRACT

Metabolic diseases are associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 and conversely, new-onset hyperglycemia and complications of preexisting diabetes have been observed in COVID-19 patients. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of pancreatic autopsy tissue from COVID-19 patients using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, RNA scope and electron microscopy and detected SARS-CoV-2 viral infiltration of beta-cells in all patients. Using SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses, we confirmed that isolated human islet cells are permissive to infection. In eleven COVID-19 patients, we examined the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS and other receptors and factors, such as DPP4, HMBG1 and NRP1, that might facilitate virus entry. Whereas 70% of the COVID-19 patients expressed ACE2 in the vasculature, only 30% displayed ACE2-expression in beta-cells. Even in the absence of manifest new-onset diabetes, necroptotic cell death, immune cell infiltration and SARS-CoV-2 viral infection of pancreatic beta-cells may contribute to varying degrees of metabolic dysregulation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Female , HMGN Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Organ Specificity/physiology
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): e4007-e4016, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261287

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a need for remote blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate feasibility and patient safety of a hybrid monitoring strategy of point-of-care (POC) BG plus continuous glucose monitor (CGM) in the ICU. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: ICU of an academic medical center. PATIENTS: Patients with COVID-19 on IV insulin. INTERVENTION: After meeting initial validation criteria, CGM was used for IV insulin titration and POC BG was performed every 6 hours or as needed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included frequency of POC BG, workflow, safety, and accuracy measures. RESULTS: The study included 19 patients, 18 with CGM data, mean age 58 years, 89% on mechanical ventilation, 37% on vasopressors, and 42% on dialysis. The median time to CGM validation was 137 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 114-206). During IV insulin, the median number of POC values was 7 (IQR 6-16) on day 1, and declined slightly thereafter (71% reduction compared with standard of 24/day). The median number of CGM values used nonadjunctively to titrate IV insulin was 11.5 (IQR 0, 15) on day 1 and increased thereafter. Time in range 70 to 180 mg/dL was 64 ± 23% on day 1 and 72 ± 16% on days 2 through 7, whereas time <70 mg/dL was 1.5 ± 4.1% on day 1 and <1% on days 2 through 7. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data to support that CGM using a hybrid protocol is feasible, accurate, safe, and has potential to reduce nursing and staff workload.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness/therapy , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Glycemic Control/methods , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Stem Cells Dev ; 30(15): 758-772, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254367

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is recognized as one of the factors contributing to organ failures and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Due to chronic inflammation, COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or renal disease (RD) have more severe symptoms and higher mortality. However, the factors that contribute to severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients with DM and RD have received little attention. In an effort to investigate potential treatments for COVID-19, recent research has focused on the immunomodulation functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, the correlation between DM and RD and the severity of COVID-19 was examined by a combined approach with a meta-analysis and experimental research. The results of a systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the odd of mortality in patients with both DM and RD was increased in comparison to those with a single comorbidity. In addition, in the experimental research, the data showed that high glucose and uremic toxins contributed to the induction of cytokine storm in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) in response to SARS-CoV Peptide Pools. Of note, the incorporation of Wharton's jelly MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (WJ-EVs) into SARS-CoV peptide-induced Calu-3 resulted in a significant decrease in nuclear NF-κB p65 and the downregulation of the cytokine storm under high concentrations of glucose and uremic toxins. This clearly suggests the potential for WJ-EVs to reduce cytokine storm reactions in patients with both chronic inflammation diseases and viral infection.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Wharton Jelly/cytology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Pregnancy , Toxins, Biological/metabolism , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Uremia/blood , Uremia/complications , Uremia/metabolism , Uremia/therapy
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234744

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with multiple organ failure and comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Risk factors, such as age, gender, and obesity, were associated with COVID-19 infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to use several host receptors for viral entry, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in the lung and other organs. However, ACE2 could be shed from the surface to be soluble ACE2 (sACE2) in the circulation. The epigenetic factors affecting ACE2 expression include a type of small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we aimed at exploring the status of the sACE2 as well as serum levels of several upstream novel miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers that might have a potential role in T2DM patients. Serum samples were collected from 50 T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls, and sACE2 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, RNA was extracted, and TaqMan miRNA reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to measure serum miRNA levels. Our results revealed that sACE2 is decreased in the T2DM patients and is affected by age, gender, and obesity level. Additionally, 4 miRNAs, which are revealed by in silico analysis to be potentially upstream of ACE2 were detectable in the serum. Among them, miR-421 level was found to be decreased in the serum of diabetic patients, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetic complications, as well as being differential in various body mass index (BMI) groups. The other 3 miRNAs (miR-3909, miR-212-5p, and miR-4677-3p) showed associations with multiple factors including age, gender, BMI, and serum markers, in addition to being correlated to each other. In conclusion, our study reveals a decline in the circulating serum levels of sACE2 in T2DM patients and identified 4 novel miRNAs that were associated with T2DM, which are influenced by different clinical and demographic factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/genetics
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): 1472-1481, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054860

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Demonstrating the ability to mount a neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of diabetes is crucial to understand COVID-19 pathogenesis, reinfection potential, and vaccine development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics and durability of neutralizing antibody (Nab) response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the presence of hyperglycemia. METHODS: Using a lentiviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay to measure Nabs, we characterized 150 patients randomly selected from a cohort of 509 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We analyzed Nab response according to the presence of diabetes or hyperglycemia, at the time of hospitalization and during the postdischarge follow-up: 1-, 3-, and 6-month outpatient visits. RESULTS: Among 150 randomly selected patients 40 (26.6%) had diabetes. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 8.9, P < .001), glucose levels (HR 1.25 × 1.1 mmol/L, P < .001), and glucose variability (HR 1.17 × 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. The neutralizing activity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with diabetes was superimposable, as for kinetics and extent, to that of patients without diabetes. It was similar across glucose levels and correlated with the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Positivity for Nabs at the time of hospital admission conferred protection on mortality, both in the presence (HR 0.28, P = .046) or absence of diabetes (HR 0.26, P = .030). The longevity of the Nab response was not affected by diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes and hyperglycemia do not affect the kinetics and durability of the neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. These findings provide the rational to include patients with diabetes in the early phase of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/complications
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243343, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975994

ABSTRACT

This study reviewed 395 young adults, 18-35 year-old, admitted for COVID-19 to one of the eleven hospitals in New York City public health system. Demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, outcomes and characteristics linked to hospitalization were analyzed including temporal survival analysis. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a least one major comorbidity. Mortality without comorbidity was in 3.8% patients. Further investigation of admission features and medical history was conducted. Comorbidities associated with mortality were diabetes (n = 54 deceased/73 diagnosed,74% tested POS;98.2% with diabetic history deceased; Wilcoxon p (Wp) = .044), hypertension (14/44,32% POS, 25.5%; Wp = 0.030), renal (6/16, 37.5% POS,11%; Wp = 0.000), and cardiac (6/21, 28.6% POS,11%; Wp = 0.015). Kaplan survival plots were statistically significant for these four indicators. Data suggested glucose >215 or hemoglobin A1c >9.5 for young adults on admission was associated with increased mortality. Clinically documented respiratory distress on admission was statistically significant outcome related to mortality (X2 = 236.6842, df = 1, p < .0001). Overall, 28.9% required supportive oxygen beyond nasal cannula. Nasal cannula oxygen alone was required for 71.1%, who all lived. Non-invasive ventilation was required for 7.8%, and invasive mechanical ventilation 21.0% (in which 7.3% lived, 13.7% died). Temporal survival analysis demonstrated statistically significant response for Time to Death <10 days (X2 = 18.508, df = 1, p = .000); risk lessened considerably for 21 day cut off (X2 = 3.464, df = 1, p = .063), followed by 31 or more days of hospitalization (X2 = 2.212, df = 1, p = .137).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Hypertension/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Complications/complications , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22439, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate associated with Covid-19 varies considerably among studies and determinants of this variability are not well characterized. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published through March 31, 2020 was performed to estimate the mortality rate among hospitalized patients in China with a confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19. Hospital mortality rates were estimated using an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis model. Funnel plot symmetry was evaluated for small-study effects, a one-study removed sensitivity analysis assessed the influence of individual studies on the pooled mortality rate, and metaregression assessed the association of potential confounding variables with mortality rates. RESULTS: The review included 16 observational studies involving 1832 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of Covid-19. The surveillance period among studies ranged from December 16, 2019 to February 23, 2020. The median patient age was 53 years and 53% were males. A total of 38.5% of patients presented with at least 1 comorbidity, most commonly hypertension (24.0%), cardiac disease (15.1%), and diabetes mellitus (14.4%). Fever and cough, reported in 84.8% and 61.7% of patients respectively, were the most common patient symptoms. The pooled mortality rate was 9.9% (95% confidence interval 6.1% to 14.5%). Funnel plot asymmetry was not observed and the meta-analysis results were not substantially influenced by any single study since the pooled mortality rate ranged from 8.9% to 11.1% following iterative removal of one study at a time. Substantial heterogeneity in the mortality rate was identified among studies (I = 87%; P < .001). In a metaregression that included demographics, patient risk factors, and presenting symptoms, only a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher mortality rate (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of hospitalized patients in China with a diagnosis of Covid-19, the mortality rate was 9.9% and a higher diabetes mellitus prevalence was independently associated with a worse prognosis. The independent influence of diabetes mellitus with Covid-19 mortality should be viewed as hypothesis-generating and warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2321-2331, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963333

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is wreaking havoc on public health systems worldwide. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is well defined, but efficacious treatment is lacking. There is a big gap in knowledge regarding COVID-19 patients receiving convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT), especially those also suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, among 3059 COVID-19 patients admitted to Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital of China, we documented the characteristics of 39 COVID-19 patients with DM receiving CPT and compared their baseline information and clinical outcomes to COVID-19 patients with DM receiving conventional treatment. We also performed the propensity-matched comparison of COVID-19 patients with DM between conventional treatment and CPT. The CPT was efficacious and beneficial for COVID-19 patients with DM, including severe or critically ill patients, without obvious adverse effects. Our data demonstrated that CPT significantly improved the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with DM, especially the cure rate and duration of hospitalization compared with that in COVID-19 patients with DM receiving conventional treatment. This study not only provided a deeper understanding of characteristics in COVID-19 patients with DM receiving CPT but also highlighted the efficaciousness of CPT for COVID-19 patients with DM.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108346, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912147

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Diabetes mellitus has been reported to be one of the most prevalent comorbidity in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess the association of comorbid diabetes with COVID-19 severity or mortality in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from six electronic databases on diabetes and COVID-19. The outcome of interest was disease severity or mortality. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed by the Cochran Q test and the I2 statistic. A random effects model was applied to calculate the pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Nine studies from different provinces/cities were identified according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were a total of 1070 patients with diabetes, out of the 8807 COVID-19 cases. The majority of the cases were derived from Hubei Province. A low degree of heterogeneity in the risk estimates was observed in the included studies. Meta-analysis showed that there was a significant association of preexisting diabetes with disease severity or death. The pooled RR was 2.96 (95% CI: 2.31-3.79; p < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated no significant changes in the pooled estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid diabetes was associated with an increased risk of disease severity or death in Chinese COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108299, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912139

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and high- resolution CT (HRCT) features and to explore the risk factors for in-hospital death and complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes. METHODS: From Dec 31, 2019, to Apr 5, 2020, a total of 132 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with diabetes from two hospitals were retrospectively included in our study. Clinical, laboratory and chest CT data were analyzed and compared between the two groups with an admission glucose level of ≤11 mmol/L (group 1) and >11 mmol/L (group 2). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital death and complications. RESULTS: Of 132 patients, 15 died in hospital and 113 were discharged. Patients in group 2 were more likely to require intensive care unit care (21.4% vs. 9.2%), to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (23.2% vs. 9.2%) and acute cardiac injury (12.5% vs. 1.3%), and had a higher death rate (19.6% vs. 5.3%) than group 1. In the multivariable analysis, patients with admission glucose of >11 mmol/l had an increased risk of death (OR: 7.629, 95%CI: 1.391-37.984) and in-hospital complications (OR: 3.232, 95%CI: 1.393-7.498). Admission d-dimer of ≥1.5 µg/mL (OR: 6.645, 95%CI: 1.212-36.444) and HRCT score of ≥10 (OR: 7.792, 95%CI: 2.195-28.958) were associated with increased odds of in-hospital death and complications, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients with diabetes, poorly-controlled blood glucose (>11 mmol/L) may be associated with poor outcomes. Admission hyperglycemia, elevated d-dimer and high HRCT score are potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Glucose Intolerance/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
19.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 66(1): 35-46, 2020 08 04.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-859137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the national level and worldwide show a higher rate of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) due to COVID-19, which determines the high relevance of risk factor analysis for outcomes in DM patients to substantiate the strategy for this category of patients. AIM: To assess the effect of clinical and demographic parameters (age, gender, body mass index (BMI), glycemic control (HbA1c), and antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs, including ACE inhibitors and ARBs) on clinical outcomes (recovery or death) in patients with type 2 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the Russian Register of Diabetes database was performed, including patients with type 2 DM (n=309) who suffered pneumonia/COVID-19 in the period from 01.02.2020 to 27.04.2020 and the indicated outcome of the disease (recovery or death) RESULTS: The percentage of lethality was determined to be 15.2% (47 of 309 people). The degree of lethality was found to be significantly higher in males (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.1–3.9; p=0.022) and in patients on insulin therapy (OR=2.67; 95% CI; 1.42–5.02; p=0.002), while it was significantly lower in patients with an age <65 years (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.18–0.67; p=0.001) and in patients receiving metformin (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.14–0,5; p<0.0001), antihypertensive therapy (OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.82; p=0.009), β-blockers (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.08–0.86; p=0.018), diuretics (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.17–0.93; p=0.028) and renin-angiotensin system blockers (ACE inhibitors or ARBs) (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.18–0.74; p=0.004). A tendency to an increase in lethality at higher rates of HbA1c and BMI was present, but it did not reach a statistical significance. Differences between patients receiving insulin therapy and those who were not receiving the insulin therapy were observed as follows: a significantly longer duration of type 2 DM (13.4 vs. 6.8 years, respectively; p<0.0001), worse overall glyacemic control (HbA1c: 8.1% vs. 7.0%, resp.; p<0.0001), and three times more frequent failure to achieve the HbA1c goal by more than 2.5% (14.7% vs. 5.9%, resp.; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The identified risk factors for lethality in patients with type 2 DM indicate that good glycemic control and previous treatment with metformin and antihypertensive drugs (including RAS blockers) could reduce the frequency of deaths. In patients on insulin therapy, a higher lethality degree was associated with worse glycemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hypertension/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Diuretics/adverse effects , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/virology , Insulin/metabolism , Male , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Elife ; 92020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769805

ABSTRACT

Obesity and diabetes are established comorbidities for COVID-19. Adipose tissue demonstrates high expression of ACE2 which SARS- CoV-2 exploits to enter host cells. This makes adipose tissue a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 viruses and thus increases the integral viral load. Acute viral infection results in ACE2 downregulation. This relative deficiency can lead to disturbances in other systems controlled by ACE2, including the renin-angiotensin system. This will be further increased in the case of pre-conditions with already compromised functioning of these systems, such as in patients with obesity and diabetes. Here, we propose that interactions of virally-induced ACE2 deficiency with obesity and/or diabetes leads to a synergistic further impairment of endothelial and gut barrier function. The appearance of bacteria and/or their products in the lungs of obese and diabetic patients promotes interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens, resulting in a more severe lung injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Obesity/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Down-Regulation , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Microbial Interactions , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL