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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3467-3477, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is debate as to whether there is an increased risk of COVID-19 infection in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to associated factors. This study aimed to systematically review the factors associated with COVID-19 in people with PD. METHODS: A search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science up to November 2020 (updated until 1 April 2021). Observational studies that analyzed factors associated with COVID-19 in people with PD were selected and revised. RESULTS: The authors included six studies (four case-controlled studies and two cross-sectional studies) in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. The authors found that the following factors were associated with COVID-19 in people with PD: obesity (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.99, I2 : 0%), any pulmonary disease (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.17-3.15, I2 : 0%), COVID-19 contact (OR: 41.77, 95% CI: 4.77 - 365.56, I2 : 0%), vitamin D supplementation (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.83, I2 : 0%), hospitalization (OR: 11.78, 95% CI: 6.27-22.12, I2 : 0%), and death (OR: 11.23, 95% CI: 3.92-32.18, I2 : 0%). The authors did not find any significant association between COVID-19 and hypertension, diabetes, cardiopathy, cancer, any cognitive problem, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal or hepatic disease, smoking, and tremor. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analyses were limited by the number of events and some methodological limitations. Despite this, the authors assessed the available evidence, and the results may be useful for future health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Parkinson Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Intern Med ; 61(1): 37-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604725

ABSTRACT

Objective In this study, we investigated whether and how the COVID-19 pandemic affected glycemic control and blood pressure (BP) control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods DM patients whose HbA1c level was measured regularly before and after the declaration of a state of emergency were included in this study. Some patients were given questionnaires about changes in their lifestyle to determine the factors affecting glycemic control and BP control. Results The median HbA1c level of the 804 patients increased significantly from 6.8% before the state of emergency to 7.1% and 7.0% during and after the state of emergency, respectively. This was in contrast to the decrease one year earlier due to seasonal variations. In the 176 patients who responded to the questionnaire, the HbA1c level also increased significantly during and after the state of emergency. The worsening of glycemic control was more pronounced in the group that had achieved HbA1c of <7% before the state of emergency than in those with higher values. Unlike the rise in HbA1c, the BP did not rise during the state of emergency but did rise significantly afterwards. There was no marked decrease in HbA1c or BP after the state of emergency, even in patients who responded that they were much more careful with their diet, ate less, or exercised more. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic worsened glycemic control and BP control, even in patients who perceived no marked change in their diet or exercise, suggesting that more active lifestyle guidance is necessary for good treatment of DM patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142354, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604496

ABSTRACT

Importance: Deferred diabetic foot screening and delays in timely care of acute foot complications during the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to an increase in limb loss. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with diabetes-related care measures, foot complications, and amputation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, with diabetes and compared the rates of selected outcomes from January 1, 2020, to February 23, 2021, vs January 1, 2019, to February 23, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment, including foot examination; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement; emergency department visit or hospitalization for diabetic foot ulceration, osteomyelitis, or gangrene; lower extremity open or endovascular revascularization; minor (toe or partial-foot) amputation; and major (above-ankle) leg amputation. Rates and rate ratios (RRs) comparing 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 for each measure were calculated for 10-week periods, anchored relative to onset of the pandemic on March 11, 2020 (11th week of 2020). Results: On March 11, 2020, the study included 1 488 605 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 776 665 [52.2%] men), and on March 11, 2019, the study included 1 441 029 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 751 459 [52.1%] men). After the onset of the pandemic, rates of major amputation in 2020-2021 decreased compared with 2019-2020 levels. The RR for the prepandemic period from January 1 to March 10 was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88-1.25), with RRs in the pandemic periods ranging from 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.03) in May 20 to July 28 to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.13) in October 7 to December 15. There were no consistent differences in demographic characteristics or comorbidities of patients undergoing amputation in the 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 periods. Rates of comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment and HbA1c measurement declined sharply and remained below 2019-2020 levels (eg, in-person assessment, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.28-0.28). The rates of emergency department visits (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.75), hospitalization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87), open revascularization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.79), endovascular revascularization (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81), and minor amputation (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83) initially dropped but recovered to 2019-2020 levels over the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, disruptions in care related to the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with excess leg amputations among people living with diabetes. As the pandemic ends, improved prevention and treatment of diabetic foot complications will be necessary to maintain these positive results.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Foot/pathology , Foot/surgery , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Surgical Procedures
4.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 7686374, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595046

ABSTRACT

Objective: S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) are indicators of global transmethylation and may play an important role as markers of severity of COVID-19. Methods: The levels of plasma SAM and SAH were determined in patients admitted with COVID-19 (n = 56, mean age = 61). Lung injury was identified by computed tomography (CT) in accordance with the CT0-4 classification. Results: SAM was found to be a potential marker of lung damage risk in COVID-19 patients (SAM > 80 nM; CT3,4 vs. CT 0-2: relative ratio (RR) was 3.0; p = 0.0029). SAM/SAH > 6.0 was also found to be a marker of lung injury (CT2-4 vs. CT0,1: RR = 3.47, p = 0.0004). There was a negative association between SAM and glutathione level (ρ = -0.343, p = 0.011). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were associated with SAM (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.01) and SAH (ρ = 0.534, p = 0.001) levels. Conclusions: A high SAM level and high methylation index are associated with the risk of lung injury in patients with COVID-19. The association of SAM with IL-6 and glutathione indicates an important role of transmethylation in the development of cytokine imbalance and oxidative stress in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Injury/blood , S-Adenosylhomocysteine/blood , S-Adenosylmethionine/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glutathione/blood , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Methylation , Middle Aged , Military Personnel , Risk , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is a matter of debate whether diabetes alone or its associated comorbidities are responsible for severe COVID-19 outcomes. This study assessed the impact of diabetes on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on a countrywide cohort of 40,632 COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 2020 and March 2021. Data were provided by the Austrian data platform. The association of diabetes with outcomes was assessed using unmatched and propensity-score matched (PSM) logistic regression. RESULTS: 12.2% of patients had diabetes, 14.5% were admitted to the ICU, and 16.2% died in the hospital. Unmatched logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.34, p < 0.001) with in-hospital mortality, whereas PSM analysis showed no significant association of diabetes with in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.08, 95%CI: 0.97-1.19, p = 0.146). Diabetes was associated with higher odds of ICU admissions in both unmatched (OR: 1.36, 95%CI: 1.25-1.47, p < 0.001) and PSM analysis (OR: 1.15, 95%CI: 1.04-1.28, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: People with diabetes were more likely to be admitted to ICU compared to those without diabetes. However, advanced age and comorbidities rather than diabetes itself were associated with increased in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Public Health , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Austria/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 786-798, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586178

ABSTRACT

Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Management , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/therapy
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24436, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585781

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) belong to the most vulnerable patient subgroups. Emerging data has shown increased risks of severe infections, increased in ICU admissions, longer durations of admission, and increased mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes. We performed a subgroup analysis comparing the outcomes of patients diagnosed with DM (n = 2191) versus patients without DM (n = 8690) on our data from our study based on a nationwide, comparative, retrospective, cohort study among adult, hospitalized COVID-19 patients involving 37 hospital sites from around the Philippines. We determined distribution differences between two independent samples using Mann-Whitney U and t tests. Data on the time to onset of mortality, respiratory failure, intensive care unit (ICU) admission were used to build Kaplan-Meier curves and to compute for hazard ratios (HR). The odds ratios (OR) for longer ventilator dependence, longer ICU stay, and longer hospital stays were computed via multivariate logistic regression. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and ORs (aOR) with 95% CI were calculated. We included a total of 10,881 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection (2191 have DM while 8690 did not have DM). The median age of the DM cohort was 61, with a female to male ratio of 1:1.25 and more than 50% of the DM population were above 60 years old. The aOR for mortality was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.46 (95% CI 1.28-1.68; p < 0.001) as compared to the non-DM group. Similarly, the aOR for respiratory failure was also significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.67 (95% CI 1.46-1.90). The aOR for developing severe COVID-19 at nadir was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.85 (95% CI 1.65-2.07; p < 0.001). The aOR for ICU admission was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.80 (95% CI 1.59-2.05) than those in the non-DM group. DM patients had significantly longer duration of ventilator dependence (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.64; p = 0.008) and longer hospital admission (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26; p = 0.027). The presence of DM among COVID-19 patients significantly increased the risk of mortality, respiratory failure, duration of ventilator dependence, severe/critical COVID-19, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Philippines , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Ventilators, Mechanical , Young Adult
8.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 162, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582120

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel type b coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. With over 224 million confirmed infections with this virus and more than 4.6 million people dead because of it, it is critically important to define the immunological processes occurring in the human response to this virus and pathogenetic mechanisms of its deadly manifestation. This perspective focuses on the contribution of the recently discovered interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with neuropilin 1 (NRP1) receptor, NRP1 as a virus entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, its role in different physiologic and pathologic conditions, and the potential to target the Spike-NRP1 interaction to combat virus infectivity and severe disease manifestations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Infant , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Neuropilin-1/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 621, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is predicted to have a net negative effect on tuberculosis control, with an estimated excess of 6.3 million tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths by 2025. Programmatic issues such as the lockdown of tuberculosis services affect all patients, while biosocial factors have a differential impact on an individual's risk for tuberculosis or adverse tuberculosis outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: We report three Hispanic cases of incident tuberculosis (two males, 43 and 44 years old; one female, 49 years old) after resolution of coronavirus disease episodes. Coincidentally, all cases shared a common risk factor: a chronic history poorly controlled diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings alert to the threat posed by the synergy between coronavirus disease and diabetes, on tuberculosis reactivation. In medium- to high-risk settings for tuberculosis, we recommend implementation of routine screening for latent tuberculosis infection in these cases, and preventive tuberculosis treatment in those who are positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Tuberculosis , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580789

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the theoretical foundation underling the response of people with diabetes managing their everyday routines during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. AIM: To explore the experience of people with diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in light of the risk perception, response and behavioral change theories. METHOD: A qualitative descriptive design was employed, and Braun and Clark's six step analysis were used for thematic analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted online using Zoom Videos Communication. RESULT: Five themes were defined as follows: (1) perceived the threat and faced their fears, (2) appraised the damage, (3) identified the challenges, (4) modified their routine, and (5) identified the strengths that facilitate the efficacy of their response. There were eight sub-themes within the themes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study may provide an opportunity for nurses to reflect on issues highlighted by the patients regarding more effective communication, knowledge and skill development for people to support self-care during national emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2068, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting people's mental health worldwide. Patients with diabetes are at risk for a severe course of illness when infected with SARS-CoV-2. The present study aims to retrospectively examine mental health changes in patients with diabetes in Germany before and after the initial COVID-19 outbreak, and to furthermore explore potential predictors of such changes. METHODS: Over the course of eight weeks from April to June 2020, 253 individuals diagnosed with diabetes participated in an online cross-sectional study. Participants completed an anonymous survey including demographics, depression (PHQ-2) and generalized anxiety symptoms (GAD-2), distress (DT), and health status (EQ-5D-3L). In addition, all instruments used were modified to retrospectively ask participants to recall their mental health and health status before the outbreak had started. Additionally examined factors were COVID-19-related fear, trust in governmental actions to face the pandemic, and the subjective level of information about COVID-19. RESULTS: This study shows a significant increase in prevalence of depression symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms and distress, as well as significantly decreased health statuses in diabetes patients after the initial COVID-19 outbreak. Increased depression symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms and distress were predicted by COVID-19-related fear, whereas trust in governmental actions to face COVID-19 predicted higher depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a negative impact of the initial COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and health status in patients with diabetes. In order to improve the efficacy of psychological support strategies for diabetes patients during the pandemic, possible predictors of mental health impairment such as the aforementioned should be examined more thoroughly and addressed more openly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 257-266, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To appraise effective predictors for COVID-19 mortality in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1270 COVID-19 patients, including 984 admitted in Sino French New City Branch (training and internal validation sets randomly split at 7:3 ratio) and 286 admitted in Optical Valley Branch (external validation set) of Wuhan Tongji hospital, were included in this study. Forty-eight clinical and laboratory features were screened with LASSO method. Further multi-tree extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine learning-based model was used to rank importance of features selected from LASSO and subsequently constructed death risk prediction model with simple-tree XGBoost model. Performances of models were evaluated by AUC, prediction accuracy, precision, and F1 scores. RESULTS: Six features, including disease severity, age, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were selected as predictors for COVID-19 mortality. Simple-tree XGBoost model conducted by these features can predict death risk accurately with >90% precision and >85% sensitivity, as well as F1 scores >0.90 in training and validation sets. CONCLUSION: We proposed the disease severity, age, serum levels of hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 as significant predictors for death risk of COVID-19, which may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases. KEY MESSAGES A machine learning method is used to build death risk model for COVID-19 patients. Disease severity, age, hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 are death risk factors. These findings may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision Rules , Hospitalization , Machine Learning , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(1): 178-185, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569431

ABSTRACT

Although continuing to utilize health services remains a key determinant of health, the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and engagement with health services among people with diabetes (PWD) remains unknown. This cross-sectional online survey examined factors associated with PWD's engagement with health services among 205 Israeli PWD during the subsiding of the first COVID-19 wave in Israel. Participants completed measures of perceived diabetes status, perceived risk, emotional reactions toward COVID-19, sense of mastery, engagement with health services (fear of contracting the virus in health services, canceling a medical appointment), and socio-demographic questionnaires. Most participants were women, their mean age was 40.18 years, and mean years since diagnosis was 15.70. Participants were recruited mainly via diabetes internet forums. Logistic and multiple hierarchical regressions were calculated. The odds of canceling appointment were higher for younger participants and for participants experiencing greater negative emotional reactions. Higher fear of contracting the virus in health services was related to higher perceived risk and experiencing greater negative emotional reactions. Findings suggest that in order to encourage PWD to utilize health services during a virus outbreak, clinical interventions should address PWD's perceived risk of contracting the virus and their emotional reactions toward COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6732-6736, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544326

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the interventions of remdesivir in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals who were suffering from a severe infection of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between therapeutic effectiveness of remdesivir and complications of diabetes mellitus by observing the recovery period among diabetic and nondiabetic patients associated with COVID-19 infection. A total of 850 COVID-19 patients were recruited for this study, out of which 48% were diabetic and 52% were nondiabetics. The results of this study indicated that nondiabetic individuals administered with remdesivir recovered from COVID-19 within 10 days showing a 95% confidence interval (p < 0.01), while the diabetic individuals recovered in 15 days. Nondiabetic patients administered with remdesivir exhibited higher chances of clinical improvement at 15th day than those who were associated with diabetes. Remdesivir administration improved the levels of various biochemical parameters, such as C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, d-Dimer, and ferritin both in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. However, a significant improvement (p < 0.01) was seen in the level of biochemical parameters among nondiabetic patients as compared to that of diabetic patients administered with remdesivir treatment. In the end, it was concluded that remdesivir could be considered as a possible therapeutic agent in the treatment of COVID-19 both in diabetic and nondiabetic situations. However, diabetic patients showed a delayed recovery as compared with that of nondiabetic patients, in which the recovery rate was high.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Alanine/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 99-109, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544351

ABSTRACT

A severe pandemic of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has been sweeping the globe since 2019, and this time, it did not stop, with frequent mutations transforming into virulent strains, for instance, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.427. In recent months, a fungal infection, mucormycosis has emerged with more fatal responses and significantly increased mortality rate. To measure the severity and potential alternative approaches against black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients, PubMed, Google Scholar, World Health Organization (WHO) newsletters, and other online resources, based on the cases reported and retrospective observational analysis were searched from the years 2015-2021. The studies reporting mucormycosis with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coinfection and/or demonstrating potential risk factors, such as a history of diabetes mellitus or suppressed immune system were included, and reports published in non-English language were excluded. More than 20 case reports and observational studies on black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients were eligible for inclusion. The results indicated that diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemic, and immunocompromised COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis were at a higher risk. We found that it was prudent to assess the potential risk factors and severity of invasive mycosis via standardized diagnostic and clinical settings. Large-scale studies need to be conducted to identify early biomarkers and optimization of diagnostic methods has to be established per population and geographical variation. This will not only help clinicians around the world to detect the coinfection in time but also will prepare them for future outbreaks of other potential pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Mucorales/growth & development , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 181: 109133, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531170
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 237-244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, caused by the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has overwhelmed the world's health systems. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients treated in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19 from March 23 to July 31, 2020 was conducted. RESULTS: 4,401 patients were hospitalized at Central Military Hospital, out of which 35 % were beneficiaries, 26 % civilians, 28 % active military personnel, and only 11 %, retired military personnel. Male gender predominated, both in hospitalized patients and in those who died, as well as the O+ group and absence of comorbidities; among the observed comorbidities, the main ones were overweight and diabetes. Hospitalized patients' median age was 49 years, while median age of those who died was 62 years; women older than 51 years had a higher risk of dying. Adjusted case fatality rate was 18.5 %; 50 % died within the first six days. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the epidemiological characteristics and main comorbidities in Mexican patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
18.
Diabetes ; 70(9): 2120-2130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528788

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a known risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there is a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the evolution of COVID-19 in individuals with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate whether the chronic low-grade inflammation of diabetes could play a role in the development of severe COVID-19. We collected clinical data and blood samples of patients with and without diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. Plasma samples were used to measure inflammatory mediators and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, for gene expression analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 main receptor system (ACE2/TMPRSS2), and for the main molecule of the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) pathway (ALOX5). We found that diabetes activates the LTB4 pathway and that during COVID-19 it increases ACE2/TMPRSS2 as well as ALOX5 expression. Diabetes was also associated with COVID-19-related disorders, such as reduced oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and arterial partial pressure of oxygen/FiO2 levels, and increased disease duration. In addition, the expressions of ACE2 and ALOX5 are positively correlated, with increased expression in patients with diabetes and COVID-19 requiring intensive care assistance. We confirmed these molecular results at the protein level, where plasma LTB4 is significantly increased in individuals with diabetes. In addition, IL-6 serum levels are increased only in individuals with diabetes requiring intensive care assistance. Together, these results indicate that LTB4 and IL-6 systemic levels, as well as ACE2/ALOX5 blood expression, could be early markers of severe COVID-19 in individuals with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/genetics , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction
19.
Int J Med Educ ; 12: 195-204, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526944

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore what the student participants learned and how they felt about the use of three educational settings, namely, face-to-face workshop setting, asynchronous and synchronous online learning environments and interactions with outpatients in a real-world clinical setting in a hybrid interprofessional education course. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews with healthcare undergraduate student participants in a course comprising workshops in three educational settings. A total of 15 healthcare undergraduate students, which included four medical, three pharmacy, five nursing and three nutrition students, completed this IPE course. All students agreed to participate in the study. We conducted four focus groups selected using convenient sampling. Focus group transcripts were analysed using the 'Steps for Coding and Theorization' qualitative data analysis method. We investigated the students' perception through the experience of three educational settings in the hybrid interprofessional education course. Results: The students recognised that this course had three types of educational spaces, namely, real, semi-real and unreal. Then, the positive changes in the awareness of students are trained in recognition of the patient perspective, the recognition of the roles discharged by the other professions and the recognition of the functions of their own profession after experiencing the educational spaces designated for this course. Conclusions: The repeated experience of participants to real, semi-real and unreal educational spaces promoted changes over time in the students' awareness of interprofessional competencies with respect to patient-centred care and ameliorated their readiness to undertake interprofessional tasks.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Students, Health Occupations , Humans , Interprofessional Education , Interprofessional Relations , Perception
20.
Sovrem Tekhnologii Med ; 12(5): 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527051

ABSTRACT

The aim of the investigation was to study the clinical course of COVID-19 in the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and elucidate possible mechanisms of their mutual aggravation. Materials and Methods: The study included 64 patients with COVID-19; of them, 32 were with DM (main group) and 32 were DM-free (control group). The groups were formed according to the "case-control" principle. During hospitalization, the dynamics of clinical, glycemic, and coagulation parameters, markers of systemic inflammation, as well as kidney and liver functions were monitored and compared. Results: Among patients with DM, the course of viral pneumonia was more severe, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold higher number of people with extensive (>50%) lung damage (p=0.05), an increased risk of death according to the CURB-65 algorithm (1.3-fold, p=0.043), and a longer duration of insufficient blood oxygen saturation (p=0.0004). With the combination of COVID-19 and DM, hyperglycemia is persistent, without pronounced variability (MAGE - 1.5±0.6 mmol/L), the levels of C-reactive protein (p=0.028), creatinine (p=0.035), and fibrinogen (p=0.013) are higher, manifestations of hypercoagulability persist longer, including slower normalization of antithrombin III (p=0.012), fibrinogen (p=0.037), and D-dimer (p=0.035). Conclusion: The course of COVID-19 in patients with DM is associated with a high severity and extension of pneumonia, persistent decrease in oxygen supply, high hyperglycemia, accelerated renal dysfunction, systemic inflammation, and hypercoagulability.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2
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