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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634417

ABSTRACT

Delayed diagnosis, low socioeconomic status and infection have been associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at type 1 diabetes mellitus presentation. A teenager from a low socioeconomic status family, with longstanding weight loss, polyphagia, polyuria, vomiting and abdominal pain, attended the emergency department, also complaining of anosmia and odynophagia. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 and new-onset DKA. The second child had 2 weeks of diabetes symptoms and was admitted with new-onset mild DKA. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test was positive, although asymptomatic. Persistent hyperglycaemia with high insulin requirements was a common feature to both patients. Both cases support that SARS-CoV-2 may have an association with rapidly increasing insulin daily needs. In case one, not only fear of COVID-19 delayed hospital attendance but also the setting of a low socioeconomic status family appears to have enhanced the risk for late diagnosis and challenging disease management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Humans , Insulin , Male , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 48, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between March 18th and May 13th 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Finland resulted in the closure of schools and the limitation of daycare (i.e. lockdown). Social distancing changed the daily routines of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Healthcare professionals were forced to adapt to the pandemic by replacing physical outpatient visits with virtual visits. However, the influence of the lockdown on glycemic control in these patients remained unknown. METHODS: In this retrospective register study from a pediatric diabetes outpatient clinic, we analyzed the glycemic data of T1D patients (n = 245; aged 4 to 16 years) before and under the lockdown. All the participants used continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM or iCGM), two-thirds were on insulin pumps (CSII), and one-third on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) therapy. RESULTS: In our patient cohort, time in range (TIR, n = 209) and mean glucose levels (n = 214) were similar prior to and under the lockdown (mean change 0.44% [95%CI: -1.1-2.0], p = 0.56 and -0.13 mmol/mol [95%CI: -0.3-0.1], p = 0.17, respectively). However, children treated with CSII improved their glycemic control significantly during the lockdown: TIR improved on average 2.4% [0.6-4.2] (p = 0.010) and mean blood glucose level decreased -0.3 mmol/mol [-0.6-(-0.1)] (p = 0.008). The difference was more pronounced in girls, adolescents and patients using conventional insulin pumps. CONCLUSIONS: The glycemic control in T1D children did not deteriorate under the lockdown, and patients on CSII even improved their control, which suggests that social distancing might have allowed families to use the insulin pump more accurately as out-of-home activities were on hold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(1): e3508, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604144

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates a bi-directional relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and diabetes. The possibility exists that SARS-CoV-2 could induce diabetes, but it is not yet clear whether this might be a fulminant-type diabetes, autoimmune diabetes, or a new-onset transient hyperglycaemia. This viewpoint discusses mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 might trigger type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Specifically, we looked at the role of post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) and the generation of neoepitopes as a potential mechanism in the induction of islet autoimmunity, and the pathways via which coronavirus infections might exacerbate the formation of PTMs and, in so doing, provoke the onset of T1DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Humans
4.
Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care ; 47(6): 447-456, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to survey parents of youth with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic with school closures to better understand the implications of the school day on health care behaviors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey was distributed to parents of youth with type 1 diabetes ≤19 years of age in a large, academic diabetes center. Questions encompassed perceived changes in management behaviors and plans for return to school. Subgroup analysis compared parent responses by child's age, reported stressors, and socioeconomic markers. RESULTS: Parents reported a worsening in their child's diabetes health behaviors during school closures compared to what they perceived during a regular school day before the pandemic. More than half of parents reported feeling that their child was unable to maintain a normal routine, with particular implications for snacking between meals, daily physical activity, and sleep habits. Families with adolescents or those experiencing multiple pandemic-related stressors reported greater challenges. In open-ended responses, families highlighted difficulty in balancing school, work, and diabetes care and expressed concerns about the mental health repercussions of school closures for their children. Nearly half of parents reported being at least moderately worried about return to school, whereas only a minority reported seeking guidance from their diabetes provider. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-reported disruptions of school-day routines frequently had adverse consequences for diabetes management in this population. These findings highlight the importance of a school-day routine for children with type 1 diabetes; during closures, families may benefit from mitigating strategies to maintain effective habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933879, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Wounds affect millions of people world-wide, with care being costly and difficult to deliver remotely. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic highlights the urgent need for telehealth solutions to play a larger role as part of remote care strategies for patient monitoring and care. We describe our findings on the use of a patient-facing wound care app (Swift Patient Connect App, Swift Medical, Canada) as an innovative solution in remote wound assessment and management of a diabetic patient's wound. CASE REPORT In February 2020, a 57-year-old man with type I diabetes and peripheral arterial disease presented with osteomyelitis in the left foot at the fifth metatarsal, arising from a chronic ulcer. The wound was deep, with purulent discharge and polymicrobial growth. A 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics was administered, with slow improvement of the wound. At a follow-up appointment in June 2020, The Patient Connect app was recommended to the patient to securely share calibrated images of his wound as well to communicate with his doctor. Between June 2020 and January 2021, wound closure was accurately monitored as part of the management of this diabetic foot infection. The app was also used in the management of 2 subsequent wounds and infection episodes. CONCLUSIONS Use of the Swift Patient Connect App designed to monitor and manage wounds by a patient with diabetes and foot ulcer as part of a remote care strategy resulted in numerous benefits expressed by the patient. After initial adoption, 3 successive wounds were managed with a combination of in-person and telehealth visits complemented by the app. Incorporation of this technology as part of a novel telemedicine strategy promises to have an extensive impact on remote care delivery during the current COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Foot , Mobile Applications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 176, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561998

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the "Impact of Event Scale - Revised" (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of thirty mothers (mean age 43.0 ± 4.2 years) and 25 fathers (mean age 45.6 ± 5.9 years) participated in the survey and completed the questionnaires. 29.1% of parents had a score that allows to define a clinically relevant level of PTSD; ten mothers and 6 fathers had a PTSD clinically relevant score, corresponding, respectively, to 28.4 and 24% of total mothers and fathers. Finally, mothers and fathers, both express PTSD symptoms mainly in the form of intrusion and hyperarousal. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms a high prevalence symptoms related to PTSD in mothers and fathers of children with Type 1 Diabetes. We believe that psychosocial outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic should be taken into account in the planning of the next future assistance for children with T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Fathers/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment
7.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561628

ABSTRACT

This review examines the beneficial effects of ultraviolet radiation on systemic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes, where the epidemiological evidence for the vitamin D-independent effects of sunlight is most apparent. Ultraviolet radiation, in addition to its role in the synthesis of vitamin D, stimulates anti-inflammatory pathways, alters the composition of dendritic cells, T cells, and T regulatory cells, and induces nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase metabolic pathways, which may directly or indirectly mitigate disease progression and susceptibility. Recent work has also explored how the immune-modulating functions of ultraviolet radiation affect type II diabetes, cancer, and the current global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. These diseases are particularly important amidst global changes in lifestyle that result in unhealthy eating, increased sedentary habits, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Compelling epidemiological data shows increased ultraviolet radiation associated with reduced rates of certain cancers, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and ultraviolet radiation exposure correlated with susceptibility and mortality rates of COVID-19. Therefore, understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on both vitamin D-dependent and -independent pathways is necessary to understand how they influence the course of many human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunlight , Vitamin D/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/radiation effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sedentary Behavior , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Vitamin D/immunology
8.
Arch Pediatr ; 29(1): 27-29, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561682

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to impose lockdown policies, thus impacting patients with chronic diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lockdown on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients using a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion device during the nationwide lockdown. Children and adolescents aged 2-18 years followed up at the Pediatric Endocrinology Unit of Hospitalar São João in Portugal were included in the study. We collected data on the age, weight, insulin doses, and glycemic control of the patients before and after the restrictions. RESULTS: The study included 100 patients, 59 males, with a mean age of 12.5 years. Baseline data showed a suboptimal glycemic control with a median HbA1c of 7.9%. The lockdown was associated with an increase in the body mass index (BMI) of all patients (p = 0.009), particularly girls and older teenagers. Metabolic control deteriorated in the 10-13 age group (p = 0.03), with a 0.4% increase in HbA1c. CONCLUSION: To date, this is the largest study on the impact of lockdown on type 1 diabetes in patients using an insulin pump. The results highlight the importance of physical activity, parental supervision, and continuation of healthcare assistance through telemedicine in young individuals with type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycemic Control/methods , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Insulin Infusion Systems/adverse effects , Male , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518577

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective analysis, we examine the impact of the lockdown of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on eating habits in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on a hybrid artificial pancreas (HAP). Dietary composition before and during lockdown was assessed by 7-day food records of 12 participants with T1D on HAP (three men and nine women, ages 38 ± 13 years, HbA1c 6.8 ± 0.3%, M ± SD). Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics and lifestyle changes (online questionnaire) were also assessed. Compared to prelockdown, reported body weight tended to increase during lockdown with no changes in total energy intake. Participants significantly decreased animal protein intake (-2.1 ± 3.7% of total energy intake, p = 0.048), but tended to increase carbohydrate intake (+17 ± 28 g/day, p = 0.052). These changes were induced by modifications of eating habits at breakfast and lunch during weekdays. Patients consumed more cereals (+21 ± 33 g/day, p = 0.038), whole grain (+22 ± 32 g/day, p = 0.044), and sweets (+13 ± 17 g/day, p = 0.021), and less animal protein sources (-42 ± 67 g/day, p = 0.054). Participants showed a more regular meal timing and decreased physical activity. Blood glucose control remained optimal (time-in-range 76 ± 8 vs. 75 ± 7% before lockdown), and daily total insulin infusion increased (42 ± 10 vs. 39 ± 12 I.U., p = 0.045). During the lockdown, patients with T1D on HAP modified dietary habits by decreasing animal protein and increasing carbohydrate intake. This increase, mainly concerning whole grain and low-glycemic-index products, did not influence blood glucose control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Pancreas, Artificial , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Lancet ; 398(10313): 1837-1850, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510434

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is on the rise globally; however, the burden of mortality remains disproportionate in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). As 2021 marks 100 years since the discovery of insulin, we revisit progress, global burden of type 1 diabetes trends, and understanding of the pathogenesis and management practices related to the disease. Despite much progress, inequities in access and availability of insulin formulations persist and are reflected in differences in survival and morbidity patterns related to the disease. Some of these inequities have also been exacerbated by health-system challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a clear opportunity to improve access to insulin and related essential technologies for improved management of type 1 diabetes in LMICs, especially as a part of universal health coverage. These improvements will require concerted action and investments in human resources, community engagement, and education for the timely diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes, as well as adequate health-care financing. Further research in LMICs, especially those in Africa, is needed to improve our understanding of the burden, risk factors, and implementation strategies for managing type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/economics , Hypoglycemic Agents/history , Insulin/economics , Insulin/history , Life Expectancy , Universal Health Insurance
12.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(11): 544-552, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506202

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition which affects all age ranges, for reasons unknown, and the UK has one of the highest incidences of this complex condition in the world. Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune damage to the insulin-producing ß-cells found in the pancreatic islet cells, leading to severe insulin deficiency. People with diabetes need to achieve a target glyosylated haemoglobin level to avoid macro- and microvascular complications, but there is the associated risk of hypoglycaemic events. These can vary in severity and consequences but will likely always cause worry for the person living with diabetes. There are many risk factors and reasons to be explored when looking at hypoglycaemia. This case study explores the nursing interventions that can be safely worked through and prioritised, within the community setting, to allow people with diabetes to be safe from severe hypoglycaemia, thus improving their quality of life and safety, as well as reducing costs for the NHS.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/nursing , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/nursing , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
13.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021399, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 pandemic determined a profound impact in everyday life and in routine follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this context, telemedicine represented an important tool to guarantee a regular care for these patients. Aim of our work was to assess metabolic control before and after lockdown in the cohort of T1D patients followed-up by our Service, to evaluate the impact of restrictive measures and of disease management through telemedicine. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study. Subjects were enrolled among children, adolescents and young adults affected by T1D and followed at the Regional Paediatric Diabetology Centre of the University-Hospital of Parma, Italy. We collected data about age, gender, ethnicity, anthropometric measurements, duration of disease, type of blood glucose monitoring used, type of insulin administration, daily insulin requirement and metabolic control, assessed using capillary HbA1c. RESULTS: We enrolled 139 patients, mean age 13.9 years. During lockdown, we reported significantly more contacts through telemedicine between patients and medical team. Global glycol-metabolic control significantly improved, without differences in daily insulin requirement. Patients with a previous poor-controlled diabetes showed a greater improvement. Finally, mean weekly hours of physical activity decreased significantly, without worsening in BMI z-score. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a global improvement in mean HbA1c, with a stronger result for patients with a previous non satisfactory control. In our setting, despite regulatory rules and physical and logistic limitations related to pandemic, no worsening of metabolic control has been shown for patients with type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Life Style , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 76, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497894

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has had a greater psychological impact on patients with chronic ailments such as diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS compared to those without chronic conditions. We explored the psychological impacts of COVID-19 among people living with diabetes mellitus in Ghana. Methods: this study employed a hospital-based cross-sectional design involving 157 diabetes mellitus patients aged 20 years and above. We assessed diabetes distress by the seventeen-item diabetes stress (DDS17) scale and COVID-19 worries by 3 specific benchmarks: "worry about overly affected due to diabetes if infected with COVID-19", "worry about people with diabetes characterized as a risk group" and "worry about not able to manage diabetes if infected with COVID-19". A close-ended questionnaire was used in data collection. Results: of 157 diabetic patients interviewed, the majority had type 2 diabetes mellitus with known complications and only 42.7% were managing COVID-19 symptoms. The participants showed moderate to high level of COVID-19 specific worry, moderate fear of isolation, and low level of diabetes-associated distress. About 33.8% of the study population expressed a sense of worry towards the pandemic. The logistic regression showed that age, employment status, and presence of other chronic diseases were significantly associated with worries about being overly affected if infected with COVID-19 due to their diabetes status. Age and sex were associated with worries about people with diabetes being characterized as a risk group and age, sex and employment status were associated with participants who were worried about not being able to manage diabetes if infected with COVID-19. Conclusion: the general trend indicates a sense of worry among diabetes patients during the COVID-19 pandemic which is associated with poorer psychological health. Clients' education and counseling on COVID-19 are necessary to address some of their concerns to minimize the level of anxiety and emotional stress in these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Ghana , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light both challenges and unique opportunities regarding type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, including the usage of telemedicine platforms. METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital diabetes clinic. All consecutive T1D patients during March and June 2021 were asked to fill out a structured anonymous questionnaire that aimed to determine their preference regarding continuous use of a virtual platform. RESULTS: In total, 126 T1D patients answered the questionnaire, of whom 51% were under the age of 40, half were men, half used insulin pumps, and 69% used continuous glucose monitoring. During the pandemic, the exposure of patients to virtual visits has grown about twofold, from 29% to 53%. Of the respondents, 49% expressed an interest in future usage of a virtual platform, but most of them preferred use in a hybrid manner. We found an association between preference to use telemedicine in the future and younger age, previous virtual platform experience, and confidence in being able to download data. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the COVID-19 experience has led to a growing interest of T1D patients in using the hybrid format of telemedicine. However, we still need to better understand who will benefit most from this platform and assess its cost-effectiveness and organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 146-148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most important metabolic emergency in children. Children mimic many syndromes with a combination of nonspecific symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many syndromes are triggered by changes in children's body conditions. Reporting specific cases can improve the diagnosis process. The present study reports an 18-month-old paediatric case of COVID-19 who presented ketoacidosis (DKA) symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: The case is an 18-month-old child with fever and diarrhoea from 3 days before, who did not respond to outpatient treatment. On the day of the visit, he suffered from deep and abdominal breathing and decreased level of consciousness and sugar levels at admission of 420 mg/dl. He was then admitted with the initial diagnosis of DKA and had a positive PCR test result for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the non-specific symptoms of COVID-19, general practitioners and paediatricians are recommended that special attention be paid to these symptoms, especially those that are similar to life-threatening syndromes. They also should not easily ignore these symptoms and follow up patients and their recovery status and, if patients do not recover, consider the risk of COVID-19 given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5928-5935, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A positive relationship between the recently emerged Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) and diabetes has been inferred, but not confirmed, in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible impact of COVID-19 on new-onset Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in a pediatric population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of all children and adolescents diagnosed with T1DM during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-February 2021) in Western Greece (population coverage ≈1,000,000). The incidence and severity of T1DM, the age and sex of the participants and HbA1c and c-peptide concentrations at diagnosis were recorded and compared to those of the previous year (pre-COVID-19 year). RESULTS: 21 children aged 8.03±0.90 years old were diagnosed with T1DM in the COVID-19 year and 17, aged 9.44±3.72 years old, in the pre-COVID-19 year. A different seasonality pattern of new onsets was observed during the COVID-19 year compared to the previous year, with increasing trend from spring to winter (spring: 9.5% vs. 23.5%, autumn: 23.8% vs. 29.4%, summer: 19% vs. 11.8%, winter: 47.6% vs. 35.3%). Also, compared to the preceding year, HbA1c was significantly higher (p=0.012) and the incidence and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis greater (p=0.045, p=0.013, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report a different seasonality pattern and increased severity of new-onset T1DM during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research should further investigate the possible role of SARS-CoV-2 and the different pattern of overall infection incidence during the COVID-19 year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Adolescent , C-Peptide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , Seasons
18.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(18): 14-19, 2021 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469785
19.
J Clin Invest ; 131(11)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448082

ABSTRACT

First administered to a human subject as a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine on July 18, 1921, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has a long history of use for the prevention of TB and later the immunotherapy of bladder cancer. For TB prevention, BCG is given to infants born globally across over 180 countries and has been in use since the late 1920s. With about 352 million BCG doses procured annually and tens of billions of doses having been administered over the past century, it is estimated to be the most widely used vaccine in human history. While its roles for TB prevention and bladder cancer immunotherapy are widely appreciated, over the past century, BCG has been also studied for nontraditional purposes, which include (a) prevention of viral infections and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, (b) cancer immunotherapy aside from bladder cancer, and (c) immunologic diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and atopic diseases. The basis for these heterologous effects lies in the ability of BCG to alter immunologic set points via heterologous T cell immunity, as well as epigenetic and metabolomic changes in innate immune cells, a process called "trained immunity." In this Review, we provide an overview of what is known regarding the trained immunity mechanism of heterologous protection, and we describe the current knowledge base for these nontraditional uses of BCG.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Immunity, Cellular , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Virus Diseases/therapy , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/history , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/history , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/history , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/immunology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/pathology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/history , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/history , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/immunology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Virus Diseases/history , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/pathology
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109066, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433132

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the effects of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic on glucose metrics, measured by glucose monitoring systems, in adult individuals with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for English language articles from MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science up to February 28, 2021, using "diabetes", "lockdown", and "glucose" as key search terms. Time in range (TIR) was the main outcome; other metrics were time above range (TAR), time below range (TBR), mean blood glucose (MBG) and its variability (%CV), estimated HbA1c (eA1c) or glucose management indicator (GMI). RESULTS: Seventeen studies for a total of 3,441 individuals with type 1 diabetes were included in the analysis. In the lockdown period, TIR 70-180 mg/dl increased by 3.05% (95% CI 1.67-4.43%; p < 0.0001) while TAR (>180 mg/dL and > 250 mg/dL) declined by 3.39% (-5.14 to -1.63%) and 1.96% (-2.51 to -1.42%), respectively (p < 0.0001 for both). Both TBR < 70 and <54 mg/dL remained unchanged. MBG slightly decreased by 5.40 mg/dL (-7.29 to -3.51 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) along with a reduction in %CV. Pooled eA1c and GMI decreased by 0.18% (-0.24 to -0.11%; p < 0.0001) and a similar reduction was observed when GMI alone was considered (0.15%, -0.23 to -0.07%; p < 0.0001). Sensor use was only slightly but not significantly reduced during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis shows that well-controlled people with type 1 diabetes on both MDI and CSII with continuous or flash glucose monitoring did not experience a deterioration in glucose control throughout the COVID-19 lockdown, showing a modest, though statistically significant improvement in many glucose control parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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