Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 74
Filter
1.
J Diabetes ; 14(11): 758-766, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are sparse. This study aimed to investigate the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and T1DM. METHODS: Data from the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up (DPV) Registry were analyzed for diabetes patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Luxembourg during January 2020-June 2021, using Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests for continuous and dichotomous variables, adjusted for multiple testing. RESULTS: Data analysis of 1855 pediatric T1DM patients revealed no differences between asymptomatic/symptomatic infected and SARS-CoV-2 negative/positive patients regarding age, new-onset diabetes, diabetes duration, and body mass index. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) rate were not elevated in SARS-CoV-2-positive vs. -negative patients. The COVID-19 manifestation index was 37.5% in individuals with known T1DM, but 57.1% in individuals with new-onset diabetes. 68.8% of positively tested patients were managed as outpatients/telemedically. Data analysis of 240 adult T1MD patients revealed no differences between positively and negatively tested patients except lower HbA1c. Of these patients, 83.3% had symptomatic infections; 35.7% of positively tested patients were hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate low morbidity in SARS-CoV-2-infected pediatric T1DM patients. Most patients with known T1DM and SARS-CoV-2 infections could be managed as outpatients. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection was usually symptomatic if it coincided with new-onset diabetes. In adult patients, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization were associated with age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adult , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Prospective Studies
3.
Pediatr Res ; 92(5): 1370-1373, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is an important risk factor for adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We sought to describe: (1) adherence to albuminuria screening prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) occurrence of abnormal urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) tests in children with T1D. METHODS: This cohort study involved children aged 18 years or younger with T1D followed in the diabetes clinic at a pediatric tertiary center. Data was collected from 2016 to 2020. Adherence was defined by Diabetes Canada (DC) Guidelines for T1D in Children and Adolescents (2018). RESULTS: Of the 165 children who met DC criteria for screening; 88 (32%) were male and the median age at diagnosis was 5.8 years. Twenty-eight (17%) children had not completed a single ACR test, and 30 (18%) completed all eligible ACR tests. Test completion decreased from 66% in 2019 to 45% in 2020. Of the 345 ACR tests completed, 40 (11%) were abnormal (>2.5 mg/mmol) and 29 abnormal ACR tests (72%) were not repeated. CONCLUSION: Adherence to albuminuria screening in this pediatric diabetes clinic is suboptimal with deterioration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patient/physician and program-level strategies to improve adherence will play an important role in quality improvement. IMPACT: Albuminuria screening is an important part of pediatric diabetes care. In our study, pediatric albuminuria screening adherence was suboptimal at 66% in 2019 and deteriorated during the pandemic to 45% in 2020. Program and patient-level adherence to clinical guidelines and barriers to accessing diabetes care during the pandemic merit further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Humans , Male , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Albuminuria/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Pandemics , Creatinine/urine , Cohort Studies
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(11): 786-794, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children was observed in various diabetes centres worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate trends in the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of paediatric type 1 diabetes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify potential predictors of changes in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence during the pandemic. METHODS: For this international multicentre study, we used data from 13 national diabetes registries (Australia, Austria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, USA [Colorado], and Wales). The study population comprised 104 290 children and adolescents aged 6 months to younger than 18 years, who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2021. The observed diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence in 2020 and 2021 was compared to predictions based on trends over the pre-pandemic years 2006-19. Associations between changes in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence and the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and containment measures were examined with excess all-cause mortality in the whole population and the Stringency Index from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. FINDINGS: 87 228 children and adolescents were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 2006 and 2019, 8209 were diagnosed in 2020, and 8853 were diagnosed in 2021. From 2006 to 2019, diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was present in 23 775 (27·3%) of 87 228 individuals and the mean annual increase in the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis in the total cohort from 2006 to 2019 was 1·6% (95% CI 1·3 to 1·9). The adjusted observed prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was 39·4% (95% CI 34·0 to 45·6) in 2020 and 38·9% (33·6 to 45·0) in 2021, significantly higher than the predicted prevalence of 32·5% (27·8 to 37·9) for 2020 and 33·0% (28·3 to 38·5) for 2021 (p<0·0001 for both years). The prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis was associated with the pandemic containment measures, with an estimated risk ratio of 1·037 (95% CI 1·024 to 1·051; p<0·0001) per ten-unit increase in the Stringency Index for 2020 and 1·028 (1·009 to 1·047; p=0·0033) for 2021, but was not significantly associated with excess all-cause mortality. INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a marked exacerbation of the pre-existing increase in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children. This finding highlights the need for early and timely diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, German Robert Koch Institute, German Diabetes Association, German Diabetes Foundation, Slovenian Research Agency, Welsh Government, Central Denmark Region, and Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Registries
7.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ; 14(3): 267-274, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024911

ABSTRACT

Objective: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - a potentially preventable complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) - is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, and is associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The limited use of healthcare services due to fear of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) transmission during the pandemic has raised concerns of delays in T1D diagnosis, among other diseases. This study investigated the presenting characteristics of newly diagnosed T1D patients assessed in a single clinic during the pandemic and compares them with the pre-pandemic period. Methods: For the purpose of this study, the first year of the pandemic is referred to as the "pandemic period", and the previous three years as the "pre-pandemic period". Patient files were reviewed retrospectively, the demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded, and the findings from both periods were compared. Results: The number of patients diagnosed with T1D in the pandemic period was 44, and in the pre-pandemic period 39 in 2017, 22 in 2018 and 18 in 2019. The two groups had similar age, sex, pubertal stage and anthropometric characteristics (p>0.05). Regarding the type of presentation, the frequency of DKA was significantly higher in the pandemic period (68.2%) than in the pre-pandemic period (40.5%) (p=0.006), and this difference was also observed in the comparison by years (p=0.016). The duration of symptoms (16.5±10.7 vs. 23.5±17.6 days) and the length of hospital stay (10±3.9 vs. 15.2±5.5 days) were significantly shorter in the pandemic period (p=0.032, and p<0.001, respectively). There was no difference in the frequency of severe DKA between the pandemic (46.7%) and the pre-pandemic (37.5%) periods (p>0.05). However, pH (7.17±0.16 vs. 7.26±0.14) and bicarbonate (12.8±6.3 vs. 16.6±6.3) levels were significantly lower in the pandemic period (p<0.005). Additional signs of infection on admission were less frequent in the pandemic period (9.1%) than in the pre-pandemic period (27.8%) (p=0.027). The groups did not differ in terms of hemoglobin A1c, C-peptide, concurrent thyroid autoantibodies and tissue transglutaminase antibodies (p>0.05). The rate of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase positivity was higher in the pandemic period (73.8% vs. 39.2%) (p=0.001) while the frequency of other diabetes-associated autoantibodies was similar between the groups (p>0.05). The polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19 was negative in six patients with a history of contact. Conclusion: There was an increased frequency and severity of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D in the pandemic period, and these findings justify concerns related to the diagnosis of other diseases during the pandemic. Studies to raise awareness of diabetes symptoms during the pandemic should be continued regularly to reach all segments of society. Our study provides an additional contribution to the literature in its coverage of the one-year period during the pandemic and its comparison with the previous three years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
8.
Indian Pediatr ; 59(10): 809-810, 2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2011550

ABSTRACT

A sudden increase in the number of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) was experienced during the third wave of COVID-19 epidemic in Hungary. The newly diagnosed T1DM patients had a significantly higher rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity as compared to prevalent T1DM children [OR (95% CI) 3.74 (1,08,13.55); P=0.04]. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and diabetes needs to be investigated further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 878634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997437

ABSTRACT

Aim/Hypothesis: To compare the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with the frequency of DKA during 2017-2019. Methods: Forty-seven pediatric diabetes centers caring for >90% of young people with diabetes in Italy recruited 4,237 newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes between 2017 and 2020 in a longitudinal study. Four subperiods in 2020 were defined based on government-imposed containment measures for COVID-19, and the frequencies of DKA and severe DKA compared with the same periods in 2017-2019. Results: Overall, the frequency of DKA increased from 35.7% (95%CI, 33.5-36.9) in 2017-2019 to 39.6% (95%CI, 36.7-42.4) in 2020 (p=0.008), while the frequency of severe DKA increased from 10.4% in 2017-2019 (95%CI, 9.4-11.5) to 14.2% in 2020 (95%CI, 12.3-16.4, p<0.001). DKA and severe DKA increased during the early pandemic period by 10.4% (p=0.004) and 8% (p=0.002), respectively, and the increase continued throughout 2020. Immigrant background increased and high household income decreased the probability of presenting with DKA (OR: 1.55; 95%CI, 1.24-1.94; p<0.001 and OR: 0.60; 95 CI, 0.41-0.88; p=0.010, respectively). Conclusions/Interpretation: There was an increase in the frequency of DKA and severe DKA in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, with no apparent association with the severity of COVID-19 infection severity or containment measures. There has been a silent outbreak of DKA in children during the pandemic, and preventive action is required to prevent this phenomenon in the event of further generalized lockdowns or future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics
10.
Diabet Med ; 39(11): e14923, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961555

ABSTRACT

AIM: Initiating continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) shortly after Type 1 diabetes diagnosis has glycaemic and quality of life benefits for youth with Type 1 diabetes and their families. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to a rapid shift to virtual delivery of CGM initiation visits. We aimed to understand parents' experiences receiving virtual care to initiate CGM within 30 days of diagnosis. METHODS: We held focus groups and interviews using a semi-structured interview guide with parents of youth who initiated CGM over telehealth within 30 days of diagnosis during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Questions aimed to explore experiences of starting CGM virtually. Groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants were 16 English-speaking parents (age 43 ± 6 years; 63% female) of 15 youth (age 9 ± 4 years; 47% female; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20% Hispanic, 13% Asian, 7% Black, 13% other). They described multiple benefits of the virtual visit including convenient access to high-quality care; integrating Type 1 diabetes care into daily life; and being in the comfort of home. A minority experienced challenges with virtual care delivery; most preferred the virtual format. Participants expressed that clinics should offer a choice of virtual or in-person to families initiating CGM in the future. CONCLUSION: Most parents appreciated receiving CGM initiation education via telehealth and felt it should be an option offered to all families. Further efforts can continue to enhance CGM initiation teaching virtually to address identified barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Vis Exp ; (185)2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954156

ABSTRACT

An ongoing clinical trial, Autoimmunity Screening for Kids (ASK), is the first screening study in the general population for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease in the United States. With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the epidemiology of COVID-19 in the general population and knowledge about the association between COVID-19 infection and T1D development are urgently needed. The currently standard screening method of the radio-binding assay (RBA) has met two great challenges: low efficiency with a single assay format and low disease specificity with a large proportion of low-affinity antibodies generated in screening. With the platform of the multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay we established previously, a novel 6-Plex ECL assay was developed that combines, in a single well, all four islet autoantibodies (IAbs) to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), insulinoma antigen 2 (IA-2), and Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) for T1D, transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA) for celiac disease, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies for COVID-19. The assay was validated in blind using 880 samples from the ASK study, including 325 positive samples and 555 all antibody-negative samples, and compared with the standard RBAs and a single ECL assay. With the advantages of high efficiency, low cost, and low serum volume, this assay has been accepted as the primary screening tool for the ASK study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5112-5127, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925953

ABSTRACT

Viral infections may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), and recent reports suggest that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have increased the incidence of pediatric T1D and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE was conducted for articles published up to March 2022. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to compare the relative risk of T1D and DKA among pediatric patients with T1D between the COVID-19 pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. We also compared glucose and HbA1c values in children who were newly diagnosed with T1D before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The global incidence rate of T1D in the 2019 period was 19.73 per 100 000 children and 32.39 per 100 000 in the 2020 period. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic, the number of worldwide pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 9.5%, 25%, and 19.5%, respectively. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels, the median glucose, and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 6.43% and 6.42%, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA. Moreover, higher glucose and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic mandates targeted measures to raise public and physician awareness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
13.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(7): 944-955, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are several observations that the onset of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with an increase in the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). However, due to heterogeneity in study designs and country-specific healthcare policies, more national-level evidence is needed to provide generalizable conclusions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of DKA in Polish children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) between the first year of COVID-19 pandemic (15 March 2020 to 15 March 2021) and the preceding year (15 March 2019 to 15 March 2020). METHODS: Reference centers in 13 regions (covering ~88% of Polish children) retrospectively reported all new-onset T1D cases in children from assessed periods, including DKA status at admission, administered procedures and outcomes. Secondly, we collected regions' demographic characteristics and the daily-reported number of COVID-19-related deaths in each region. RESULTS: We recorded 3062 cases of new-onset T1D (53.3% boys, mean age 9.5 ± 4.3 years old) of which 1347 (44%) had DKA. Comparing pre- and post-COVID-19 period, we observed a significant increase in the rate of DKA (37.5%-49.4%, p < .0001). The fraction of moderate (+5.4%) and severe (+3.4%) DKA cases increased significantly (p = .0089), and more episodes required assisted ventilation (+2.1%, p = .0337). Two episodes of DKA during 2020/2021 period were fatal. By region, change in DKA frequency correlated with initial COVID-19 death toll (March/April 2020) (R = .6, p = .0287) and change in T1D incidence (R = .7, p = .0080). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical picture of new-onset children T1D in Poland deteriorated over a 2-year period. The observed increase in the frequency of DKA and its severity were significantly associated with the overlapping timing of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(22): e176, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital visitation has become challenging during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic because of quarantine measures and fear of infection. Consequently, newly diagnosed patients may present with more severe diseases during the pandemic. The present study analyzed the differences in the initial clinical presentations of newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), comparing pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients with T1D or T2D and aged < 18 years during 2018-2020 were included in the study. Data were collected retrospectively from four academic centers in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Initial clinical data were compared between the pre-pandemic (2018-2019) and pandemic (2020) periods. RESULTS: In the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, 99 patients (41 T1D and 58 T2D patients) and 84 patients (51 T1D and 33 T2D patients) were identified, respectively. During the pandemic, the proportion of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) cases increased compared to the pre-pandemic period (21.2% during 2018-2019 vs. 38.1% in 2020; P = 0.012). In the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, initial pH was 7.32 ± 0.14 and 7.27 ± 0.15, respectively (P = 0.040), and HbA1c values were 11.18 ± 2.46% and 12.42 ± 2.87%, respectively (P = 0.002). During the pandemic, there was an increased risk of DKA in patients with T1D (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.62; P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the proportion of DKA in newly diagnosed patients with T1D increased and clinical parameters showed a deteriorating pattern. Increased awareness of pediatric diabetes, especially DKA, could facilitate visit to the hospital for an early diagnosis; thus, reducing the number of DKA cases during the pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875480

ABSTRACT

Glucose management indicator (GMI) is frequently used as a substitute for HbA1c, especially when using telemedicine. Discordances between GMI and HbA1c were previously mostly reported in populations with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using real-time CGM. Our aim was to investigate the accordance between GMI and HbA1c in patients with diabetes using intermittent scanning CGM (isCGM). In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with diabetes who used isCGM >70% of the time of the investigated time periods were included. GMI of four different time spans (between 14 and 30 days), covering a period of 3 months, reflected by the HbA1c, were investigated. The influence of clinical- and isCGM-derived parameters on the discordance was assessed. We included 278 patients (55% T1DM; 33% type 2 diabetes (T2DM)) with a mean HbA1c of 7.63%. The mean GMI of the four time periods was between 7.19% and 7.25%. On average, the absolute deviation between the four calculated GMIs and HbA1c ranged from 0.6% to 0.65%. The discordance was greater with increased BMI, a diagnosis of T2DM, and a greater difference between the most recent GMI and GMI assessed 8 to 10 weeks prior to HbA1c assessment. Our data shows that, especially in patients with increased BMI and T2DM, this difference is more pronounced and should therefore be considered when making therapeutic decisions.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Obesity , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(7): 859-866, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), had a great impact on patients worldwide, including those with chronic diseases. We aim to study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on presentation patterns of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Jordan, as an example a developing country with limited resources. METHODS: Medical charts were reviewed for patients presented with new-onset T1D to Jordan University hospital during the first year of pandemic and the preceding year. Categorical data were compared using Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. Continuous data were compared using the Independent Sample t-Test. RESULTS: A total of 137 children were diagnosed with T1D during the study period, with 60.6% of those children were diagnosed in the pre-pandemic year compared to 39.4% during the first year of pandemic, p-value=0.013. Percentage of patients diagnosed with DKA as first presentation of T1D during the pre-pandemic year was 34.9% compared to 51.9% during the pandemic year, p-value=0.049. Significant differences in family monthly income (p-value=0.006) and paternal education level (p-value=0.036) were found between children with DKA and those without DKA in the pre-pandemic year, but they were not significant during the pandemic year. CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic had affected presentation pattern of newly diagnosed T1D patients, manifested by lower number of children diagnosed with T1D and higher percentage of DKA as first presentation compared to the preceding year. Health care services should be at utmost preparedness for possible future waves and other pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
18.
Trials ; 23(1): 414, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The INNODIA consortium has established a pan-European infrastructure using validated centres to prospectively evaluate clinical data from individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes combined with centralised collection of clinical samples to determine rates of decline in beta-cell function and identify novel biomarkers, which could be used for future stratification of phase 2 clinical trials. METHODS: In this context, we have developed a Master Protocol, based on the "backbone" of the INNODIA natural history study, which we believe could improve the delivery of phase 2 studies exploring the use of single or combinations of Investigational Medicinal Products (IMPs), designed to prevent or reverse declines in beta-cell function in individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Although many IMPs have demonstrated potential efficacy in phase 2 studies, few subsequent phase 3 studies have confirmed these benefits. Currently, phase 2 drug development for this indication is limited by poor evaluation of drug dosage and lack of mechanistic data to understand variable responses to the IMPs. Identification of biomarkers which might permit more robust stratification of participants at baseline has been slow. DISCUSSION: The Master Protocol provides (1) standardised assessment of efficacy and safety, (2) comparable collection of mechanistic data, (3) the opportunity to include adaptive designs and the use of shared control groups in the evaluation of combination therapies, and (4) benefits of greater understanding of endpoint variation to ensure more robust sample size calculations and future baseline stratification using existing and novel biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 10(2)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common form of diabetes in children, accounting for 96% of cases, with 29 000 children affected in the UK. Studies have recently identified immunotherapies that safely delay the development of T1D for at least 3 years, and further therapies are in development. General population screening programs in other countries can now accurately identify children with presymptomatic T1D who can be entered into prevention studies. The UK does not have such a system in place. We aim to explore whether parents and children in the UK would want to be part of such a program of testing for T1D in the general population, how they would want to be informed and participate in such a program, and how any barriers to recruitment and participation can be addressed. Additionally, the views of stakeholders who would be involved in the testing program will be collected and analyzed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We will interview parents/guardians and children aged 3-13 years about their views on screening for T1D. We will recruit purposefully to ensure representation across ethnicities and socioeconomic groups. Interviews will be transcribed, analyzed and used to inform iterative co-design work with additional families to address any issues raised. Similar qualitative work will be undertaken with professional stakeholders who would be involved in implementing any future screening program. Where possible, all aspects of this study will be performed remotely by phone or online to minimize infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative study will provide the first insights into acceptability of testing and monitoring for T1D in the general population from the perspective of families and stakeholders in the UK. Co-design work will help establish the barriers and identify strategies to mitigate and overcome these issues, as an important step towards consideration of national testing for T1D.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Humans , Qualitative Research , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(4): 433-438, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been posited during the COVID-19 pandemic, but data are conflicting. We aimed to determine trends in newly diagnosed T1D and severity of presentation at diagnosis for pediatric and adolescent patients during COVID-19 (2020) as compared to the previous year (2019) in a multi-center analysis across the United States. METHODS: This retrospective study from seven centers in the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI) included data on new onset T1D diagnosis and proportion in DKA at diagnosis from January 1 to December 31, 2020, compared to the prior year. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic period compared to the prior year. RESULTS: Across seven sites, there were 1399 newly diagnosed T1D patients in 2020, compared to 1277 in 2019 (p = 0.007). A greater proportion of newly diagnosed patients presented in DKA in 2020 compared to 2019 (599/1399(42.8%) vs. 493/1277(38.6%), p = 0.02), with a higher proportion presenting with severe DKA (p = 0.01) as characterized by a pH <7.1 and/or bicarbonate of <5 mmol/L. Monthly data trends demonstrated a higher number of new T1D diagnoses over the spring and summer months (March to September) of 2020 compared to 2019 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found an increase in newly diagnosed T1D and a greater proportion presenting in DKA at diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prior year. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings with population level data and determine the long-term impact of COVID-19 on diabetes trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL