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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e070477, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Flash glucose monitoring for patients with T1 diabetes avoids frequent painful finger-prick testing, thus potentially improving frequency of glucose self-monitoring. Our study aimed to explore experiences of young people using Freestyle Libre sensors and their parents, and to identify benefits and challenges to National Health Service (NHS) staff of its adoption in their care provision. PARTICIPANTS: Young people with T1 diabetes, their parents and healthcare professionals were interviewed between February and December 2021. Participants were recruited via social media and through NHS diabetes clinic staff. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews were conducted online and analysed using thematic methods. Staff themes were mapped onto normalisation process theory (NPT) constructs. RESULTS: Thirty-four participants were interviewed: 10 young people, 14 parents and 10 healthcare professionals. Young people reported that life was much easier since changing to flash glucose monitoring, increasing confidence and independence to manage their condition. Parents' quality of life improved and they appreciated access to real-time data. Using the NPT concepts to understand how technology was integrated into routine care proved useful; health professionals were very enthusiastic about flash glucose monitoring and coped with the extra data load to facilitate more tailored patient support within and between clinic visits. CONCLUSION: This technology empowers young people and their parents to understand their diabetes adherence more completely; to feel more confident about adjusting their own care between clinic appointments; and provides an improved interactive experience in clinic. Healthcare teams appear committed to delivering improving technologies, acknowledging the challenge for them to assimilate new information required to provide expert advice.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Blood Glucose , Quality of Life , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , State Medicine , Parents
2.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 15(1): e1-e6, 2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Managing diabetes is especially challenging for adolescents, and they often struggle to believe they can manage the condition. Illness perception has been widely associated with better diabetes management outcomes, but the influence of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on adolescents has been largely neglected. AIM: The study aimed to explore the illness perception of a group of adolescents living with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using CGM. SETTING: The study was conducted at a medical centre that provides diabetes care services to youth living with T1D in Parktown, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative research approach using semi-structured online interviews was used to gather data that was thematically analysed. RESULTS: Themes emerging from the data confirmed that CGM creates a sense of control over diabetes management as blood glucose measures were more visible. A sense of normalcy was established as CGM influences a new routine and a way of life, integrating diabetes into a young person's identity. Despite the users' awareness of being different due to diabetes management, CGM assisted in creating a sense of belonging, contributing to developing a better quality of life. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study support the use of CGM as a means of empowering adolescents struggling with diabetes management to achieve better treatment outcomes. The important role of illness perception in facilitating this change was also evident.Contribution: By listening to the adolescent's voice, CGM was identified as a possible intervention to empower adolescents to improve diabetes management.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
3.
Can J Diabetes ; 46(4): 419-427, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257535

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had significant impact on research directions and productivity in the past 2 years. Despite these challenges, since 2020, more than 2,500 peer-reviewed articles have been published on pancreatic islet biology. These include updates on the roles of isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and incretin hormones in insulin secretion, as well as the discovery of inceptor and signalling by circulating RNAs. The year 2020 also brought advancements in in vivo and in vitro models, including a new transgenic mouse for assessing beta-cell proliferation, a "pancreas-on-a-chip" to study glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and successful genetic editing of primary human islet cells. Islet biologists evaluated the functionality of stem-cell-derived islet-like cells coated with semipermeable biomaterials to prevent autoimmune attack, revealing the importance of cell maturation after transplantation. Prompted by observations that COVID-19 symptoms can worsen for people with obesity or diabetes, researchers examined how islets are directly affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Herein, we highlight novel functional insights, technologies and therapeutic approaches that emerged between March 2020 and July 2021, written for both scientific and lay audiences. We also include a response to these advancements from patient stakeholders, to help lend a broader perspective to developments and challenges in islet research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation , Islets of Langerhans , Animals , Biology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Humans , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans/physiology , Mice
4.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 17(4): 901-908, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255822

ABSTRACT

Widespread uptake of telehealth in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted geographic, demographic, and economic disparities in access to virtual care. However, research studies and clinical programs that predate the pandemic demonstrate the potential for telehealth-based interventions to improve access to and outcomes of type 1 diabetes (T1D) care for individuals in geographically or socially marginalized communities. In this expert commentary, we discuss telehealth-based care models that have been successful in improving care for marginalized T1D populations. We also outline the policy changes needed to expand access to such interventions to reduce established disparities in T1D care and promote better health equity among people living with T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Pandemics
5.
Curr Diab Rep ; 23(2): 19-28, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255586

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although advances in diabetes technology and pharmacology have significantly and positively impacted diabetes management and health outcomes for some, diabetes care remains burdensome and can be challenging to balance with other life priorities. The purpose of this article is to review the rationale for assessment of psychosocial domains in diabetes care settings and strategies for the implementation of psychosocial screening into routine practice. Survey data from the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange Quality Improvement Network is highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of psychosocial screening requires identifying the population; selecting validated tools to assess target domains; determining frequency of screening and mode of survey delivery; and scoring, interpreting, documenting, and facilitating referrals such that these processes are part of clinical workflows. Recognizing the influence of psychosocial factors for people with diabetes (PWD), professional society guidelines for comprehensive diabetes care recommend the integration of psychosocial screening into routine care.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Quality Improvement , Mass Screening
6.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(7): 1101-1112, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently experience psychosocial concerns, and mental health screening is becoming increasingly common in routine diabetes care. However, little is known about what adolescents or their caregivers think about the role of mental health screening and intervention within the context of comprehensive diabetes care, or how their diabetes care providers should be involved in navigating mental health concerns. This study used qualitative methods to obtain the perspectives of adolescents with T1D and their caregivers regarding these issues. METHODS: Participants were 13 adolescents with T1D (ages 12-19 years; M = 15.1 years; 53.8% female; 61.5% Hispanic/Latinx White) and 13 mothers, recruited from an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic in South Florida, who participated in semi-structured interviews via video teleconference. Thematic content analysis was used to evaluate participants' responses. RESULTS: Adolescents and their mothers reported positive experiences with the clinic's psychosocial screening procedures and appreciated meeting with the psychology team during visits. They wanted the clinic to offer more opportunities for peer support. Mothers highlighted barriers to seeking mental health care outside of the clinic and the importance of mental health professionals understanding diabetes. Mothers also wanted the clinic to offer more on-site therapeutic services. DISCUSSION: Study participants valued psychosocial screening and supported addressing mental health as a routine part of diabetes comprehensive care.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Mothers , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Caregivers , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Male , Young Adult
7.
J Diabetes Complications ; 37(1): 108379, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180331

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 has brought many challenges for providing quality healthcare for type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the medical care, glycemic control, and selected outcomes in T1DM patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed medical records from 357 T1DM adults enrolled in the Program of Comprehensive Outpatient Specialist Care at the University Hospital in Krakow, and assessed differences in patient data from before the COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020) and after it started COVID-19 (March 2020-February 2021). RESULTS: The median HbA1c levels and the percentage of patients within the HbA1c target of <7 % (53 mmol/mol) were similar in both periods: before and after the beginning of the pandemic (6.86 % [51.5 mmol/mol], IQR 6.23-7.58 % [44.6-59.3 mmol/mol] vs. 6.9 % [51.9 mmol/mol], IQR 6.2-7.61 % [44.3-59.7 mmol/mol]; p = 0.50 and 56.3 % vs. 57.1 %, p = 0.42, respectively). However, we observed a rise in BMI and body weight (median 24.25, IQR 21.97-27.05 vs. 24.82, IQR 22.17-27.87 and median weight 71.0 IQR 61-82 vs. 72.55, IQR 55-85; p < 0.001 for both comparisons). There was no reduction in the numbers of total diabetes-related visits (median 4, IQR 4-5 vs. 5, IQR 4-5; p = 0.065), but the frequency of other specialist consultations decreased (2, IQR 0-2 vs. 1, IQR 0-2). During the pandemic, telehealth visits constituted of 1191 out of 1609 (71.6 %) total visits. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center observation, the COVID-19 pandemic did not have a negative impact on glycemic control in T1DM patients, but the patients' weight did increase. Telemedicine proved to be a valuable tool for T1DM care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adult , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Ambulatory Care
8.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 17(4): 878-886, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2195451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type one diabetes (T1D) management is challenging for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) due to physiological changes, psychosocial challenges, and increasing independence, resulting in increased diabetes distress and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Alternative care models that engage AYAs and improve diabetes-related health outcomes are needed. METHODS: A 15-month study evaluated an adaptation of the Colorado Young Adults with T1D (CoYoT1) Care model. CoYoT1 Care includes person-centered care, virtual peer groups, and physician training delivered via telehealth. AYAs (aged 16-25 years) were partially randomized to CoYoT1 or standard care, delivered via telehealth or in-person. As the study was ending, the COVID-19 pandemic forced all AYAs to transition to primarily telehealth appointments. This secondary analysis compares changes in clinic attendance, T1D-related distress, HbA1c, and device use between those who attended more than 50% of diabetes clinic visits via telehealth and those who attended more sessions in-person throughout the course of the study. RESULTS: Out of 68 AYA participants, individuals (n = 39, 57%) who attended most (>50%) study visits by telehealth completed more diabetes care visits (3.3 visits) than those (n = 29, 43%) who primarily attended visits in-person (2.5 visits; P = .007). AYAs who primarily attended visits via telehealth maintained stable physician-related distress, while those who attended more in-person visits reported increases in physician-related distress (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Greater usage of telehealth improved AYA engagement with their care, resulting in increased clinic attendance and reduced physician-related diabetes distress. A person-centered care model delivered via telehealth effectively meets the needs of AYAs with T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Physicians , Telemedicine , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1069559, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163001

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID lockdown has posted a great challenge to paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their caregivers on the disease management. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to compare the glycaemic control among paediatric patients with T1D (aged under 18 years) pre- during, and post-lockdown period. Methods and materials: We did a systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Embase, and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature) for the literature published between 1 Jan 2019 to 10 Sep 2022. Studies meeting the following inclusion criteria were eligible for this study: (1) a COVID-19 related study; (2) inclusion of children aged 18 years old or under with established T1D; (3) comparing the outcomes of interest during or after the COVID lockdown with that before the lockdown. Study endpoints included mean difference (MD) in HbA1c, blood glucose, time in range (TIR, 70-180 mg/dl), time above range (TAR, >180mg/dl), time below range (TBR,<70mg/dl) and glucose variability (coefficient of variation [CV]) between pre-lockdown and during lockdown and/or between pre- and post-lockdown period. The MD and its corresponding 95% CI of each endpoint were pooled using random-effect model considering the potential between-study heterogeneity in COVID restrictions and T1D management. Results: Initial search identified 4488 records and 22 studies with 2106 paediatric patients with T1D were included in the final analysis. Compared with pre-lockdown period, blood glucose was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.18, -0.04) during lockdown period and by 0.42 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.73, -0.11) after lockdown. The improvement was also found for TIR, TAR, TBR, and CV during and post-lockdown (all p values<0.05) except for the post-lockdown TBR (p =0.35). No significant change in HbA1c was observed during and post- lockdown period when compared with the pre-lockdown value. There was moderate to high between-study heterogeneity for most of the analyses. Conclusion: Compared with pre-lockdown period, there was significant improvement in T1D paediatric patients' glucose metrics during and post-lockdown. The underlying reasons for this positive impact warrant further investigation to inform future paediatric diabetes management. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier CRD42022359213.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Blood Glucose , Glycemic Control , Glycated Hemoglobin , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114898

ABSTRACT

This paper qualitatively explores how technologies and physical activity are experienced by adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a life-threatening autoimmune condition, which is highly prevalent in young children. Physical activity is underutilised as part of treatment goals due to multifactorial challenges and lack of education in both the family setting and across society as a whole. Using photovoice methodology, 29 participants (parents and adolescents), individually or as dyads, shared and described in reflective journal format examples of technology and physical activity in their lives. In total, 120 personal photographs with accompanying narratives were provided. The data were thematically coded by the researcher and then collaboratively with participants. Four key themes (and 12 subthemes) were generated including: (i) benefits of technology; (ii) complexity and difficulty; (iii) emotional impact; (iv) reliance and risk. Findings demonstrate that current technology does not address the complex needs of adolescents with type 1 diabetes to enable participation in physical activity without life risk. We conclude from our findings that future technologies for supporting engagement in physical activity as part of diabetes management need to be: more interoperable, personalised and integrated better with ongoing education and support.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Exercise , Humans , Narration , Technology
11.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 98(6): 587-589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of teleconsultation on glycemic control and prevention of acute complications related to diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents treated in a reference hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. METHOD: Descriptive study of data from pediatric diabetic patients who received teleconsultation between April and September 2020. RESULTS: During this period, 143 diabetic patients were evaluated, with a median of 3.4 teleconsultations per patient in the studied period, requiring adjustment of insulin doses in 84.6% of cases. The hospital admission rate was 8,4% due to diabetic decompensation. The metabolic control (HbA1c) became worse in 46% of the sample and improved in 37%. CONCLUSION: The teleconsultation promoted health care for patients with diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 pandemic but was not able to guarantee adequate glycemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Remote Consultation , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitals
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e064186, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088814

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The transition from paediatric to adult diabetes care in youth-onset diabetes (type 1 diabetes mellitus, Y-T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus, Y-T2DM) is associated with worsening glycaemic control, missed clinical visits, decreased medication adherence and the emergence of cardiometabolic complications. The socio-ecological challenges that influence transitioning to adult diabetes care may be distinct between Y-T1DM and Y-T2DM. The goal of this scoping review is to map the state of the literature on transitioning care in Y-T2DM compared with Y-T1DM and to identify the main sources and types of evidence available. The objectives are : (1) to identify the factors within the socio-ecological framework (individual, relationship, community, societal) associated with transitioning to adult care in Y-T2DM compared with Y- T1DM, and (2) to identify knowledge gaps related to transitioning to adult care. METHODS: The scoping review protocol and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for scoping reviews guidelines. A systematic search of scientific databases (PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Scopus and APA PsycNet will be undertaken for articles between 1 January 1990 and 30 September 2022. Study designs will include peer-reviewed experimental and quasi-experimental published studies without language or country-specific restrictions. We will exclude articles on other diabetes subtypes and will exclude non-peer reviewed articles such as opinion papers, anecdotal reports or supplementary commentaries. ANALYSIS: References will be collated, sorted and extracted using Covidence. Factors associated with transition from paediatric to adult diabetes care in Y-T1DM and Y-T2DM will be identified using the socio-ecological framework and results will be presented in narrative format, tables, and summary graphs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be applicable for this review. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/k2pwc.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Transitional Care , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 193: 110135, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086111

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the impact of primarily telemedical care for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes by monthly video consultations on metabolic control and parents' treatment satisfaction and disease-specific burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this 12-month multicenter observational follow-up VIDIKI 2.0 study, 100 participants (3-18 years) received monthly video consultations, which partially replaced quarterly outpatient clinic appointments during the pandemic. The children's metabolic parameters as well as the parents' treatment satisfaction and diabetes specific burden were assessed at study entry and 12 months later. RESULTS: During the study, 912 video consultations took place (mean 0.84 ±â€¯0.23 / patient/month). The children's HbA1c remained stable, while mean sensor glucose level and glucose management indicator decreased. Simultaneously, parents' treatment satisfaction significantly increased, and their diabetes-specific burden and distress decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Primarily telemedical care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic via monthly video consultations resulted in a significant improvement in parents' treatment satisfaction and their diabetes-specific burden and distress. It was associated with a slight improvement in mean sensor glucose and glucose management indicator, while HbA1c remained stable. Thus, video consultations offer great potential to enhance standard care for children and adolescents with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Telemedicine/methods , Glucose
15.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(7): 968-975, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019582

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated COVID-19 outcomes in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to determine if those with comorbidities are more likely to experience severe COVID-19 compared to those without. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included questionnaire data on patients <25 years of age with established T1D and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 52 sites across the US between April 2020 and October 2021. We examined patient factors and COVID-19 outcomes between those with and without comorbidities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis examined the odds of hospitalization among groups, adjusting for age, HbA1c, race and ethnicity, insurance type and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: Six hundred fifty-one individuals with T1D and COVID-19 were analyzed with mean age 15.8 (SD 4.1) years. At least one comorbidity was present in 31%, and more than one in 10%. Obesity and asthma were the most frequently reported comorbidities, present in 19% and 17%, respectively. Hospitalization occurred in 17% of patients and 52% of hospitalized patients required ICU level care. Patients with at least one comorbidity were almost twice as likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 than patients with no comorbidities (Odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). This relationship persisted after adjusting for age, HbA1c, race and ethnicity (minority vs nonminority), insurance type (public vs. private), and duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that comorbidities increase the risk for hospitalization with COVID-19 in children and young adults highlighting the need for tailored COVID-19 prevention and treatment strategies in T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Aust J Prim Health ; 28(4): 357-363, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic, autoimmune disease where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. T1D requires ongoing management across the lifespan through insulin regulation, monitoring of blood glucose levels, and adherence to strict diet and exercise plans. The most recent National Diabetes Services Scheme Australian Diabetes Map indicates that 129 210 Australians currently have T1D. Traditionally considered a childhood disease, more than half of all T1D diagnoses actually occur in adults aged >20 years. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of individuals living with adult-onset T1D in relation to their diagnosis experience, access to health care, and post-diagnostic wellbeing. METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Participants completed an online survey delivered via Qualtrics detailing their experiences with adult-onset T1D. The survey contained four domains: (1) demographic information; (2) diagnosis experience; (3) access to care; and (4) post-diagnostic wellbeing, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and the Diabetes Distress Scale (T1-DDS). Data analysis was conducted using STATA SE (v16). Descriptive statistics (means, counts) were used to describe continuous data, and frequencies and odds ratios were used to describe categorical data. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty adults (mean age 49 years; 78% female) with adult-onset T1D (mean age at diagnosis 37 years) completed the survey. The most common symptoms prior to diagnosis were excess thirst, fatigue, frequent urination, and unintended weight loss. Half (50%) the sample received their T1D diagnosis from a general practitioner (GP). Several participants reported being misdiagnosed by their GP initially, representing an unadjusted odds ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 1.5, 6.2). Nearly half of all participants presented with anxiety (mean 7 (s.d. 4)) on the HADS, and most reported moderate levels of diabetes-related distress according to the T1-DDS. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a starting point to understanding the experiences of adults living with adult-onset T1D and can be used to raise awareness of their challenges and needs. These exploratory findings can also be used to inform a larger, population-based study.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Humans , Insulin , Male , Middle Aged
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(10): e4197-e4202, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987098

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid adoption of telemedicine for the care of youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed the utility of a primarily virtual care model by comparing glucometrics from a pediatric sample with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) both before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years with T1D duration ≥ 1 year if ≥ 6 years old or ≥ 6 months if < 6 years old, with ≥ 1 visit with recorded CGM data both prepandemic (April 1, 2019-March 15, 2020) and during the pandemic (April 1, 2020-March 15, 2021) were included. Data were extracted from the electronic health record. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 555 young people (46% male, 87% White, 79% pump-treated), mean age 12.3 ±â€…3.4 years, T1D duration 5.9 ±â€…3.5 years, baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c 8.0 ±â€…1.0% (64 ±â€…10.9 mmol/mol). Diabetes visit frequency increased from 3.8 ±â€…1.7 visits/prepandemic period to 4.3 ±â€…2.2 visits/pandemic period (P < 0.001); during pandemic period, 92% of visits were virtual. Glucose management indicator (GMI) improved slightly from 7.9% (63 mmol/mol) prepandemic to 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) during the pandemic (P < 0.001). Those with equal or greater visit frequency (n = 437 [79% of sample]) had significant improvement in GMI (8.0% to 7.8% [64 to 62 mmol/mol], P < 0.001), whereas those with lower visit frequency did not (7.8 [62 mmol/mol], P = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with T1D using CGM before and during the pandemic showed an overall increase in visit frequency using primarily telemedicine-based care and improved CGM glucometrics. Further research is needed to understand factors associated with successful use of telemedicine for pediatric T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics
18.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 16(4): 852-857, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in and increased adoption of technology, glycemic outcomes for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have not improved. Access to care is limited for many, in part due to a shortage of endocrinologists and their concentration in urban areas. Managing T1D via telehealth has potential to improve glycemic outcomes, as the barriers of travel-related time and cost are mitigated. METHODS: Our endocrine telehealth program started in 2013 and currently provides care to nine rural community hospitals in Nebraska and Iowa. A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate glycemic outcomes in people with T1D who received care at these telehealth clinics from 2013-2019. Data were collected on age, race, gender, prior diabetes provider, use of diabetes technology, and A1c values over time. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine individuals were followed for an average duration of 32 months (range 4-69 months). Sixty-six percent of people were previously under the care of an endocrinologist. The most common therapeutic action, in addition to insulin adjustment, was addition of a CGM (52%). Each year in telemedicine care was associated with a decline of 0.13% in A1c (95% CI: -0.20, -0.06). There was no association between A1c and age or gender. When stratifying by previous diabetes provider, all groups had a statistically significant decline in A1c, even those with a previous endocrine provider. There was no statistically significant decline in A1c based on addition of technology. CONCLUSION: We have shown that traditional telehealth visits are an effective way to provide care for people with T1D long-term and may provide distinct advantages to home telehealth visits.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Portable breath ketone sensors may help people with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) avoid episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis; however, the design features preferred by users have not been studied. We aimed to elucidate breath sensor design preferences of young people with T1DM (age 12 to 16) and their parents to inform the development of a breath ketone sensor prototype that would best suit their diabetes management needs. RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS: To elicit foundational experiences from which design preference ideas could be generated, two commercially available breath ketone sensors, designed for ketogenic diet monitoring, were explored over one week by ten young people with T1DM. Participants interacted with the breath ketone sensing devices, and undertook blood ketone testing, at least twice daily for five days to simulate use within a real life and ambulatory care setting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted post-testing with the ten young participants and their caregivers (n = 10) to elicit preferences related to breath sensor design and use, and to inform the co-design of a breath ketone sensor prototype for use in T1DM self-management. We triangulated our data collection with key informant interviews with two diabetes educators working in pediatric care about their perspectives related to young people using breath ketone sensors. RESULTS: Participants acknowledged the non-invasiveness of breath sensors as compared to blood testing. Affordability, reliability and accuracy were identified as prerequisites for breath ketone sensors used for diabetes management. Design features valued by young people included portability, ease of use, sustainability, readability and suitability for use in public. The time required to use breath sensors was similar to that for blood testing. The requirement to maintain a 10-second breath exhalation posed a challenge for users. Diabetes educators highlighted the ease of use of breath devices especially for young people who tended to under-test using blood ketone strips. CONCLUSIONS: Breath ketone sensors for diabetes management have potential that may facilitate ketone testing in young people. Our study affirms features for young people that drive usability of breath sensors among this population, and provides a model of user preference assessment.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Exhalation , Humans , Ketones , Reproducibility of Results
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