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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 936106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109761

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggers inflammatory clinical stages that affect the outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Disease severity may be associated with a metabolic imbalance related to amino acids, lipids, and energy-generating pathways. The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of amino acids and acylcarnitines in COVID-19 patients. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 453 individuals were classified by disease severity. Levels of 11 amino acids, 31 acylcarnitines, and succinylacetone in serum samples were analyzed by electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Different clusters were observed in partial least squares discriminant analysis, with phenylalanine, alanine, citrulline, proline, and succinylacetone providing the major contribution to the variability in each cluster (variable importance in the projection >1.5). In logistic models adjusted by age, sex, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and nutritional status, phenylalanine was associated with critical outcomes (odds ratio=5.3 (95% CI 3.16-9.2) in the severe vs. critical model, with an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% CI 0.77-0.90). In conclusion the metabolic imbalance in COVID-19 patients might affect disease progression. This work shows an association of phenylalanine with critical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, highlighting phenylalanine as a potential metabolic biomarker of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Amino Acids , Phenylalanine
3.
J Telemed Telecare ; 28(10): 764-770, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108476

ABSTRACT

Long-term weight loss can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes for people living with obesity and reduce complications for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether a telehealth lifestyle-coaching program (Liva) leads to long-term (24 months) weight loss compared to usual care. In a randomized controlled trial, n = 340 participants living with obesity with or without type 2 diabetes were enrolled and randomized via an automated computer algorithm to an intervention group (n = 200) or to a control group (n = 140). The telehealth lifestyle-coaching program comprised of an initial one-hour face-to-face motivational interview followed by asynchronous telehealth coaching. The behavioural change techniques used were enabled by individual live monitoring. The primary outcome was a change in body weight from baseline to 24 months. Data were assessed for n = 136 participants (40%), n = 81 from the intervention group and n = 55 from the control group, who completed the 24-month follow-up. After 24 months mean body weight and body mass index were reduced significantly for completers in both groups, but almost twice as much was registered for those in the intervention group which was not significant between groups -4.4 (CI -6.1; -2.8) kg versus -2.5 (CI -3.9; -1.1) kg, P = 0.101. Haemoglobin A1c was significantly reduced in the intervention group -3.1 (CI -5.0; -1.2) mmol/mol, but not in the control group -0.2 (CI -2.4; -2.0) mmol/mol without a significant between group difference (P = 0.223). Low completion was partly due to coronavirus disease 2019. Telehealth lifestyle coaching improve long-term weight loss (> 24 months) for obese people with and without type 2 diabetes compared to usual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Mentoring , Telemedicine , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Weight Loss , Telemedicine/methods , Life Style , Obesity/therapy , Primary Health Care
4.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1788-1796, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether risk of severe outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs from that of patients without diabetes or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release records of patients discharged after COVID-19 hospitalization from U.S. hospitals from March to November 2020 (N = 269,674 after exclusion), we estimated risk differences (RD) and risk ratios (RR) of intensive care unit admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (ICU/MV) and of death among patients with T1DM compared with patients without diabetes or with T2DM. Logistic models were adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Models adjusted for additional demographic and clinical characteristics were used to examine whether other factors account for the associations between T1DM and severe COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with patients without diabetes, T1DM was associated with a 21% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.21, 95% CI 0.19-0.24; RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.43-1.56) and a 5% higher absolute risk of mortality (RD 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07; RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.57), with adjustment for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Compared with T2DM, T1DM was associated with a 9% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12; RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.22), but no difference in mortality (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.02; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.13). After adjustment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurring before or at COVID-19 diagnosis, patients with T1DM no longer had increased risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.03) and had lower mortality (RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01) in comparisons with patients with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T1DM hospitalized for COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe outcomes than those without diabetes. Higher risk of ICU/MV in patients with T1DM than in patients with T2DM was largely accounted for by the presence of DKA. These findings might further guide recommendations related to diabetes management and the prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e067161, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108287

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The National Health Service Insight Prioritisation Programme was established to accelerate the implementation and evaluation of innovation that supports post-pandemic working. Supporting this, the Academic Health Science Network and National Institute for Health and Care Research Applied Research Collaboration in South London are testing and evaluating the implementation and scale-up of a type 2 diabetes (T2D) intervention.T2D is estimated to be three times more prevalent in UK African and Caribbean communities than in white Europeans. To tackle ethnic inequities in T2D healthcare access, an evidence-based, culturally tailored self-management and education programme for African and Caribbean adults (Healthy Eating & Active Lifestyles for Diabetes, HEAL-D) has been codeveloped with people with lived experience. Initially a face-to-face programme, HEAL-D pivoted to virtual delivery in response to COVID-19.The purpose of this study is to explore the (1) feasibility and acceptability of a virtual delivery model for HEAL-D in south London and (2) factors affecting its scale-up across other areas in England. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will have two strands: (1) mixed-methods prospective evaluation of HEAL-D virtual delivery in south London using routinely collected service-level data, service delivery staff and service user interviews and observations; and (2) prospective qualitative study of the scale-up of this virtual delivery comprising interviews and focus groups with members of the public, and diabetes services commissioners and providers across England. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis. Quantitative analysis will use descriptive statistics and reporting summary tables and figures. The study will be grounded in well-established implementation frameworks and service user involvement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: 'Minimal Risk Registration' ethical clearance was granted by King's College London's Research Ethics Office (ref: MRA-21/22-28498). Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and summaries provided to the study funders and participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Adult , Humans , State Medicine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , London , England , Caribbean Region
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065148, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During COVID-19 pandemic, complete lockdown of cities was one of the measures implemented by governments worldwide. Lockdown had a significant impact on people's lifestyles and access and utilisation of health services. This study aimed to assess the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study, electronic medical records at a leading University Hospital in Northern Jordan were used to extract study data. PARTICIPANTS: All outpatients with T2DM. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose and lipid profile for patients with T2DM, 6 months before and 6 months after the full COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 639 patients (289 (45.2%) males and 350 (54.8%) females) were included in this study. Their age ranged from 18 to 91 years, with a mean (SD) of 59.9 (13.8) years. The overall means of HbA1c (8.41 vs 8.20, <0.001), high-density lipoprotein (1.16 vs 1.12, <0.001), low-density lipoprotein (2.81 vs 2.49, <0.001) and total cholesterol (4.45 vs 4.25, p<0.001) levels were significantly higher in the period before lockdown compared with the period after the lockdown. However, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were not affected significantly after the lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The glycaemic control and lipid profile had significantly improved after COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The availability of medication and medical advice delivery systems (monthly medicine deliveries) during the lockdown in Jordan might have positive impact on patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Jordan/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Lipids
7.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 522-527, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2102586

ABSTRACT

Comorbid conditions have a major impact on the health, quality of life, and survival of people with HIV, particularly as this population ages. The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured excellent science related to specific comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and frailty. The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease was an important theme, with strong evidence regarding the impact of microbial translocation. Other studies examined functional impairment, frailty, and potential important contributors, such as concomitant medications and sleep disturbances. The ANCHOR (Anal Cancer/High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Outcomes Research) study provided crucial evidence that treatment of high-risk anal lesions reduces the incidence of anal cancer, which has important implications in the prevention of this devastating comorbidity. In addition, numerous presentations demonstrated the importance of comorbid conditions in COVID-19 outcomes in people with HIV and described persistent symptoms after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection has resolved. This review focuses on the abstracts presented at CROI 2022 in these areas, highlighting those with the most clinical impact.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Frailty , HIV Infections , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Frailty/complications , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(10): 561-569, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101091

ABSTRACT

The study of the characteristics and dynamics of laboratory biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent COVID-19-associated pneumonia is of great clinical importance for preventing the risk of adverse events. IN the study we used data from 65 patients in the present work. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients with CVD: arterial hypertension (AH) in combination with coronary artery disease (CAD) without DM2 (n=45), group 2 included patients with CVD and DM2 (n=20). Patients were examined at baseline in the infectious disease hospital and 3 months after discharge. During laboratory examination of blood biosamples we evaluated parameters of general blood test; biochemical and immunologicai parameters; elastic properties of the vascular wall. The analyzed leukocyte parameters and their index coefficients - increase in NLR ratio (neutrophils/lymphocytes) and decrease in LYM/CRP ratio (lymphocytes/CRP) were more significantly changed in DM2 group. Patients in both groups had a significant excess of baseline max CRP concentrations with decrease in parameters after 3 months, but with persistent excess values in group 2. Three months after discharge patients with DM2 had levels of hs-CRP, IL-1ß and TNFa and NT-proBNP, that exceeded both the reference values and those in group 1, which reflected the presence of more pronounced vascular inflammatory potential for possible adverse events in this group of patients in post-COVID period. The method of multiple regression showed that DM2 is an independent risk factor for increased stiffness of the vascular wall. Thus, dynamic control of laboratory parameters has prognostic value in assessing the nature of the course of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in patients with CVD and DM2 developing an algorithm for personalized monitoring of patients in the post-COVID period with the aim of timely prevention of unwanted vascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Biomarkers
9.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(11): 789-796, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097242

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid expansion of telemedicine have increased the need for accurate and reliable capillary hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. Nevertheless, validation studies of commercially available products suitable for home use have been in short supply. Methods: Three commercial home-use capillary blood sample HbA1c tests (Home Access, CoreMedica, and A1cNow+) were evaluated in 219 participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (4-80 years years of age, HbA1c 5.1%-13.4% [32-123 mmol/mol]) at four clinical sites. Comparisons were made between HbA1c measurements from the commercial tests and paired venous samples for which HbA1c was measured at two central reference laboratories. The primary outcome was percentage of commercial HbA1c values within 5% of the corresponding reference values. Results: HbA1c values were within 5% (relative difference) of paired reference values for 82% of Home Access samples, 29% of CoreMedica samples, and 46% of A1cNow+ samples. Absolute differences were within 0.3% of the reference value for 75% of Home Access samples, 28% of CoreMedica samples, and 44% of A1cNow+ samples and exceeded 0.5% for 8%, 55%, and 37%, respectively. Conclusions: None of the commercial home-use HbA1c tests produced the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program goal of ≥90% measurements within 5% of a DCCT venous reference. However, the Home Access product performed substantially better than the CoreMedica or A1cNow+ products. Telemedicine is likely to persist as a mainstay of diabetes care well after the COVID-19 era. As such, accurate home-based HbA1c assessment represents an urgent need for the diabetes community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Pandemics , Reference Standards
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18149, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096802

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence is increased after COVID-19 infection in children under 18 years of age. Interferon-α-activated oligoadenylate synthetase and downstream RNAseL activation degrade pathogen RNA, but can also damage host RNA when RNAseL activity is poorly regulated. One such regulator is PDE12 which degrades 2'-5' oligoadenylate units, thereby decreasing RNAseL activity. We analyzed PDE12 expression in islets from non-diabetic donors, individuals with newly (median disease duration 35 days) and recently (5 years) diagnosed T1D, and individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We also analyzed PDE12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relative to T1D incidence. PDE12 expression was decreased in individuals with recently diagnosed T1D, in three of five individuals with newly diagnosed T1D, but not in individuals with T2D. Two rare PDE12 SNPs were found to have odds ratios of 1.80 and 1.74 for T1D development. We discuss whether decreased PDE12 expression after COVID-19 infection might be part of the up to 2.5-fold increase in T1D incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Interferon-alpha , RNA
11.
WMJ ; 121(3): 177-180, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092197

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies report a significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence, severity, and management of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of new onset pediatric diabetes prepandemic versus during the pandemic and to analyze the presentation based on age, severity, HbA1c, body mass index, and COVID testing. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric patients admitted with newly diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to the American Family Children's Hospital (Madison, Wisconsin) from 2018 through 2021. Data included age at diagnosis, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c percent and pH at presentation, presence of autoimmune pancreatic antibodies, and COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results at admission in pre-COVID (January 2018-February 2020) versus during COVID (March 2020-December 2021). Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software with the incidences analyzed using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: During the pandemic, the incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus increased significantly (69% and 225%, P < 0.001, respectively), and a higher number of patients had diabetic ketoacidosis. Type 1 diabetes patients with a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile increased from 11.1% to 16.9% (OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.29-1.29; P = 0.19). Almost all patients were COVID-19 PCR negative at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic increase in number and severity of newly diagnosed pediatric diabetes cases was seen during the pandemic. The increase was not explained by factors such as changes in referral patterns or insurance coverage. Further work is needed to understand the impact of societal factors and the direct diabetogenic effect of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04087, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090805

ABSTRACT

Background: The burden of diabetes-related deaths reached two million in 2019 globally. Accessibility to health care services and adherence to follow-up and therapy are key to improving outcomes for diabetic patients. We aimed to assess outpatient department (OPD) service utilization and diabetes-related hospitalizations over a period of 44 months. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on OPD visits and hospitalizations recorded between January 1, 2018, and August 31, 2021, at the St Luke Catholic Hospital (Ethiopia). All diabetic patients were included in the analysis. A linear regression model was used for univariate analysis of OPD visits and hospitalizations and their association with potential predictors. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method was applied to both the time series of OPD visits and hospitalizations. Potential predictors were sociodemographic factors, COVID-19 cases, mean monthly temperature and precipitations. Results: In the time series analysis, OPD visits increased over time (P < 0.01) while hospitalizations were stable. The time series model was ARIMA (0,1,1) for OPD visits and ARIMA (0,0,0) for hospitalizations. There were 1685 diabetes OPD patients (F = 732, 43%). Females had an average of 16% fewer OPD accesses per month (P < 0.01) and a lower number of hospitalizations per month (P = 0.03). There were 801 patients missing follow-up (48%). The time between follow-up increased with age (P < 0.01). OPD visits decreased differently by geographic area as COVID-19 cases increased (P < 0.01). There were 57 fewer forecast OPD visits per month on average using COVID-19 cases as ARIMA regressor. The odds ratio (OR) of new diagnosis at hospitalization was lower in patients with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.14-0.49, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Despite an increase in OPD visits for diabetic patients over the study period, the number of losses at follow-up and diagnoses at hospitalization remains high. Female sex, older age, and COVID-19 were associated with impaired OPD service accessibility. Primary health care should be implemented to achieve better health coverage and improve diabetes management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Female , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Outpatients , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Ambulatory Care , Hospitals
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089845

ABSTRACT

Acquiring protective immunity through vaccination is essential, especially for patients with type 2 diabetes who are vulnerable for adverse clinical outcomes during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with immune dysfunction. Here, we evaluated the impact of T2D on the immunological responses induced by mRNA (BNT162b2) and inactivated (CoronaVac) vaccines, the two most commonly used COVID-19 vaccines. The study consisted of two parts. In Part 1, the sera titres of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) alpha receptor binding domain (RBD), their neutralizing capacity, and antigen-specific CD4+T and CD8+T cell responses at 3-6 months after vaccination were compared between BNT162b2 (n=60) and CoronaVac (n=50) vaccinees with or without T2D. Part 2 was a time-course study investigating the initial B and T cell responses induced by BNT162b2 among vaccinees (n=16) with or without T2D. Our data showed that T2D impaired both cellular and humoral immune responses induced by CoronaVac. For BNT162b2, T2D patients displayed a reduction in CD4+T-helper 1 (Th1) differentiation following their first dose. However, this initial defect was rectified by the second dose of BNT162b2, resulting in comparable levels of memory CD4+ and CD8+T cells, anti-RBD IgG, and neutralizing antibodies with healthy individuals at 3-6 months after vaccination. Hence, T2D influences the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines depending on their platform. Our findings provide a potential mechanism for the susceptibility of developing adverse outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients with T2D and received either CoronaVac or just one dose of BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G
14.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089443

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing markedly in low- and middle-income countries where over three-quarters of global deaths occur due to non-communicable diseases. Unfortunately, these conditions are considered costly and often deprioritized in humanitarian settings with competing goals. Using a mixed methods approach, this study aimed to quantify the cost of outpatient treatment for uncomplicated type-1 (T1DM) and type-2 (T2DM) diabetes at a secondary care facility serving refugees in Kenya. A retrospective cost analysis combining micro- and gross-costings from a provider perspective was employed. The main outcomes included unit costs per health service activity to cover the total cost of labor, capital, medications and consumables, and overheads. A care pathway was mapped out for uncomplicated diabetes patients to identify direct and indirect medical costs. Interviews were conducted to determine inputs required for diabetes care and estimate staff time allocation. A total of 360 patients, predominantly Somali refugees, were treated for T2DM (92%, n = 331) and T1DM (8%, n = 29) in 2017. Of the 3,140 outpatient consultations identified in 2017; 48% (n = 1,522) were for males and 52% (n = 1,618) for females. A total of 56,144 tests were run in the setting, of which 9,512 (16.94%) were Random Blood Sugar (RBS) tests, and 90 (0.16%) HbA1c tests. Mean costs were estimated as: $2.58 per outpatient consultation, $1.37 per RBS test and $14.84 per HbA1c test. The annual pharmacotherapy regimens cost $91.93 for T1DM and $20.34 for T2DM. Investment in holistic and sustainable non-communicable disease management should be at the forefront of humanitarian response. It is expected to be beneficial with immediate implications on the COVID-19 response while also reducing the burden of care over time. Despite study limitations, essential services for the management of uncomplicated diabetes in a humanitarian setting can be modest and affordable. Therefore, integrating diabetes care into primary health care should be a fundamental pillar of long-term policy response by stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Refugees , Male , Female , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Retrospective Studies , Kenya/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Health Care Costs , Hospitals
15.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(6): H1176-H1193, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088958

ABSTRACT

Patients with diabetes infected with COVID-19 have greater mortality than those without comorbidities, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study aims to identify the mechanistic interactions between diabetes and severe COVID-19. Microparticles (MPs), the cell membrane-derived vesicles released on cell activation, are largely increased in patients with diabetes. To date, many mechanisms have been postulated for increased severity of COVID-19 in patients with underlying conditions, but the contributions of excessive MPs in patients with diabetes have been overlooked. This study characterizes plasma MPs from normal human subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes in terms of amount, cell origins, surface adhesive properties, ACE2 expression, spike protein binding capacity, and their roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that over 90% of plasma MPs express ACE2 that binds the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. MPs in patients with diabetes increase 13-fold in quantity and 11-fold in adhesiveness when compared with normal subjects. Perfusion of human plasma with pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 virus or spike protein-bound MPs into human endothelial cell-formed microvessels-on-a chip demonstrated that MPs from patients with diabetes, not normal subjects, interact with endothelium and carry SARS-CoV-2 into cells through endocytosis, providing additional virus entry pathways and enhanced infection. Results also showed a large percentage of platelet-derived tissue factor-bearing MPs in diabetic plasma, which could contribute to thrombotic complications with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study reveals a dual role of diabetic MPs in promoting SARS-CoV-2 entry and propagating vascular inflammation. These findings provide novel mechanistic insight into the high prevalence of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes and their propensity to develop severe vascular complications.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first evidence that over 90% of human plasma microparticles express ACE2 that binds SARS-CoV-2 S protein with high affinity. Thus, the highly elevated adhesive circulating microparticles identified in patients with diabetes not only have greater SARS-CoV-2 binding capacity but also enable additional viral entry through virus-bound microparticle-endothelium interactions and enhanced infection. These findings reveal a novel mechanistic insight into the adverse outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e064186, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088814

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The transition from paediatric to adult diabetes care in youth-onset diabetes (type 1 diabetes mellitus, Y-T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus, Y-T2DM) is associated with worsening glycaemic control, missed clinical visits, decreased medication adherence and the emergence of cardiometabolic complications. The socio-ecological challenges that influence transitioning to adult diabetes care may be distinct between Y-T1DM and Y-T2DM. The goal of this scoping review is to map the state of the literature on transitioning care in Y-T2DM compared with Y-T1DM and to identify the main sources and types of evidence available. The objectives are : (1) to identify the factors within the socio-ecological framework (individual, relationship, community, societal) associated with transitioning to adult care in Y-T2DM compared with Y- T1DM, and (2) to identify knowledge gaps related to transitioning to adult care. METHODS: The scoping review protocol and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for scoping reviews guidelines. A systematic search of scientific databases (PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Scopus and APA PsycNet will be undertaken for articles between 1 January 1990 and 30 September 2022. Study designs will include peer-reviewed experimental and quasi-experimental published studies without language or country-specific restrictions. We will exclude articles on other diabetes subtypes and will exclude non-peer reviewed articles such as opinion papers, anecdotal reports or supplementary commentaries. ANALYSIS: References will be collated, sorted and extracted using Covidence. Factors associated with transition from paediatric to adult diabetes care in Y-T1DM and Y-T2DM will be identified using the socio-ecological framework and results will be presented in narrative format, tables, and summary graphs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be applicable for this review. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/k2pwc.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Transitional Care , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236123, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084938

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing pneumonia as well as an increased risk of severe COVID-19-associated adverse events and mortality. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists via blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor may alter the risk of pneumonia and COVID-19-associated adverse events in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes. Objective: To evaluate whether the selective, nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone is associated with protection against pneumonia and COVID-19 adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis used patient-level data from FIDELITY, a prespecified pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven, phase 3 randomized clinical trials: FIDELIO-DKD and FIGARO-DKD, conducted between September 2015 and February 2021. Patients in FIDELIO-DKD or FIGARO-DKD with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (urine albumin to creatine ratio, 30-5000 mg/g, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥25 mL/min/1.73 m2) were assessed. Data were analyzed from May 15, 2021, to July 28, 2022. Exposure: Patients were randomized to finerenone (10 or 20 mg once daily) or matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were investigator-reported incidences of treatment-emergent infective pneumonia adverse events and serious adverse events (during and up to 3 days after treatment) and any COVID-19 adverse events. Results: Of 13 026 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 64.8 [9.5] years; 9088 [69.8%] men), 12 999 were included in the FIDELITY safety population (6510 patients receiving finerenone; 6489 patients receiving placebo). Over a median (range) treatment duration of 2.6 (0-5.1) years, finerenone was consistently associated with reduced risk of pneumonia and serious pneumonia vs placebo. Overall, 307 patients (4.7%) treated with finerenone and 434 patients (6.7%) treated with placebo experienced pneumonia (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64-0.79; P < .001). Serious pneumonia occurred in 171 patients (2.6%) treated with finerenone and 250 patients (3.9%) treated with placebo (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.79; P < .001). Incidence proportions of COVID-19 adverse events were 86 patients (1.3%) in the finerenone group and 118 patients (1.8%) in the placebo group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with finerenone was associated with protection against pneumonia and COVID-19 adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Further clinical studies may be warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: FIDELIO-DKD: NCT02540993; FIGARO-DKD: NCT02545049.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Albumins/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Creatine/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/chemically induced
18.
WMJ ; 121(3): 177-180, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083392

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies report a significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence, severity, and management of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of new onset pediatric diabetes prepandemic versus during the pandemic and to analyze the presentation based on age, severity, HbA1c, body mass index, and COVID testing. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric patients admitted with newly diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to the American Family Children's Hospital (Madison, Wisconsin) from 2018 through 2021. Data included age at diagnosis, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c percent and pH at presentation, presence of autoimmune pancreatic antibodies, and COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results at admission in pre-COVID (January 2018-February 2020) versus during COVID (March 2020-December 2021). Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software with the incidences analyzed using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: During the pandemic, the incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus increased significantly (69% and 225%, P < 0.001, respectively), and a higher number of patients had diabetic ketoacidosis. Type 1 diabetes patients with a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile increased from 11.1% to 16.9% (OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.29-1.29; P = 0.19). Almost all patients were COVID-19 PCR negative at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic increase in number and severity of newly diagnosed pediatric diabetes cases was seen during the pandemic. The increase was not explained by factors such as changes in referral patterns or insurance coverage. Further work is needed to understand the impact of societal factors and the direct diabetogenic effect of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e31102, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To study the changes and effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) and ACE/AngII in people with different glucose metabolisms and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 88 patients with type 2 diabetes, 72 patients with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose, 30 patients; impaired glucose regulation, 42 patients), and 50 controls were selected. Changes and correlations of ACE2, Ang1-7 and other indicators were detected among the three groups. Patients were divided into four groups according to the course of diabetes: <1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and >10 years. ACE2 and Ang1-7 levels were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: ACE2 and Ang1-7 increased with the severity of diabetes (P0 < .05 or P < .01). The levels of ACE2 and Ang1-7 in the longer course group were lower than those in the shorter course group, whereas the levels of ACE, Ang II, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gradually increased (P < .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that ACE2 was positively correlated with IL-6, FBG, and 2hPBG levels in the prediabetes group. In the diabetic group, ACE2 was positively correlated with Ang1-7 and negatively correlated with ACE, AngII, IL-6, and C-reactive protein levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that IL-6 and ACE were the main factors influencing ACE2 in the diabetic group. CONCLUSION SUBSECTIONS: ACE2/Ang1-7 and ACE/AngII systems are activated, and inflammatory cytokine release increases in prediabetes. With the prolongation of the disease course, the effect of ACE2/Ang1-7 decreased gradually, while the effect of ACE/AngII increased significantly. Dysfunctions of ACE2/Ang1-7 may be one of the important mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Humans , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein , Glucose , Interleukin-6 , Peptide Fragments/metabolism
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071511

ABSTRACT

Caloric restriction promotes longevity in multiple animal models. Compounds modulating nutrient-sensing pathways have been suggested to reproduce part of the beneficial effect of caloric restriction on aging. However, none of the commonly studied caloric restriction mimetics actually produce a decrease in calories. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a class of drugs which lower glucose by promoting its elimination through urine, thus inducing a net loss of calories. This effect promotes a metabolic shift at the systemic level, fostering ketones and fatty acids utilization as glucose-alternative substrates, and is accompanied by a modulation of major nutrient-sensing pathways held to drive aging, e.g., mTOR and the inflammasome, overall resembling major features of caloric restriction. In addition, preliminary experimental data suggest that SGLT-2i might also have intrinsic activities independent of their systemic effects, such as the inhibition of cellular senescence. Consistently, evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies have also suggested a marked ability of SGLT-2i to ameliorate low-grade inflammation in humans, a relevant driver of aging commonly referred to as inflammaging. Considering also the amount of data from clinical trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses suggesting a tangible effect on age-related outcomes, such as cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, kidney disease, and all-cause mortality also in patients without diabetes, here we propose a framework where at least part of the benefit provided by SGLT-2i is mediated by their ability to blunt the drivers of aging. To support this postulate, we synthesize available data relative to the effect of this class on: 1- animal models of healthspan and lifespan; 2- selected molecular pillars of aging in preclinical models; 3- biomarkers of aging and especially inflammaging in humans; and 4- COVID-19-related outcomes. The burden of evidence might prompt the design of studies testing the potential employment of this class as anti-aging drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Animals , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes , Drug Repositioning , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Aging , Glucose/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Sodium , Ketones/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids/therapeutic use
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