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1.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3963147.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a public health crisis that requires adequate knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) by health care providers to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. This study aimed to assess the KAP regarding T2DM among primary care providers (PCPs) in Central China.Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted among 971 PCPs using self-administered KAP questionnaires. Questionnaires were designed to evaluate KAP regarding T2DM among PCPs, and was measured with SPSS software.Results: A total of 971 PCPs with a mean age of 44.0 ± 10.2 years were evaluated. 620 (63.9%) PCPs worked at village clinic and 605 (62.3%) PCPs have been working more than 20 years. Only 26.3% of the respondents participated in CME programs regarding diabetes in the past year due to Covid-19 pandemic. Overall, despite positive attitudes toward diabetes, there were substantial gaps in knowledge and practices. The PCPs scored 7.25 out of 14 points on the knowledge subscales, 7.13 out of 8 on the attitude subscales, and 4.85 out of 11 on the practice subscales. Gender, age, practice setting, professional titles, duration of practice and CME attendance were significant predictors of knowledge; Age, practice setting and duration of practice were significant predictors of attitudes; and family history of diabetes affected PCP practices.Conclusions: Despite positive attitudes toward diabetes, there were substantial gaps in knowledge and practices. These findings call for action from relevant health authorities and policy makers to improve PCPs' KAP regarding diabetes in Central China.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19
2.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3965048.v1

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 vaccination has been shown to prevent and reduce the severity of COVID-19 disease. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the cardioprotective effect of COVID-19 vaccination in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, we included hospitalized COVID-19 patients with confirmed vaccination status from July 2021 to February 2022. We assessed outcomes such as acute cardiac events and cardiac biomarker levels through clinical and laboratory data. Results Our analysis covered 167 patients (69% male, mean age 58 years, 42% being fully vaccinated). After adjustment for confounders, vaccinated hospitalized COVID-19 patients displayed a reduced relative risk for acute cardiac events (RR: 0.33, 95% CI [0.07; 0.75]) and showed diminished troponin T levels (Cohen’s d: -0.52, 95% CI [-1.01; -0.14]), compared to their non-vaccinated peers. Type 2 diabetes (OR: 2.99, 95% CI [1.22; 7.35]) and existing cardiac diseases (OR: 4.31, 95% CI [1.83; 10.74]) were identified as significant risk factors for the emergence of acute cardiac events. Conclusion Our findings suggest that COVID-19 vaccination may confer both direct and indirect cardioprotective effects in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Diseases , COVID-19
3.
preprints.org; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202402.0870.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: While the clinical factors of the post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) are becoming clearer, the economic implications remain uncertain, posing a challenge to healthcare professionals in terms of understanding and managing this emerging phenomenon. This article aims to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of PCC patients and quantify the economic impact of their healthcare resource utilisation. Methods: A retrospective and case-control observational study was conducted, comparing the case group of PCC population before and after diagnosis with a control group. Demographic and clinical variables were analysed with the objective of describing the population. Economic analysis was performed to evaluate the resource costs in procedures and primary, secondary (both outpatient and inpatient) and emergency care. Findings: PCC patients (N=341) exhibited older age and elevated cardiovascular risk factors compared to controls (N=49,078). There were differences in the socio-economic distribution between male and female patients in the PCC patients. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 were the most common chronic diseases observed among the case patients. Economic analysis revealed that PCC patients were approximately four times as costly as control patients, with increased utilisation of healthcare resources. However, post-diagnosis PCC patients showed a reduction in costs, primarily driven by decreased primary care visits and hospitalisations. Conclusion: Coordinated care management for PCC patients is associated with reduced costs and improved healthcare resource utilisation. Further research is warranted to investigate long-term health outcomes and establish causal relationships between COVID-19 sequelae and healthcare resource utilisation.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 , Hypertension
4.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3859033.v1

ABSTRACT

After fully lifting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic control measures in mainland China in 12/2022, the incidence of COVID-19 has increased markedly, making it difficult to meet the general time-in-range (TIR) requirement. We investigated a more clinically practical TIR threshold and examined its association with the prognosis of COVID-19 patients with type-2 diabetes. Sixty-three type-2 diabetes patients complicated with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patient information included epidemiological and laboratory characteristics, treatment options and outcomes. The percentages of time-above-range (TAR), time-below-range (TBR) and TIR were calculated from intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring. The composite end point included a >20-day length of stay, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation use, or death. TIR with thresholds of 80 to 190 mg/dL was significantly associated with favorable outcomes. An increase of 1% in TIR is connected with a reduction of 3.70% in the risk of adverse outcomes. The Youden index was highest when the TIR was 54.73%, and the sensitivity and specificity were 58.30% and 77.80%, respectively. After accounting for confounding variables, our analysis revealed that threshold target ranges (TARs) ranging from 200 mg/dL to 230 mg/dL significantly augmented the likelihood of adverse outcomes.The TIR threshold of 80 to 190 mg/dL has a comparatively high predictive value of the prognosis of COVID-19. TIR >54.73% was associated with a decreased risk of adverse outcomes. These findings provide clinically critical insights into possible avenues to improve outcomes for COVID-19 patients with type-2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19 , Death
5.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.27.23299358

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vulnerability and mortality. COVID-19 vaccines significantly reduce the risks of serious COVID-19 outcomes, but the impact of COVID-19 vaccines including their effectiveness and adverse effects in patients with diabetes are not well known yet. Here, we showed that 61.1% patients with type 2 diabetes, but not healthy controls, exhibited aggravated insulin resistance towards the booster shots of the COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, we showed that COVID-19 vaccination once a week also impaired insulin sensitivity in healthy mice after four weeks. We further showed that metformin, a common anti-diabetic medication, improved the impaired insulin signaling induced by COVID-19 vaccination in mice. This study suggests clinical implications for the close monitoring of glycemic control in diabetic patients after receiving COVID-19 vaccines and indicates the beneficial action of metformin in counteracting insulin signaling variations induced by COVID-19 vaccination in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Insulin Resistance , COVID-19
6.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.20.23300289

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveNew York City was an early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to describe population level epidemiological trends in diabetes related emergency department (ED) visits among adults in New York City, for the period prior to and encompassing the first four waves of the pandemic. Research Design and MethodsWe used data from the New York City ED syndromic surveillance system during December 30, 2018 through May 21, 2022. This system captures all visits from EDs in the city in near-real time. We matched these visits to laboratory confirmed COVID-19 positivity data beginning with February 15, 2020. ResultsCompared to pre-pandemic baseline levels, diabetes related ED visits noticeably increased during the first wave in spring 2020, though this did not necessarily translate to net increases overall during that period. Visits for diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly among adults with type 2 diabetes, sharply increased before returning to pre-pandemic levels, most notably during wave 1 and wave 4 in winter 2021-2022. Trajectories of diabetes-related ED visits differed by diabetes type, age, and sex. Some ED visit trends did not return to pre-pandemic baseline levels. ConclusionsThe COVID-19 pandemic, especially the first wave in the spring of 2020, coincided with a dramatic shift in diabetes related ED utilization in New York City. Our findings highlight the importance of on-going surveillance of health care utilization for chronic diseases during population-level emergencies like pandemics. A robust syndromic surveillance system that includes infectious and non-infectious syndromes is useful to better prepare, mitigate, and respond to population-level events. Article HighlightsO_LIDiabetes related emergency department (ED) visits in New York City increased dramatically with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. C_LIO_LIThe trajectory of diabetes-related ED visits differed by diabetes type, age, sex, and pandemic wave. C_LIO_LIThe diabetes complication of diabetic ketoacidosis among adults with type 2 diabetes showed sharp increases in the first and fourth waves of the pandemic, respectively its initial emergence in spring 2020 and the Omicron variant in winter 2021-2022. C_LIO_LIOur findings highlight the importance of on-going surveillance of health care utilization for chronic diseases during population-level emergencies like pandemics. C_LI SummaryData from NYCs syndromic surveillance system showed major increases in #type2diabetes complications (e.g. diabetic ketoacidosis) during #COVID-19 waves 1 and 4 (Omicron) - this tool may be useful for population-level monitoring of chronic disease complications during emergencies


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Chronic Disease , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary , COVID-19 , Emergencies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis
7.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.17.23300072

ABSTRACT

AimsTo describe patterns of weight change amongst adults living in England with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and/or hypertension during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design and SettingWith the approval of NHS England, we conducted an observational cohort study using the routinely collected health data of approximately 40% of adults living in England, accessed through the OpenSAFELY service inside TPP. MethodWe estimated individual rates of weight gain during the pandemic ({delta}). We then estimated associations between clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and rapid weight gain (>0.5kg/m2/year) using multivariable logistic regression. ResultsWe extracted data on adults with T2D (n=1,231,455, 44% female, 76% white British) or hypertension (n=3,558,405, 50% female, 84% white British). Adults with T2D lost weight overall (median {delta} = -0.1kg/m2/year [IQR: -0.7, 0.4]), however, rapid weight gain was common (20.7%) and associated with sex (male vs female: aOR 0.78[95%CI 0.77, 0.79]); age, older age reduced odds (e.g. 60-69-year-olds vs 18-29-year-olds: aOR 0.66[0.61, 0.71]); deprivation, (least-deprived-IMD vs most-deprived-IMD: aOR 0.87[0.85, 0.89]); white ethnicity (Black vs White: aOR 0.70[0.69, 0.71]); mental health conditions (e.g. depression: aOR 1.13 [1.12, 1.15]); and diabetes treatment (non-insulin treatment vs no pharmacological treatment: aOR 0.68[0.67, 0.69]). Adults with hypertension maintained stable weight overall (median {delta} = 0.0kg/m2/year [-0.6, 0.5]), however, rapid weight gain was common (24.7%) and associated with similar characteristics as in T2D. ConclusionAmongst adults living in England with T2D and/or hypertension, rapid pandemic weight gain was more common amongst females, younger adults, those living in more deprived areas, and those with mental health conditions. How this fits inPrevious studies, in the general population, have reported female sex, deprivation and comorbid mental health conditions increased risk of unhealthy weight gain during the pandemic, but it is not clear whether people living with hypertensions and/or type 2 diabetes experienced the same trends. We found that, during the pandemic, adults with hypertension maintained a stable weight whilst those with type 2 diabetes lost weight overall. However, underlying these overall trends, rapid weight gain was common amongst people with type 2 diabetes (20.7%) or hypertension (24.7%)), with female sex, younger age, deprivation, and comorbid mental health conditions associated with an increased odds of rapid weight gain in both populations. We have identified clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of individuals with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes who could benefit from primary care interventions on weight and health behaviours to combat health inequalities in patterns of weight gain that were exacerbated by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Weight Gain , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Hypertension
8.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.21.23294361

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Adiposity, especially visceral adiposity with elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with a hyperinflammatory syndrome and poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. In other diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic inflammation is driven directly by visceral adipose macrophages which release pro-inflammatory cytokines. Currently it is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue macrophage content may similarly explain the observation that COVID-19 patients with elevated BMI are at risk for a hyperinflammatory syndrome and death. Methods: This was a retrospective study of hospitalized adults who died of COVID-19 between March 2020 and June 2020 and underwent autopsy. Visceral adipose tissue macrophage content was quantified by histological staining of visceral adipose tissue samples with CD68, using pericolic fat gathered at autopsy from each subject. Clinical data including inflammatory markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive Protein (CRP), Troponin, D-dimer, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and ferritin as well as BMI were collected from electronic medical records. Results: A total of 39 subjects were included in this study. There was no association between BMI and visceral adipose tissue macrophage content (Spearman R=0.025, p=0.88). Additionally, there was no association between adipose tissue macrophage content and any of the systemic markers of inflammation measured including ESR, CRP, Troponin, D-dimer, IL-6, and Ferritin (p>0.05 for all markers). Conclusion: Unlike chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis, elevated BMI is not associated with increased visceral adipose tissue macrophage content in patients who died of COVID-19. Additionally, among patients who died of COVID-19, visceral adipose tissue macrophage content is not associated with markers of systemic inflammation. These results suggest that the elevations in systemic markers of inflammation-and the hyperinflammatory syndrome often observed during acute COVID-19-does not directly originate from visceral adipose macrophages as it seems to in chronic disease states.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Chronic Disease , Inflammation , Death , Obesity , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid
9.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.12.23294016

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate whether polypharmacy and comorbidities conveyed more risk of adverse health outcomes following COVID-19 infection in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Materials and methods: The Greater Manchester Care Record (GMCR) is an integrated database of electronic health records containing data collected from 433 general practices in Greater Manchester. Baseline demographic information (age, BMI, gender, ethnicity, smoking status, deprivation index), hospital admission or death within 28 days of infection were extracted for adults (18+) diagnosed with either T1DM or T2DM. Results: For T2DM, 16 to 20 medications (p=0.01; OR [95% CI]=2.37 [1.31 to 4.32]) and > 20 medications (p=0; OR [95% CI]=3.14 [1.75 to 5.62]) were associated with increased risk of death following COVID-19 infection. Increased risk of hospital admissions in T2DM individuals was determined for 11 to 15 medications (p=0.01; OR [95% CI]=1.34 [1.06 to 1.69]) and above. This was independent of comorbidities, metabolic and demographic factors. For T1DM there was no association of polypharmacy with hospital admission. Respiratory, cardiovascular/cerebrovascular and gastrointestinal conditions were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions and deaths in T2DM (p>0.001). Conclusion: We have shown in T2DM an independent association of number of medications taken from 11 upwards with adverse health consequences following COVID-19 infection. We also found that individuals with diabetes develop comorbidities that were common across both T1DM and T2DM. This study has laid the foundation for future investigations into the way that complex pharmacological interactions may influence clinical outcomes in people with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19 , Death
10.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.06.23293722

ABSTRACT

Background There is a lack of nationally representative prospective data on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes care and management in adults with type 2 diabetes. We examined changes in diabetes care and management practices before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Using the National Health Interview Survey, we analyzed data from 870 adults living with type 2 diabetes who were interviewed in 2019 and re-interviewed between August and December 2020. Exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic was defined by year of survey (2019, pre-pandemic; 2020, pandemic). We estimated percent change in past year blood sugar check by a health professional and current use of blood sugar lowering medication overall and by sociodemographic subgroups. Results Receiving an annual blood sugar test fell by -3.3 percentage points (pp) (95% CI -5.7, -1.0), from 98.3% in 2019 to 95.0% in late 2020. The reduction in annual blood glucose testing was largely consistent across socio-demographic groups and was particularly pronounced among adults not working and adults aged 65 years and older. In the same time period, current use of diabetes medications increased by +3.8 pp (0.7, 6.9), from 85.9% to 89.7%. The increase in medication use was most pronounced among individuals aged 40-64-year old, employed, and those living in large central metropolitan areas. Conclusions Nationally, adults with Type 2 diabetes reported a reduction in annual blood glucose testing by a health professional and an increase in diabetes medication usage during the COVID-19 pandemic. If sustained after the end of the COVID-19 public health emergency, these changes have implications for national diabetes management and care.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19
11.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.07.23293778

ABSTRACT

Background Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence is increased after diagnosis of COVID-19. The impact of vaccination on this increase, for how long it persists, and the effect of COVID-19 on other types of diabetes remain unclear. Methods With NHS England approval, we studied diabetes incidence following COVID-19 diagnosis in pre-vaccination (N=15,211,471, January 2020-December 2021), vaccinated (N =11,822,640), and unvaccinated (N=2,851,183) cohorts (June-December 2021), using linked electronic health records. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) comparing diabetes incidence post-COVID-19 diagnosis with incidence before or without diagnosis up to 102 weeks post-diagnosis. Results were stratified by COVID-19 severity (hospitalised/non-hospitalised) and diabetes type. Findings In the pre-vaccination cohort, aHRS for T2DM incidence after COVID-19 (compared to before or without diagnosis) declined from 3.01 (95% CI: 2.76,3.28) in weeks 1-4 to 1.24 (1.12,1.38) in weeks 53-102. aHRS were higher in unvaccinated than vaccinated people (4.86 (3.69,6.41)) versus 1.42 (1.24,1.62) in weeks 1-4) and for hospitalised COVID-19 (pre-vaccination cohort 21.1 (18.8,23.7) in weeks 1-4 declining to 2.04 (1.65,2.51) in weeks 52-102), than non-hospitalised COVID-19 (1.45 (1.27,1.64) in weeks 1-4, 1.10 (0.98,1.23) in weeks 52-102). T2DM persisted for 4 months after COVID-19 for ~73% of those diagnosed. Patterns were similar for Type 1 diabetes, though excess incidence did not persist beyond a year post-COVID-19. Interpretation Elevated T2DM incidence after COVID-19 is greater, and persists longer, in hospitalised than non-hospitalised people. It is markedly less apparent post-vaccination. Testing for T2DM after severe COVID-19 and promotion of vaccination are important tools in addressing this public health problem.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19
13.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 134-140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234510

ABSTRACT

Metformin is a widely used biguanide drug recommended as a first-line antidiabetic for type 2 diabetes. Currently, metformin is used not only in the treatment of diabetes but also in other diseases. Some studies have shown that metformin causes weight loss in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant overweight and obese patients. Metformin is an effective and safe option for women with gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy, and it may also increase the ovulation rate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Longer survival times have been observed in cancer patients using metformin. Metformin has been shown to significantly correlate with lower mortality in obese or type 2 diabetic women hospitalized for COVID-19. It also has a protective effect on the development and progression of many types of cancer. The mechanisms of action of metformin are complex and still not fully understood. Metformin has been shown to act through both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanisms and AMPK-independent mechanisms. This paper presents the benefits of using metformin in the treatment of various diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 56(3): 221-230, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Indonesia, during which the Delta variant predominated, took place after a vaccination program had been initiated in the country. This study was conducted to assess the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes including hospitalization, severe COVID-19, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death using a real-world model. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study involved patients with COVID-19 aged ≥18 years who presented to the COVID-19 emergency room at a secondary referral teaching hospital between June 1, 2021 and August 31, 2021. We used a binary logistic regression model to assess the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes, with age, sex, and comorbidities as confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 716 patients were included, 32.1% of whom were vaccinated. The elderly participants (≥65 years) had the lowest vaccine coverage among age groups. Vaccination had an effectiveness of 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 66) for preventing hospitalization, 97% (95% CI, 77 to 99) for preventing severe COVID-19, 95% (95% CI, 56 to 99) for preventing ICU admission, and 90% (95% CI, 22 to 99) for preventing death. Interestingly, patients with type 2 diabetes had a 2-fold to 4-fold elevated risk of unfavorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults, COVID-19 vaccination has a moderate preventive impact on hospitalization but a high preventive impact on severe COVID-19, ICU admission, and death. The authors suggest that relevant parties increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage, especially in the elderly population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Humans , Aged , Adolescent , Indonesia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Hospitalization
15.
Public Health Res (Southampt) ; 11(2): 1-185, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239883

ABSTRACT

Background: Link worker social prescribing enables health-care professionals to address patients' non-medical needs by linking patients into various services. Evidence for its effectiveness and how it is experienced by link workers and clients is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate the impact and costs of a link worker social prescribing intervention on health and health-care costs and utilisation and to observe link worker delivery and patient engagement. Data sources: Quality Outcomes Framework and Secondary Services Use data. Design: Multimethods comprising (1) quasi-experimental evaluation of effects of social prescribing on health and health-care use, (2) cost-effectiveness analysis, (3) ethnographic methods to explore intervention delivery and receipt, and (4) a supplementary interview study examining intervention impact during the first UK COVID-19 lockdown (April-July 2020). Study population and setting: Community-dwelling adults aged 40-74 years with type 2 diabetes and link workers in a socioeconomically deprived locality of North East England, UK. Intervention: Link worker social prescribing to improve health and well-being-related outcomes among people with long-term conditions. Participants: (1) Health outcomes study, approximately n = 8400 patients; EuroQol-5 Dimensions, five-level version (EQ-5D-5L), study, n = 694 (baseline) and n = 474 (follow-up); (2) ethnography, n = 20 link workers and n = 19 clients; and COVID-19 interviews, n = 14 staff and n = 44 clients. Main outcome measures: The main outcome measures were glycated haemoglobin level (HbA1c; primary outcome), body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking status, health-care costs and utilisation, and EQ-5D-5L score. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis of approximately 8400 patients in 13 intervention and 11 control general practices demonstrated a statistically significant, although not clinically significant, difference in HbA1c level (-1.11 mmol/mol) and a non-statistically significant 1.5-percentage-point reduction in the probability of having high blood pressure, but no statistically significant effects on other outcomes. Health-care cost estimates ranged from £18.22 (individuals with one extra comorbidity) to -£50.35 (individuals with no extra comorbidity). A statistically non-significant shift from unplanned (non-elective and accident and emergency admissions) to planned care (elective and outpatient care) was observed. Subgroup analysis showed more benefit for individuals living in more deprived areas, for the ethnically white and those with fewer comorbidities. The mean cost of the intervention itself was £1345 per participant; the incremental mean health gain was 0.004 quality-adjusted life-years (95% confidence interval -0.022 to 0.029 quality-adjusted life-years); and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £327,250 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Ethnographic data showed that successfully embedded, holistic social prescribing providing supported linking to navigate social determinants of health was challenging to deliver, but could offer opportunities for improving health and well-being. However, the intervention was heterogeneous and was shaped in unanticipated ways by the delivery context. Pressures to generate referrals and meet targets detracted from face-to-face contact and capacity to address setbacks among those with complex health and social problems. Limitations: The limitations of the study include (1) a reduced sample size because of non-participation of seven general practices; (2) incompleteness and unreliability of some of the Quality and Outcomes Framework data; (3) unavailability of accurate data on intervention intensity and patient comorbidity; (4) reliance on an exploratory analysis with significant sensitivity analysis; and (5) limited perspectives from voluntary, community and social enterprise. Conclusions: This social prescribing model resulted in a small improvement in glycaemic control. Outcome effects varied across different groups and the experience of social prescribing differed depending on client circumstances. Future work: To examine how the NHS Primary Care Network social prescribing is being operationalised; its impact on health outcomes, service use and costs; and its tailoring to different contexts. Trial registration: This trial is registered as ISRCTN13880272. Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme, Community Groups and Health Promotion (grant no. 16/122/33) and will be published in full in Public Health Research; Vol. 11, No. 2. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Social prescribing happens when health-care staff refer patients to a link worker. Link workers support and help patients to access community services to improve their health and well-being. Social prescribing is popular within the NHS, but there is little evidence that it works. We looked at a social prescribing model being delivered in a disadvantaged area in north-east England.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Health Personnel
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236310

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic and prognostic markers are necessary to help in patient diagnosis and the prediction of future clinical events or disease progression. As promising biomarkers of selected diseases, the free light chains (FLCs) κ and λ were considered. Measurements of FLCs are currently used in routine diagnostics of, for example, multiple myeloma, and the usefulness of FLCs as biomarkers of monoclonal gammopathies is well understood. Therefore, this review focuses on the studies concerning FLCs as new potential biomarkers of other disorders in which an inflammatory background has been observed. We performed a bibliometric review of studies indexed in MEDLINE to assess the clinical significance of FLCs. Altered levels of FLCs were observed both in diseases strongly connected with inflammation such as viral infections, tick-borne diseases or rheumatic disorders, and disorders that are moderately associated with immune system reactions, e.g., multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and cancers. Increased concentrations of FLCs appear to be a useful prognostic marker in patients with multiple sclerosis or tick-borne encephalitis. Intensive synthesis of FLCs may also reflect the production of specific antibodies against pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, abnormal FLC concentrations might predict the development of diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Markedly elevated levels are also associated with increased risk of hospitalization and death in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Additionally, FLCs have been found to be increased in rheumatic diseases and have been related to disease activity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of FLCs would reduce the progression of tumorigenesis in breast cancer or colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. In conclusion, abnormal levels of κ and λ FLCs, as well as the ratio of κ:λ, are usually the result of disturbances in the synthesis of immunoglobulins as an effect of overactive inflammatory reactions. Therefore, it seems that κ and λ FLCs may be significant diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of selected diseases. Moreover, the inhibition of FLCs appears to be a promising therapeutical target for the treatment of various disorders where inflammation plays an important role in the development or progression of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains , Biomarkers , Inflammation
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 203, 2023 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Corona virus causes respiratory tract infections in mammals. The latest type of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona-viruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Corona virus spread in humans in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and their biochemical and hematological factors with the level of infection with COVID-19 to improve the treatment and management of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study was conducted on a population of 13,170 including 5780 subjects with SARS-COV-2 and 7390 subjects without SARS-COV-2, in the age range of 35-65 years. Also, the associations between biochemical factors, hematological factors, physical activity level (PAL), age, sex, and smoking status were investigated with the COVID-19 infection. RESULT: Data mining techniques such as logistic regression (LR) and decision tree (DT) algorithms were used to analyze the data. The results using the LR model showed that in biochemical factors (Model I) creatine phosphokinase (CPK) (OR: 1.006 CI 95% (1.006,1.007)), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR: 1.039 CI 95% (1.033, 1.047)) and in hematological factors (Model II) mean platelet volume (MVP) (OR: 1.546 CI 95% (1.470, 1.628)) were significant factors associated with COVID-19 infection. Using the DT model, CPK, BUN, and MPV were the most important variables. Also, after adjustment for confounding factors, subjects with T2DM had higher risk for COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between CPK, BUN, MPV and T2DM with COVID-19 infection and T2DM appears to be important in the development of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Animals , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Creatine Kinase , Data Mining , Mammals
18.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e070291, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234967

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to quantify the degree to which an underserved, Hispanic population in Los Angeles is impacted by SARS-CoV-2, and determine factors associated with paediatric seropositivity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: AltaMed, a Federally Qualified Health Center in Los Angeles. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of households who had received healthcare at AltaMed Medical Group was invited to participate. Households with at least one adult and one paediatric participant between 5 and 17 years of age were eligible to participate. Consented participants completed a survey on social determinants of health and were tested for antibodies using Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2-IgG and SARS-CoV-2-IgM tests. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Seropositive status. RESULTS: We analysed 390 adults (mean age in years, 38.98 (SD 12.11)) and 332 paediatric participants (11.26 (SD 3.51)) from 196 households. Estimated seropositivity was 52.11% (95% CI 49.61% to 55.19%) in paediatric participants and 63.58% (95% CI 60.39% to 65.24%) in adults. Seropositivity was 11.47% (95% CI 6.82% to 14.09%) lower in paediatric participants, but high relative to other populations. A household member with type 2 diabetes (OR 2.94 (95% CI 1.68 to 5.14)), receipt of food stamps (OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.56)) and lower head-of-household education (OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.84)) were associated with paediatric seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity is high in Hispanic children and adolescents in Los Angeles. Food insecure households with low head-of-household education, and at least one household member with type 2 diabetes, had the highest risk. These factors may inform paediatrician COVID-19 mitigation recommendations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04901624.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Los Angeles/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Clin Nurs Res ; 32(6): 983-991, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233914

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection can induce acute and chronic complications by affecting the self-management behaviors of individuals with diabetes. The objective of this study is to examine the physical, psychosocial health, and self-management experiences of type 2 diabetes patients who have recovered from COVID-19, 1 year after the infection. The study adopted a qualitative research design, specifically content analysis. In all, 14 patients with type 2 diabetes who presented to the diabetes outpatient clinic were interviewed by teleconferencing, which lasted approximately 25 to 30 minutes. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines were used. Based on the participants' responses, four main themes were determined: obstacles in activities of daily living, feeling of psychosocial problems, changes in health and treatment management, and patient self-management practices. Amid the pandemic, diabetes nurses should strive to recognize the issues that diabetes patients encounter. To assist patients, telemedicine should be leveraged, and evidence-based practices must be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , Qualitative Research
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