Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 334
Filter
1.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 522-527, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2102586

ABSTRACT

Comorbid conditions have a major impact on the health, quality of life, and survival of people with HIV, particularly as this population ages. The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured excellent science related to specific comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and frailty. The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease was an important theme, with strong evidence regarding the impact of microbial translocation. Other studies examined functional impairment, frailty, and potential important contributors, such as concomitant medications and sleep disturbances. The ANCHOR (Anal Cancer/High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Outcomes Research) study provided crucial evidence that treatment of high-risk anal lesions reduces the incidence of anal cancer, which has important implications in the prevention of this devastating comorbidity. In addition, numerous presentations demonstrated the importance of comorbid conditions in COVID-19 outcomes in people with HIV and described persistent symptoms after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection has resolved. This review focuses on the abstracts presented at CROI 2022 in these areas, highlighting those with the most clinical impact.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Frailty , HIV Infections , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Frailty/complications , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(10): 561-569, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101091

ABSTRACT

The study of the characteristics and dynamics of laboratory biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent COVID-19-associated pneumonia is of great clinical importance for preventing the risk of adverse events. IN the study we used data from 65 patients in the present work. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients with CVD: arterial hypertension (AH) in combination with coronary artery disease (CAD) without DM2 (n=45), group 2 included patients with CVD and DM2 (n=20). Patients were examined at baseline in the infectious disease hospital and 3 months after discharge. During laboratory examination of blood biosamples we evaluated parameters of general blood test; biochemical and immunologicai parameters; elastic properties of the vascular wall. The analyzed leukocyte parameters and their index coefficients - increase in NLR ratio (neutrophils/lymphocytes) and decrease in LYM/CRP ratio (lymphocytes/CRP) were more significantly changed in DM2 group. Patients in both groups had a significant excess of baseline max CRP concentrations with decrease in parameters after 3 months, but with persistent excess values in group 2. Three months after discharge patients with DM2 had levels of hs-CRP, IL-1ß and TNFa and NT-proBNP, that exceeded both the reference values and those in group 1, which reflected the presence of more pronounced vascular inflammatory potential for possible adverse events in this group of patients in post-COVID period. The method of multiple regression showed that DM2 is an independent risk factor for increased stiffness of the vascular wall. Thus, dynamic control of laboratory parameters has prognostic value in assessing the nature of the course of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in patients with CVD and DM2 developing an algorithm for personalized monitoring of patients in the post-COVID period with the aim of timely prevention of unwanted vascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Biomarkers
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089443

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing markedly in low- and middle-income countries where over three-quarters of global deaths occur due to non-communicable diseases. Unfortunately, these conditions are considered costly and often deprioritized in humanitarian settings with competing goals. Using a mixed methods approach, this study aimed to quantify the cost of outpatient treatment for uncomplicated type-1 (T1DM) and type-2 (T2DM) diabetes at a secondary care facility serving refugees in Kenya. A retrospective cost analysis combining micro- and gross-costings from a provider perspective was employed. The main outcomes included unit costs per health service activity to cover the total cost of labor, capital, medications and consumables, and overheads. A care pathway was mapped out for uncomplicated diabetes patients to identify direct and indirect medical costs. Interviews were conducted to determine inputs required for diabetes care and estimate staff time allocation. A total of 360 patients, predominantly Somali refugees, were treated for T2DM (92%, n = 331) and T1DM (8%, n = 29) in 2017. Of the 3,140 outpatient consultations identified in 2017; 48% (n = 1,522) were for males and 52% (n = 1,618) for females. A total of 56,144 tests were run in the setting, of which 9,512 (16.94%) were Random Blood Sugar (RBS) tests, and 90 (0.16%) HbA1c tests. Mean costs were estimated as: $2.58 per outpatient consultation, $1.37 per RBS test and $14.84 per HbA1c test. The annual pharmacotherapy regimens cost $91.93 for T1DM and $20.34 for T2DM. Investment in holistic and sustainable non-communicable disease management should be at the forefront of humanitarian response. It is expected to be beneficial with immediate implications on the COVID-19 response while also reducing the burden of care over time. Despite study limitations, essential services for the management of uncomplicated diabetes in a humanitarian setting can be modest and affordable. Therefore, integrating diabetes care into primary health care should be a fundamental pillar of long-term policy response by stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Refugees , Male , Female , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Retrospective Studies , Kenya/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Health Care Costs , Hospitals
4.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(6): H1176-H1193, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088958

ABSTRACT

Patients with diabetes infected with COVID-19 have greater mortality than those without comorbidities, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study aims to identify the mechanistic interactions between diabetes and severe COVID-19. Microparticles (MPs), the cell membrane-derived vesicles released on cell activation, are largely increased in patients with diabetes. To date, many mechanisms have been postulated for increased severity of COVID-19 in patients with underlying conditions, but the contributions of excessive MPs in patients with diabetes have been overlooked. This study characterizes plasma MPs from normal human subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes in terms of amount, cell origins, surface adhesive properties, ACE2 expression, spike protein binding capacity, and their roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that over 90% of plasma MPs express ACE2 that binds the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. MPs in patients with diabetes increase 13-fold in quantity and 11-fold in adhesiveness when compared with normal subjects. Perfusion of human plasma with pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 virus or spike protein-bound MPs into human endothelial cell-formed microvessels-on-a chip demonstrated that MPs from patients with diabetes, not normal subjects, interact with endothelium and carry SARS-CoV-2 into cells through endocytosis, providing additional virus entry pathways and enhanced infection. Results also showed a large percentage of platelet-derived tissue factor-bearing MPs in diabetic plasma, which could contribute to thrombotic complications with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study reveals a dual role of diabetic MPs in promoting SARS-CoV-2 entry and propagating vascular inflammation. These findings provide novel mechanistic insight into the high prevalence of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes and their propensity to develop severe vascular complications.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first evidence that over 90% of human plasma microparticles express ACE2 that binds SARS-CoV-2 S protein with high affinity. Thus, the highly elevated adhesive circulating microparticles identified in patients with diabetes not only have greater SARS-CoV-2 binding capacity but also enable additional viral entry through virus-bound microparticle-endothelium interactions and enhanced infection. These findings reveal a novel mechanistic insight into the adverse outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236123, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084938

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing pneumonia as well as an increased risk of severe COVID-19-associated adverse events and mortality. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists via blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor may alter the risk of pneumonia and COVID-19-associated adverse events in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes. Objective: To evaluate whether the selective, nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone is associated with protection against pneumonia and COVID-19 adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis used patient-level data from FIDELITY, a prespecified pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven, phase 3 randomized clinical trials: FIDELIO-DKD and FIGARO-DKD, conducted between September 2015 and February 2021. Patients in FIDELIO-DKD or FIGARO-DKD with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (urine albumin to creatine ratio, 30-5000 mg/g, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥25 mL/min/1.73 m2) were assessed. Data were analyzed from May 15, 2021, to July 28, 2022. Exposure: Patients were randomized to finerenone (10 or 20 mg once daily) or matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were investigator-reported incidences of treatment-emergent infective pneumonia adverse events and serious adverse events (during and up to 3 days after treatment) and any COVID-19 adverse events. Results: Of 13 026 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 64.8 [9.5] years; 9088 [69.8%] men), 12 999 were included in the FIDELITY safety population (6510 patients receiving finerenone; 6489 patients receiving placebo). Over a median (range) treatment duration of 2.6 (0-5.1) years, finerenone was consistently associated with reduced risk of pneumonia and serious pneumonia vs placebo. Overall, 307 patients (4.7%) treated with finerenone and 434 patients (6.7%) treated with placebo experienced pneumonia (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64-0.79; P < .001). Serious pneumonia occurred in 171 patients (2.6%) treated with finerenone and 250 patients (3.9%) treated with placebo (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.79; P < .001). Incidence proportions of COVID-19 adverse events were 86 patients (1.3%) in the finerenone group and 118 patients (1.8%) in the placebo group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with finerenone was associated with protection against pneumonia and COVID-19 adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Further clinical studies may be warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: FIDELIO-DKD: NCT02540993; FIGARO-DKD: NCT02545049.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Albumins/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Creatine/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/chemically induced
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e063046, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Scottish Diabetes Research Network (SDRN)-diabetes research platform was established to combine disparate electronic health record data into research-ready linked datasets for diabetes research in Scotland. The resultant cohort, 'The SDRN-National Diabetes Dataset (SDRN-NDS)', has many uses, for example, understanding healthcare burden and socioeconomic trends in disease incidence and prevalence, observational pharmacoepidemiology studies and building prediction tools to support clinical decision making. PARTICIPANTS: We estimate that >99% of those diagnosed with diabetes nationwide are captured into the research platform. Between 2006 and mid-2020, the cohort comprised 472 648 people alive with diabetes at any point in whom there were 4 million person-years of follow-up. Of the cohort, 88.1% had type 2 diabetes, 8.8% type 1 diabetes and 3.1% had other types (eg, secondary diabetes). Data are captured from all key clinical encounters for diabetes-related care, including diabetes clinic, primary care and podiatry and comprise clinical history and measurements with linkage to blood results, microbiology, prescribed and dispensed drug and devices, retinopathy screening, outpatient, day case and inpatient episodes, birth outcomes, cancer registry, renal registry and causes of death. FINDINGS TO DATE: There have been >50 publications using the SDRN-NDS. Examples of recent key findings include analysis of the incidence and relative risks for COVID-19 infection, drug safety of insulin glargine and SGLT2 inhibitors, life expectancy estimates, evaluation of the impact of flash monitors on glycaemic control and diabetic ketoacidosis and time trend analysis showing that diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains a major cause of death under age 50 years. The findings have been used to guide national diabetes strategy and influence national and international guidelines. FUTURE PLANS: The comprehensive SDRN-NDS will continue to be used in future studies of diabetes epidemiology in the Scottish population. It will continue to be updated at least annually, with new data sources linked as they become available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Insulin Glargine , Middle Aged , Naphthalenesulfonates , Scotland/epidemiology
7.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased prevalence and mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) globally. With limited access to specialised care, most patients with DKA in South Africa are managed at district hospital level. This study describes the profile of patients admitted to a district hospital in South Africa with DKA and COVID-19 and examines associated risk factors encountered. METHODS:  This was a case series of all patients presenting to a district hospital with DKA and COVID-19 infection between July 2020 and July 2021. Data extracted included patients' demographic profiles, biochemical results, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:  The median age of the 10 patients admitted during the study period was 39 years old (±12), six of whom were male. The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values on admission ranged from 9.7 to 13.8. Five of the patients had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Four of the known DM patients were on metformin only, and one was on biphasic insulin. Three patients had other pre-existing comorbidities, two patients with hypertension and one with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three patients demised, two of whom were hypoxic on admission. CONCLUSION:  Diabetic ketoacidosis appears more commonly in COVID-19 infected patients with type 2 DM and at a young age. Suboptimal glycaemic control was associated with DKA, and hypoxia was a strong predictor for mortality. Treatment inertia was evident in the known DM group, who were on monotherapy despite persistent hyperglycaemia. Greater vigilance is required to detect ketosis in type 2 DM and intensify therapy to improve glycaemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Metformin , Adult , Biphasic Insulins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/therapeutic use , Hospitals, District , Humans , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic severely affected the disease management of patients with chronic illnesses such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effect of telemedicine management of diabetes in obese and overweight young and middle-aged patients with T2DM during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A single-center randomized control study was conducted in 120 obese or overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 24 kg/m2) young and middle-aged patients (aged 18-55 years) with T2DM. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention (telemedicine) or control (conventional outpatient clinic appointment) group. After baseline assessment, they were home isolated for 21 days, received diet and exercise guidance, underwent glucose monitoring, and followed up for 6 months. Glucose monitoring and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) scores were evaluated at 22 days and at the end of 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients completed the 6-month follow-up (intervention group: n = 52; control group: n = 47). On day 22, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level of the intervention group was lower than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and the control group's SDS increased significantly compared with the baseline value (p < 0.05). At the end of 3 months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and FBG levels in the intervention group decreased significantly compared with those in the control group (p < 0.01). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as waist-to-hip ratio compared with the control group (p < 0.05); moreover, the intervention group showed lower SDS scores than the baseline value (p < 0.05). Further, the intervention group showed a significant reduction in BMI compared with the control group at the end of 3 and 6 months (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Telemedicine is a beneficial strategy for achieving remotely supervised blood glucose regulation, weight loss, and depression relief in patients with T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04723550.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/therapy , Overweight/complications , Overweight/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Triglycerides
9.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(7): 872-902, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052902

ABSTRACT

Since the 2018 ISPAD guidelines on this topic, follow-up of large cohorts from around the globe have continued informing the current incidence and prevalence of co-morbidities and complications in young adults with youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). This chapter focuses on the risk factors, diagnosis and presentation of youth-onset T2D, the initial and subsequent management of youth-onset T2D, and management of co-morbidities and complications. We include key updates from the observational phase of the multi-center Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study and new data from the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) study, a head-to-head comparison of youth onset vs adult-onset T2D. We also include an expanded section on risk factors associated with T2D, algorithms and tables for treatment, management, and assessment of co-morbidities and complications, and sections on recently approved pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of youth-onset T2D, social determinants of health, and settings of care given COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Young Adult
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(26): e29738, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It was repeatedly demonstrated that patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, as well as patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have higher risk of thromboembolic complications. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) is a viscoelastic hemostatic assay which allows complex assessment of hemostasis in whole blood. The aim of this study was to compare changes in hemostasis measured by ROTEM® in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a pilot, prospective, observational study and enrolled 33 consecutive patients (14 with T2D and 19 nondiabetic ones) admitted to regular ward with mild COVID-19 pneumonia. The control group consisted from 11 healthy, nondiabetic blood donors. Blood samples were tested with ROTEM® using INTEM® and EXTEM® reagents. RESULTS: We detected significant differences in EXTEM® clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), and maximum clot firmness (MCF) comparing patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia and healthy donors. However, there were no significant differences in EXTEM®, INTEM®, and HEPTEM® parameters (CT, CFT, and MCF) according to diabetes status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated hypercoagulation in patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia. T2D did not affected ROTEM® parameters in patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography
11.
Drug Saf ; 45(12): 1477-1490, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048659

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Hong Kong, CoronaVac and BNT162b2 have been approved for emergency use owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Reactions towards the vaccine and the risk of post-vaccination adverse events may be different between recipients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of adverse events of special interest (AESI) and acute diabetic complications in the T2DM population after COVID-19 vaccination in Hong Kong. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Self-controlled case-series analysis was conducted. Patients with T2DM who received at least one dose of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac between 23 February 2021 and 31 January 2022 from electronic health records in Hong Kong were included. The incidence rates of 29 AESIs and acute diabetic complications (any of severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome) requiring hospitalization within 21 days after the first or second dose of vaccination were reported. The risks of these outcomes were evaluated using conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 141,224 BNT162b2 recipients and 209,739 CoronaVac recipients with T2DM, the incidence per 100,000 doses and incidence per 100,000 person-years of individual AESIs and acute diabetic complications ranged from 0 to 24.4 and 0 to 438.6 in BNT162b2 group, and 0 to 19.5 and 0 to 351.6 in CoronaVac group. We did not observe any significantly increased risk of individual AESIs or acute diabetic complications after first or second doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccine. Subgroup analysis based on HbA1c < 7% and ≥ 7% also did not show significantly excess risk after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM do not appear to have higher risks of AESI and acute diabetic complications after BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccination. Moreover, given the low incidence of AESIs and acute diabetic complications after vaccination, the absolute risk increment was likely minimal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(3): 438-443, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046460

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 4 million deaths worldwide to date. During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, thrombotic complications due to hypercoagulable state have emerged as an important issue. Acute limb ischemia is one of emergency cases in vascular disease caused by a sudden decrease in arterial limbs perfusion. Here, we report a 53-year-old male patient with severe COVID-19 and a history of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who developed extensive arterial thrombosis and limb ischemia despite being on therapeutic-dose anticoagulation, requiring surgical intervention. Right and left leg open thrombectomy was performed at day 7 after admission due to the excruciating pain and the worsening of the limb conditions. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit in emergency room because of the unstable hemodynamic and passed away a few hours after the surgery. For critically ill patients with COVID-19, special attention should be paid to abnormal coagulation dysfunction and microcirculatory disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Microcirculation , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Thrombosis/etiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043205

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the eating behaviours of many people, especially Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study aimed to determine the level of mindful eating and its associated factors among T2DM patients at a primary care clinic near Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 18th December 2020 to 5th March 2021 during the movement control order in Malaysia. Respondents were recruited using systematic random sampling via an electronic appointment system. They completed a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic, clinical profiles, and a Malay-translated Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-M). Their blood pressure and body mass index were taken during the appointment day while the remaining clinical profiles such as fasting blood sugar (FBS) were obtained from the medical record. Two hundred respondents were recruited with a mean (SD) age of 57.0 (10.90) years. More than half of them were female (54%). Two-thirds of them had uncontrolled diabetes based on elevated FBS of >7 mmol/L (61.5%) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of >7% (67%), respectively. The mean (SD) score for mindful eating was 2.9 (0.25). Multiple logistic regression revealed that older respondents had a higher level of mindful eating [(AOR = 1.05, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09)]. In addition, elevated FBS level was also associated with a greater level of mindful eating [(AOR = 2.55, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.28-5.07)]. Therefore, healthcare providers should promote mindful eating during the consultation, especially among younger patients. Blood glucose monitoring is also recommended to instil awareness of the importance of healthy eating habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fasting , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(12): 166559, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041586

ABSTRACT

Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) often cluster together as "Cardiometabolic Disease" (CMD). Just under 50% of patients with CMD increased the risk of morbidity and mortality right from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic as it has been reported in most countries affected by the SARS-CoV2 virus. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of COVID-19 is the overactivation of the immune system with a prominent IL-6 response, resulting in severe and systemic damage involving also cytokines such as IL2, IL4, IL8, IL10, and interferon-gamma were considered strong predictors of COVID-19 severity. Thus, in this mini-review, we try to describe the inflammatory state, the alteration of the adipokine profile, and cytokine production in the obese state of infected and not infected patients by SARS-CoV2 with the final aim to find possible influences of COVID-19 on CMD and CVD. The immunological-based discussion of the molecular processes could inspire the study of promising targets for managing CMD patients and its complications during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adipokines , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 190, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also now known as long COVID, has become a major global health and economic burden. Previously, we provided evidence that there is a significant insoluble fibrin amyloid microclot load in the circulation of individuals with long COVID, and that these microclots entrap a substantial number of inflammatory molecules, including those that might prevent clot breakdown. Scientifically, the most challenging aspect of this debilitating condition is that traditional pathology tests such as a serum CRP (C-reactive protein) may not show any significant abnormal inflammatory markers, albeit these tests measure only the soluble inflammatory molecules. Elevated, or abnormal soluble biomarkers such as IL-6, D-Dimer or fibrinogen indicate an increased risk for thrombosis or a host immune response in COVID-19. The absence of biomarkers in standard pathology tests, result in a significant amount of confusion for patients and clinicians, as patients are extremely sick or even bed-ridden but with no regular identifiable reason for their disease. Biomarkers that are currently available cannot detect the molecules present in the microclots we identified and are therefore unable to confirm their presence or the mechanisms that drive their formation. METHODS: Here we analysed the protein content of double-digested microclots of 99 long COVID patients and 29 healthy controls. The patients suffering from long COVID reported their symptoms through a questionnaire completed by themselves or their attending physician. RESULTS: Our long COVID cohort's symptoms were found to be in line with global findings, where the most prevalent symptoms were constant fatigue (74%,) cognitive impairment (71%) and depression and anxiety (30%). Our most noteworthy findings were a reduced level of plasma Kallikrein compared to our controls, an increased level of platelet factor 4 (PF4) von Willebrand factor (VWF), and a marginally increased level of α-2 antiplasmin (α-2-AP). We also found a significant presence of antibodies entrapped inside these microclots. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of pro-inflammatory molecules that may also contribute to a failed fibrinolysis phenomenon, which could possibly explain why individuals with long COVID suffer from chronic fatigue, dyspnoea, or cognitive impairment. In addition, significant platelet hyperactivation was noted. Hyperactivation will result in the granular content of platelets being shed into the circulation, including PF4. Overall, our results provide further evidence of both a failed fibrinolytic system in long COVID/PASC and the entrapment of many proteins whose presence might otherwise go unrecorded. These findings might have significant implications for individuals with pre-existing comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Plasma Kallikrein , Platelet Factor 4 , Proteomics , Thrombosis/diagnosis , alpha-2-Antiplasmin , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
16.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 304, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing literature on guidelines regarding Ramadan fasting for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, most studies only consider the impact of fasting on renal function. This study additionally aims to assess factors influencing Ramadan fasting in patients with CKD. METHOD: This is a prospective before and after cohort study. CKD patients were counseled regarding fasting and followed-up post-Ramadan for renal function status, actual fasting behavior, and other relevant outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 360 patients who attended the pre-Ramadan consultation, 306 were reachable after Ramadan of whom 55.3% were female. Of these 306 67.1% reported that they had fasted, 4.9% had attempted to fast but stopped, and 28% did not fast at all. Of these 74 has a post-fasting kidney test. Of the patients, 68.1% had stage 3A CKD, 21.7% had stage 3B, 7.9% stage 4, and only 2% stage 5. Of those who fasted, 11.1% had a drop in Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) of 20% or more. Those who did not fast (16.7%) presented a similar drop. Conversely, among the few who attempted to fast and had to stop, half showed a drop in eGFR of more than 20%. In linear regression, fasting was not associated with post-Ramadan eGFR, when controlling for age and baseline eGRF. There were 17 (5.6%) significant events, including one death. More significant events occurred among the group who fasted some of Ramadan days, 26.7% of the subjects experienced an adverse event-while 4.7% of the group who did not fast had a significant adverse event compared to 4.4% among those who fasted all Ramadan. CONCLUSION: Fasting was not a significant determining factor in renal function deterioration in the study's population, nor did it have any significant association with adverse events.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Islam , Male , Prospective Studies
17.
N Engl J Med ; 387(12): 1089-1098, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death among patients with chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in patients with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction remains less certain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 6263 patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or matching placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (which was defined as either an unplanned hospitalization for heart failure or an urgent visit for heart failure) or cardiovascular death, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: Over a median of 2.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 512 of 3131 patients (16.4%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 610 of 3132 patients (19.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.92; P<0.001). Worsening heart failure occurred in 368 patients (11.8%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 455 patients (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91); cardiovascular death occurred in 231 patients (7.4%) and 261 patients (8.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05). Total events and symptom burden were lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. Results were similar among patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% or more and those with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 60%, and results were similar in prespecified subgroups, including patients with or without diabetes. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the combined risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death among patients with heart failure and a mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DELIVER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03619213.).


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 191: 110034, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035941

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected patients who had comorbid diabetes mellitus. COVID-19 patients with diabetes experience significantly higher rates of complications and mortality. COVID-induced diabetes is a novel phenomenon observed in critically ill patients. The aims of this review were to explore the literature about COVID-induced diabetes and the pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to this novel presentation. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PUBMED, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and Embase for original studies (meta-analyses, cross-sectional studies, case series, case reports) about new-onset diabetes following COVID infection, and the proposed biochemical pathways behind this presentation. It was assumed that the authors of the studies used the current diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: COVID-19 causes dysregulation of glucose homeostasis leading to new-onset diabetes and hyperglycaemia. This is also seen in patients with no previous risk factors for diabetes mellitus. The atypical glycaemic parameters and increased rates of DKA suggest that COVID-induced diabetes is a novel form of diabetes. A spectrum of COVID-induced diabetes has also been noted. COVID-induced diabetes is associated with remarkably higher mortality rates and worse outcomes compared to COVID-19 patients with pre-existing diabetes. The novel presentation of COVID-induced diabetes could be due to beta cell damage and insulin resistance caused by SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: COVID-induced diabetes is essential to detect early, owing to its implications on prognosis. Further studies must include follow-up of these patients to better understand the trajectory of COVID-induced diabetes and the best management plan. It is also important to assess the beta cell function and insulin resistance of COVID-induced diabetes patients over time to better understand the underlying biochemical mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Wiad Lek ; 75(8 pt 1): 1895-1899, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The revealing of the consequences of the long-term postcovid effects on the particular cognitive domains in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2) by comparing the characteristics of patients with DM 2 without postcovid disorders and the characteristics of cognitive impairment in patients with long-therm postcovid without DM 2 by forming the research hypothesis to improve the adherence to treatment of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Literature search was performed using PubMed search criteria "covid AND cognitive AND domain" 217 articles, as a result, and separately "diabetes mellitus 2 type AND cognitive impairment AND domain" with the result of 164 articles. There were 26 remaining studies included in this review. The hypothesis about the relationships between the particular cause factors and the defeating of specific cognitive domains in patients with DM 2 in the long-term postcovid period has been formed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: This is important in the terms of the influence of cognitive impairment on the concordance to treatment process and quality of life level in patients with DM 2 in general. So, involving specialists of different profiles in a multidisciplinary approach is the solution to this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Humans , Quality of Life
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273675, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021932

ABSTRACT

Psychological problems commonly experienced by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cause diabetes fatigue conditions that can further worsen the treatment prognosis. We conducted this investigation to determine the effectiveness of a resilience-based Islamic program on diabetes fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by measuring the biochemical indicators of T2DM. This was a quasi-experimental study performed from May to August 2021, in which 80 respondents aged 18-64 years diagnosed with T2DM were included through purposive sampling at a male:female sex ratio of 1:1 in the control group and 17:23 in the treatment group. A resilience-based Islamic program (a combination of stress management, mindfulness, prayer, and dhikr (the ritual formula of Sufi brotherhood recited devotionally in praise of Allah and as a means of attaining ecstatic experience)) was implemented in the treatment group for six sessions by blended online and offline interventions. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 and World Health Organization Quality of Life, Brief Form were used to evaluate diabetes fatigue and HRQoL. Blood tests were performed to measure HbA1c, total antioxidant serum, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels from baseline to 3 months. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired t test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, independent t test, and Mann-Whitney U test. The resilience-based Islamic program had a beneficial impact on the levels of HbA1c (p < 0.001), lipid profile (triglyceride) (p = 0.011), HDL-c (p = 0.01), LDL-c (p < 0.001), total antioxidant serum (p = 0.001), insulin (p < 0.001), diabetes fatigue (p < 0.05), and HRQoL (p < 0.05) in patients of the treatment group. The results of biochemical tests related to T2DM also indicated a reduction in diabetes fatigue and an increase in HRQoL due to the resilience-based Islamic program. Considering that a patient's resilience to diabetes is an important factor in the management of diabetes fatigue, the resilience-based Islamic program can be applied at public health centers and community levels to increase T2DM resilience.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Quality of Life , Antioxidants , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fatigue/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Insulin , Male , Triglycerides
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL