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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(5): C13-C17, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463338

ABSTRACT

In this SARS-COV2-pandemic, diabetes mellitus (DM) soon emerged as one of the most prominent risk factors for a severe course of corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and increased mortality due to hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, obesity, inflammation, altered immune status, and cardiovascular complications. In general, men are at a higher risk of severe or fatal COVID-19 disease irrespective of age, region and despite comparable infection rates in both sexes. In COVID-19, there is also a male predominance among hospitalized patients with diabetes, however, overall, data among patients with diabetes are ambiguous so far. Of note, similar to cardiovascular complications, women with type 2 diabetes (DM2) appear to lose their biological female advantage resulting in comparable death rates to those of men. The complex interplay of biological and behavioral factors, which may put men at greater risk of a severe or fatal course of COVID-19, and gender-related psychosocial factors, which may cause disadvantage to women concerning the infection rates, might explain why sex-disaggregated data among infected patients with diabetes are conflicting. Better knowledge on biological factors leading to functionally different immune responses and of gender-sensitive sociocultural determinants of COVID-19 infection rates may help to optimize prevention and management in the high-risk groups of men and women with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044888, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a global health priority. People with diabetes are more likely to experience mental health problems relative to people without diabetes. Diabetes guidelines recommend assessment of depression and diabetes distress during diabetes care. This systematic review will examine the effect of routinely assessing and addressing depression and diabetes distress using patient-reported outcome measures in improving outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycInfo, The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be searched using a prespecified strategy using a prespecified Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes, Setting and study design strategy. The date range of the search of all databases will be from inception to 3 August 2020. Randomised controlled trials, interrupted time-series studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and analytical cross-sectional studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language will be included. Two review authors will independently screen abstracts and full texts with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer, if required, using Covidence software. Two reviewers will undertake risk of bias assessment using checklists appropriate to study design. Data will be extracted using prespecified template. A narrative synthesis will be conducted, with a meta-analysis, if appropriate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this review of published studies. Presentation of results will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020200246.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 708494, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450802

ABSTRACT

Aims: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess various antidiabetic agents' association with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We performed comprehensive literature retrieval from the date of inception until February 2, 2021, in medical databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library), regarding mortality outcomes in patients with T2DM who have COVID-19. Pooled OR and 95% CI data were used to assess relationships between antidiabetic agents and mortality. Results: Eighteen studies with 17,338 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Metformin (pooled OR, 0.69; P=0.001) and sulfonylurea (pooled OR, 0.80; P=0.016) were associated with lower mortality risk in patients with T2DM who had COVID-19. However, patients with T2DM who had COVID-19 and received insulin exhibited greater mortality (pooled OR, 2.20; P=0.002). Mortality did not significantly differ (pooled OR, 0.72; P=0.057) between DPP-4 inhibitor users and non-users. Conclusions: Metformin and sulfonylurea could be associated with reduced mortality risk in patients with T2DM who have COVID-19. Furthermore, insulin use could be associated with greater mortality, while DPP-4 inhibitor use could not be. The effects of antidiabetic agents in patients with T2DM who have COVID-19 require further exploration. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (identifier, CRD42021242898).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Assessment
7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 198, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448234

ABSTRACT

Patients with Covid-19 place new challenges on the management of type 2 diabetes, including the questions of whether glucose-lowering therapy should be adjusted during infection and how to manage a return to normal care after resolution of Covid-19 symptoms. Due to the sudden onset of the pandemic, physicians have by necessity made such important clinical decisions in the absence of robust evidence or consistent guidelines. The risk to patients is compounded by the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in this population, which alongside diabetes is a major risk factor for severe disease and mortality in Covid-19. We convened as experts from the Central and Eastern European region to consider what advice we can provide in the setting of type 2 diabetes and Covid-19, considering the evidence before, during and after infection. We review recommendations that have been published to date, and consider the best available-but currently limited-evidence from large observational studies and the DARE-19 randomized control trial. Notably, we find a lack of guidance on restarting patients on optimal antidiabetic therapy after recovering from Covid-19, and suggest that this may provide an opportunity to optimize treatment and counter clinical inertia that predates the pandemic. Furthermore, we emphasize that optimization applies not only to glycaemic control, but other factors such as cardiorenal protection. While we look forward to the emergence of new evidence that we hope will address these gaps, in the interim we provide a perspective, based on our collective clinical experience, on how best to manage glucose-lowering therapy as patients with Covid-19 recover from their disease and return to normal care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Time Factors
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(33): 5502-5519, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411115

ABSTRACT

Metabolic diseases are highly prevalent worldwide and have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes, including mortality, in patients developing coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Because of the close relationship between metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and the presence of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), a high number of cases of patients affected by both MAFLD and COVID-19 would be expected, especially in high-risk populations. Some studies have shown an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes, viral shedding, and deep vein thrombosis, especially in patients with MAFLD- related liver fibrosis. The predisposition to poor outcomes and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in patients with MAFLD could be secondary to mechanisms common to both, including preexisting systemic chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and involvement of the renin-angiotensin system. Because of the increased risk of adverse outcomes, MAFLD should be screened in all patients admitted for COVID-19. Available computed tomography scans could be of help, assessment of liver fibrosis is also recommended, favoring noninvasive methods to limit the exposure of healthcare workers. Liver involvement in this population ranges from abnormalities in liver chemistry to hepatic steatosis in postmortem biopsies. Finally, preventive measures should be strongly advocated in patients already known to have MAFLD, including the use of telemedicine and vaccination in addition to general measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fatty Liver , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Fatty Liver/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Metabolism ; 122: 154842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic caused families to stay home and cancel everyday activities. Hospital admissions decreased, affecting changes in diagnoses and management of chronic disease in children. AIMS: We analyzed how the first lockdown influenced clinical presentation and manifestation of children with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a German University Hospital. METHODS: During March 15th and October 11th 2020, data on general patient information, clinical symptoms and on lab results related to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were analyzed in children (0-18 years) who presented with new onset of DM or poor metabolic control of known DM. All data including frequency and severity of DKA were compared to data from patients who presented in 2019. RESULTS: Data from 125 participants with DM were evaluated (2020: n = 52; 2019: n = 73). In 2020, twelve patients (23.1%) were diagnosed with new onset DM, two of them with type2 diabetes, and 66.7% presented with DKA including both patients T2DM. In 2019, 24.5% of patients had new onset DM, and 50% of them presented with DKA. In 2020, patients with new onset DM were younger, presented with more severe symptoms of DKA and had to stay longer in hospital compared to 2019. In 2020, six children (50%) with new onset DM were <6 years, whereas in 2019 most children with new onset DM were adolescents (n = 7, 38.9%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 lockdown aggravated complications of diabetes onset and therapy management, including severity and frequency of DKA. It underlines the need of health education for early DKA diagnosis to early identify children at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
10.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14833, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND-AIM: Diabetes, obesity and hypertension are common comorbidities associated with increased severity and mortality rates from Corona Virus Disease (COVID)-19. METHODS: In this narrative review (using the PubMed database), we discuss epidemiological data and pathophysiological links between diabetes and COVID-19. The potential effects of glycaemic control and antidiabetic drugs on the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 are also reviewed, as well as the role of telemedicine and diabetes self-management in the post-COVID-19 era. RESULTS: Diabetes has been linked to COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, although further research is needed to elucidate this association. In the meantime, physicians should be aware of the potential rise in the prevalence of diabetes (due to unhealthy lifestyle changes during the pandemic), its severity and complications and focus on achieving optimal diabetes prevention and management. Telemedicine and diabetes self-management may help towards this direction. Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may affect viral entry and infection, and thus COVID-19 outcomes, as shown in observational studies. CONCLUSION: Diabetes has been associated with COVID-19 development and progression. Certain antidiabetic drugs may influence COVID-19 prevention and management. The results of ongoing randomized clinical trials will shed more light on this field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Trials ; 22(1): 595, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic lower limb ischemia develops earlier and more frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes remains the main cause of lower-extremity non-traumatic amputations. Current medical treatment, based on antiplatelet therapy and statins, has demonstrated deficient improvement of the disease. In recent years, research has shown that it is possible to improve tissue perfusion through therapeutic angiogenesis. Both in animal models and humans, it has been shown that cell therapy can induce therapeutic angiogenesis, making mesenchymal stromal cell-based therapy one of the most promising therapeutic alternatives. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of cell therapy based on mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue intramuscular administration to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with critical limb ischemia and without possibility of revascularization. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been designed. Ninety eligible patients will be randomly assigned at a ratio 1:1:1 to one of the following: control group (n = 30), low-cell dose treatment group (n = 30), and high-cell dose treatment group (n = 30). Treatment will be administered in a single-dose way and patients will be followed for 12 months. Primary outcome (safety) will be evaluated by measuring the rate of adverse events within the study period. Secondary outcomes (efficacy) will be measured by assessing clinical, analytical, and imaging-test parameters. Tertiary outcome (quality of life) will be evaluated with SF-12 and VascuQol-6 scales. DISCUSSION: Chronic lower limb ischemia has limited therapeutic options and constitutes a public health problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. Given that the current treatment is not established in daily clinical practice, it is essential to provide evidence-based data that allow taking a step forward in its clinical development. Also, the multidisciplinary coordination exercise needed to develop this clinical trial protocol will undoubtfully be useful to conduct academic clinical trials in the field of cell therapy in the near future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04466007 . Registered on January 07, 2020. All items from the World Health Organization Trial Registration Data Set are included within the body of the protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Noma , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/therapy , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720363, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376702

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest as a viral-induced hyperinflammation with multiorgan dysfunction. It has been documented that severe COVID-19 is associated with higher levels of inflammatory mediators than a mild disease, and tracking these markers may allow early identification or even prediction of disease progression. It is well known that C-reactive protein (CRP) is the acute-phase protein and the active regulator of host innate immunity, which is highly predictive of the need for mechanical ventilation and may guide escalation of treatment of COVID-19-related uncontrolled inflammation. There are numerous causes of an elevated CRP, including acute and chronic responses, and these can be infectious or non-infectious in etiology. CRP are normally lacking in viral infections, while adaptive immunity appears to be essential for COVID-19 virus clearance, and the macrophage activation syndrome may explain the high serum CRP contents and contribute to the disease progression. Nevertheless, for the assessment of host inflammatory status and identification of viral infection in other pathologies, such as bacterial sepsis, the acute-phase proteins, including CRP and procalcitonin, can provide more important information for guiding clinical diagnosis and antibiotic therapy. This review is aimed to highlight the current and most recent studies with regard to the clinical significance of CRP in severe COVID-19 and other viral associated illnesses, including update advances on the implication of CRP and its form specifically on the pathogenesis of these diseases. The progressive understanding in these areas may be translated into promising measures to prevent severe outcomes and mitigate appropriate treatment modalities in critical COVID-19 and other viral infections.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/complications , Stroke/blood , Virus Diseases
13.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 23(1): 24-30, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is responsible for a global pandemic. Numerous neurologic manifestations have been described in the literature regarding COVID-19, but most studies are focused on the central nervous system. The authors have noted an association between prior COVID-19 infection and the development of a systemic neuropathy that manifests with asymmetric sensorimotor loss in the peripheral nervous system. We describe 4 cases of mononeuropathy multiplex that were diagnosed after COVID-19 infection. METHODS: All patients included were treated for severe COVID-19 infection at New York Presbyterian Hospital and subsequently referred to the Columbia Peripheral Neuropathy Center for persistent neuropathy. RESULTS: Patient history, COVID-19 disease course, and mononeuropathy multiplex diagnostic evaluation of the 4 patients are recounted. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate a connection between COVID-19 and the development of mononeuropathy multiplex with implications in prognostication, rehabilitation strategies, and future treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mononeuropathies/etiology , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Electrodiagnosis , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Mononeuropathies/diagnosis , Neural Conduction , Neurologic Examination , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 165, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 diabetic adults are at increased risk of severe forms irrespective of obesity. In patients with type-II diabetes, fat distribution is characterized by visceral and ectopic adipose tissues expansion, resulting in systemic inflammation, which may play a role in driving the COVID-19 cytokine storm. Our aim was to determine if cardiac adipose tissue, combined to interleukin-6 levels, could predict adverse short-term outcomes, death and ICU requirement, in COVID-19 diabetic patients during the 21 days after admission. METHODS: Eighty one consecutive patients with type-II diabetes admitted for COVID-19 were included. Interleukin-6 measurement and chest computed tomography with total cardiac adipose tissue index (CATi) measurement were performed at admission. The primary outcome was death during the 21 days following admission while intensive care requirement with or without early death (ICU-R) defined the secondary endpoint. Associations of CATi and IL-6 and threshold values to predict the primary and secondary endpoints were determined. RESULTS: Of the enrolled patients (median age 66 years [IQR: 59-74]), 73% male, median body mass index (BMI) 27 kg/m2 [IQR: 24-31]) 20 patients had died from COVID-19, 20 required intensive care and 41 were in conventional care at day 21 after admission. Increased CATi and IL-6 levels were both significantly related to increased early mortality (respectively OR = 6.15, p = 0.002; OR = 18.2, p < 0.0001) and ICU-R (respectively OR = 3.27, p = 0.01; OR = 4.86, p = 0.002). These associations remained significant independently of age, sex, BMI as well as troponin-T level and pulmonary lesion extension in CT. We combined CATi and IL-6 levels as a multiplicative interaction score (CATi*IL-6). The cut-point for this score was ≥ 6386 with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.87 (AUC = 0.88) and an OR of 59.6 for early mortality (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac adipose tissue index and IL-6 determination at admission could help physicians to better identify diabetic patients with a potentially severe and lethal short term course irrespective of obesity. Diabetic patients with high CATi at admission, a fortiori associated with high IL-6 levels could be a relevant target population to promptly initiate anti-inflammatory therapies.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/pathology , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Interleukin-6/blood , Myocardium/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post Covid-19 syndrome (PCS) is a major cause of morbidity. In this article we intend to review the association and consequences of PCS and diabetes. METHODS: We reviewed all studies on "Long Covid", "Post COVID-19 Syndrome" and diabetes in PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: The symptoms of PCS can be due to organ dysfunction, effects of hospitalisation and drugs, or unrelated to these. Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a bidirectional relationship with COVID-19. Presence of diabetes also influences PCS via various pathophysiological mechanisms. COVID-19 can add to or exacerbate tachycardia, sarcopenia (and muscle fatigue), and microvascular dysfunction (and organ damage) in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: PCS in patients with diabetes could be detrimental in multiple ways. Strict control of diabetes and other comorbidities, supervised rehabilitation and physical exercise, and optimal nutrition could help in reducing and managing PCS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Sarcopenia/therapy , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/epidemiology , Tachycardia/etiology , Tachycardia/therapy
18.
J Periodontol ; 92(7): 35-43, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and periodontitis predispose to a higher risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Recent studies show upregulation of innate immuno-regulatory microRNA-146a and -155 in oral fluids of patients with type 2 diabetes as well as of patients with periodontitis. The aim was to investigate whether upregulation of these microRNAs may relate to patient susceptibility to the infection via modulation of SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors expression. METHODS: Due to limited experimental feasibility and health risks in Coronavirus Disease 2019, bioinformatic analyses combining with system biology were used as initial investigation of interaction between microRNA-146 and -155 and genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 entry factors. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors are expressed in salivary glands and masticatory mucosa (tongue) at different expression levels, comparable with those measured in lungs and tonsil. MicroRNA-146 and -155 are widely involved in the regulation of SARS-CoV-2 oral cellular entry factors and may enhance expression of ACE2 and modulate genes involved in host immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes- and periodontitis-induced increase in microRNA-146a and -155 in oral cavity is predicted to upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression, essential SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, and modulate host antiviral response. As it could suggest increased infectivity of diabetes and periodontitis patients, additional protective measures for periodontists are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , MicroRNAs , Periodontitis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Periodontitis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23 Suppl 1: 3-16, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324985

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic multisystem disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of obesity makes it a major healthcare challenge across both developed and developing countries. Traditional measures such as body mass index do not always identify individuals at increased risk of comorbidities, yet continue to be used in deciding who qualifies for weight loss treatment. A better understanding of how obesity is associated with comorbidities, in particular non-metabolic conditions, is needed to identify individuals at risk in order to prioritize treatment. For metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), weight loss can prevent T2D in individuals with prediabetes. It can improve and reverse T2D if weight loss is achieved early in the course of the disease. However, access to effective weight loss treatments is a significant barrier to improved health for people with obesity. In the present paper, we review the rising prevalence of obesity and why it should be classed as a multisystem disease. We will discuss potential mechanisms underlying its association with various comorbidities and how these respond to treatment, with a particular focus on cardiometabolic disease, malignancy and mental health.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Weight Loss
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108977, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322066

ABSTRACT

AIM: COVID-19 has spread globally with heavy impact on most countries and our therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 patients with diabetes are still limited. Recently, some new information was added to this field. We performed this updated meta-analysis to reveal the underlying effect of metformin on COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases for all articles. The odds ratio (OR) corresponding to the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess the effect of metformin on COVID-19 patients with diabetes. The statistical heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Q-test and I2 statistics. RESULTS: We collected 17 studies including 20,719 COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Our results found that metformin was associated with significantly decreased mortality and severity in COVID-19 patients with diabetes (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.51-0.79 for mortality, and OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66-0.99 for severity). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis indicated that following metformin treatment might benefit the patients with T2DM, both the mortality and severity. However, patients with severe COVID-19 should be monitored closely for the development of lactic acidosis, acidosis, and decreased kidney function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
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