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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119257

ABSTRACT

Screening, prevention, and management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, including obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes) is the core function of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a digital strategy developed by the Carlos Slim Foundation in Mexico. An extension of this strategy, MIDO COVID, was developed to address the need for an integrated plan in primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. MIDO COVID facilitates planning, surveillance, testing, and clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the major NCDs and their pre-disease states, to streamline the continuum of care. MIDO COVID screening was applied in 1063 Carso Group workplaces in 190 municipalities of the 32 Mexican states. Staff were trained to screen healthy workers for NCDs using a questionnaire, anthropomorphic measurements, and blood work; healthy individuals returning to work also received a SARS-CoV-2 antibody test. Between June 26 and December 31, 2020, 58,277 asymptomatic individuals underwent screening. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes was 32.1%, 25.7%, and 9.7% respectively. Only 2.2%, 8.8%, and 4.5% of individuals, respectively, were previously aware of their condition. Pre-obesity was identified in 38.6%, pre-hypertension in 17.4%, and prediabetes in 7.5% of the population. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was highest for individuals with multiple NCDs. Many Mexicans are unaware of their health status and potentially increased risk of COVID-19 and serious complications. As a universal strategy implemented regardless of social factors, MIDO COVID promotes equity in access to health care prevention and early stage detection of NCDs; the information gained may help inform decisionmakers regarding prioritising vulnerable populations for immunisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Humans , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Chronic Disease , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 444, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that patients recovering after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may have a variety of acute sequelae including newly diagnosed diabetes. However, the risk of diabetes in the post-acute phase is unclear. To solve this question, we aimed to determine if there was any association between status post-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and a new diagnosis of diabetes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies assessing new-onset diabetes after COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were all searched from inception to June 10, 2022. Three evaluators independently extracted individual study data and assessed the risk of bias. Random-effects models estimated the pooled incidence and relative risk (RR) of diabetes compared to non-COVID-19 after COVID-19. RESULTS: Nine studies with nearly 40 million participants were included. Overall, the incidence of diabetes after COVID-19 was 15.53 (7.91-25.64) per 1000 person-years, and the relative risk of diabetes after COVID-19 infection was elevated (RR 1.62 [1.45-1.80]). The relative risk of type 1 diabetes was RR=1.48 (1.26-1.75) and type 2 diabetes was RR=1.70 (1.32-2.19), compared to non-COVID-19 patients. At all ages, there was a statistically significant positive association between infection with COVID-19 and the risk of diabetes: <18 years: RR=1.72 (1.19-2.49), ≥18 years: RR=1.63 (1.26-2.11), and >65 years: RR=1.68 (1.22-2.30). The relative risk of diabetes in different gender groups was about 2 (males: RR=2.08 [1.27-3.40]; females: RR=1.99 [1.47-2.80]). The risk of diabetes increased 1.17-fold (1.02-1.34) after COVID-19 infection compared to patients with general upper respiratory tract infections. Patients with severe COVID-19 were at higher risk (RR=1.67 [1.25-2.23]) of diabetes after COVID-19. The risk (RR=1.95 [1.85-2.06]) of diabetes was highest in the first 3 months after COVID-19. These results remained after taking confounding factors into account. CONCLUSIONS: After COVID-19, patients of all ages and genders had an elevated incidence and relative risk for a new diagnosis of diabetes. Particular attention should be paid during the first 3 months of follow-up after COVID-19 for new-onset diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Female , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies
3.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(6): 753-759, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113826

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To analyse if antidiabetic treatment was associated with better COVID-19 outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients, measured by hospital admission and mortality rates as severe outcomes. METHODS: Cohort study including COVID-19 patients registered in the Primary Care electronic records, in March-June 2020, comparing exposed to metformin in monotherapy with exposed to any other antidiabetic. DATA SOURCE: SIDIAP (Information System for Research in Primary Care), which captures clinical information of 5,8 million people from Catalonia, Spain. RESULTS: We included 31,006 diabetic patients infected with COVID-19, 43.7% previously exposed to metformin, 45.5% of them in monotherapy. 16.4% were admitted to hospital and 15.1% died. Users of insulin in monotherapy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.50), combined with metformin (OR 1.38, 1.13-1.69) or IDPP4 alone (OR 1.29, 1.03-1.63) had higher risk of severe outcomes than those in metformin monotherapy. Users of any insulin (OR 1.61, 1.32-1.97) or combined with metformin (OR 1.69, 1.30-2.20) had a higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving metformin monotherapy in our study showed a lower risk of hospitalization and death in comparison to those treated with other frequent antidiabetic agents. We cannot distinguish if better outcomes are related with the antidiabetic therapy or with other factors, such as metabolic control or interventions applied during the hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Spain/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Metformin/adverse effects , Insulin/adverse effects , Primary Health Care
4.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(6): 768-774, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113810

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine the differences in the continuity of health care for type 2 diabetic patients before and during COVID pandemic in family medicine depending on whether the physician who provided care finished vocational training in family medicine or not. METHODS: This retrospective longitudinal research lasted from 2018 to 2020 in eight family medicine practices on 648 patients with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before 2018, and without Sars-Cov2 infection in previous medical history in Zagreb, Croatia. Follow-up parameters (HbA1c, LDL, eGFR, blood pressure, BMI, eye fundus and neurological findings, number of check-ups and vaccination against the flu) were noted before (2018, 2019), and in the COVID period (2020) in the care of family medicine specialists (FMPs) and without it (FMPws). RESULTS: No differences were found between the gender and age of patients. A decrease was seen in existing laboratory findings (64-47%, P < 0.001), eye fundus check-ups (39-37%, P = NS), neurologist check-ups (28-25%, P = NS) and FMP check-ups (382-321, P < 0.001) during the COVID period with significant differences between FMPs and FMPws. Significant changes were seen in LDL cholesterol (2.7-2.4 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and eGFR (83-80 ml/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.002), but BMI, blood pressure and HbA1c (>7% had 42% of patients) values did not differ during the COVID period. CONCLUSION: According to the observed parameters, the continuity of care for diabetic patients in Zagreb has worsened during the COVID pandemic but remained significantly better in care of FMPs than in FMPws, without differences in achieving target values of follow-up parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Croatia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Primary Health Care , Continuity of Patient Care
5.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(4): 1093-1102, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are not many studies conducted to detect and recognize the symptoms during the prediabetes period. In our study, we aimed to determine the symptoms that can be seen in prediabetes and diabetes and their prevalence and to determine the similarities and differences between the two groups. METHODS: Individuals who were diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes, over the age of 18, literate, and accepted to collaborate were included in our study. The "Diabetes Symptoms Checklist Scale" was used by interviewing 321 participants, 161 prediabetic and 160 diabetic, face-to-face. RESULTS: It has been found that the most common symptom in both the prediabetes and the diabetes group is "fatigue" (88.2% prediabetes, 89.4% diabetes). The symptoms seen in the dimensions of neurology and hyperglycemia are more common in individuals with diabetes than in individuals with prediabetes [neurology score: 1.85 ± 0.84 vs. 1.66 ± 0.64 (p = 0.02), respectively; hyperglycemia score: 2.39 ± 0.94 vs. 2.08 ± 0.83 (p = 0.002), respectively]. It was observed that the symptom burden increased in all subdimensions with the long duration of illness, being a female, not working, having a family history, and not doing exercise, and high fasting blood glucose and high HbA1c values. The level of education, family history, accompanying hyperlipidemia, neurology, and hyperglycemia symptoms are associated with diabetes; and it has been determined that cardiology symptoms are associated with prediabetes. DISCUSSION: Especially; during the follow-up of patients with prediabetes who have a low education level and diabetic family history and concomitant hyperlipidemia, there may be an increase in neurological and hyperglycemic symptoms at the point of development of type 2 diabetes. In this respect, we recommend that these factors, which we found to be predictive of diabetes compared to prediabetes, should be questioned more carefully during patient visits.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Prediabetic State , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Blood Glucose
6.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(6): 745-752, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a telehealth intervention on metabolic outcomes and self-perceptions of the patients regarding their management of diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a non-blind randomized controlled clinical trial to assess a telehealth intervention. We included adults with diabetes mellitus. The outcomes assessed were the level of HbA1c, lipid profile, blood pressure levels, weight, body mass index and self-perceptions about diabetes management. RESULTS: A total of 150 individuals with diabetes participated in the study and at the end of telehealth intervention there were no changes in the patient's HbA1c levels between intervention and control groups for neither type 1 (8.1% vs. 8.6%; p = 0.11) nor type 2 diabetes (8.6% vs. 9.0%; p = 0.09), respectively. From the rest of the metabolic profile, triglyceride levels from type 1 diabetes group was the only variable that demonstrated improvement with telehealth intervention (66.5% intervention group vs. 86.5% control group; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: After 4 months of telehealth intervention, no statistically significant results were observed in HbA1c nor in secondary outcomes (with the exception of triglycerides for the type 1 diabetes group).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Metabolome
7.
Trials ; 23(1): 841, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programs have struggled to deliver sustainable, effective support for adults with diabetes (AWDs) to improve self-management behaviors, achieve glycemic goals, and reduce risk for complications. One largely untapped resource for this support is AWDs' social networks. Fifty to 75% of AWDs have an unpaid family member or friend ("support person") who provides ongoing help with diabetes management. However, DSMES interventions to date lack structured and effective approaches to directly engage support persons in AWDs' diabetes management. METHODS: This parallel arm randomized trial is designed to determine the effectiveness of Family Support for Health Action (FAM-ACT), a novel community health worker (CHW)-delivered program focused on educating and supporting patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their support persons (SPs), relative to an established, CHW-delivered, individual patient-focused DSMES and care management (I-DSMES) intervention. Both interventions were developed using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. The study will be conducted in partnership with an urban Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) serving a low-income, Latino/a community, with target enrollment of 268 dyads consisting of an FQHC patient with T2D with high HbA1c and an SP. Patient-SP dyads will be randomized to receive FAM-ACT or I-DSMES over 6 months. The primary outcome is change in patient HbA1c from baseline to 6 months. Secondary patient outcomes include 12-month change in HbA1c, changes in patient blood pressure, diabetes self-management behaviors, diabetes distress, patient activation, diabetes self-efficacy, and perceptions of and satisfaction with SP support for diabetes. Secondary SP outcomes include self-efficacy for helping the patient with diabetes management and SP distress about the patient's diabetes. We also will assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient's ability to manage diabetes. DISCUSSION: This study will inform scalable, evidence-based approaches that leverage family support to help AWDs improve and sustain self-management strategies that underpin optimal management of multiple diabetes complication risk factors. The protocol is designed for and evaluated with a low-income and predominantly Latino/a community, which may increase applicability to other similar communities. The COVID-19 pandemic presented several challenges to study protocol and intervention delivery; modifications made to address these challenges are described. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03812614. Registered on 18 January 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Community Health Workers , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(7): 872-902, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052902

ABSTRACT

Since the 2018 ISPAD guidelines on this topic, follow-up of large cohorts from around the globe have continued informing the current incidence and prevalence of co-morbidities and complications in young adults with youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). This chapter focuses on the risk factors, diagnosis and presentation of youth-onset T2D, the initial and subsequent management of youth-onset T2D, and management of co-morbidities and complications. We include key updates from the observational phase of the multi-center Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study and new data from the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) study, a head-to-head comparison of youth onset vs adult-onset T2D. We also include an expanded section on risk factors associated with T2D, algorithms and tables for treatment, management, and assessment of co-morbidities and complications, and sections on recently approved pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of youth-onset T2D, social determinants of health, and settings of care given COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 262-264, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046183

ABSTRACT

In this study, with a psychodiagnostic survey, we wanted to evaluate the possible presence of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The sample of 106 type 2 diabetic patients consisted of three groups. Group A of 80 patients interviewed in 2017 at the Olbia clinic, group A-1 (a subgroup of A), of 41 patients with a follow-up after 5 years from the first examination in 2017 and group B of 26 new type 2 diabetic patients examined for the first time in 2022. All subject underwent an interview and and have completed the following validated questionnaires: Questionnaire for Mood Disorders (MDQ), Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Montgomery-Asberg Scale for Depression (MADRS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAR -S) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). The objective of the follow-up was to evaluate the possible emotional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the research is to evaluate the correlation between any depressive symptoms and diabetes.


Subject(s)
Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 191: 110051, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004014

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess if patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are: a) at excess risk of undergoing testing, contracting, and dying from SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to the general population; b) whether cardiovascular diseases (CAVDs) contribute to COVID-19-related death; and c) what is the effect of DM2 duration and control on COVID-19-related death. METHODS: This population-based study involved all 449,440 adult residents of the Reggio Emilia province, Italy. DM2 patients were divided in groups by COVID testing, presence of CAVDs and COVID death. Several mediation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Patients with DM2 had an increased likelihood of being tested (Odds ratio, OR 1.27 95 %CI 1.23-1.30), testing positive (OR 1.21 95 %CI 1.16-1.26) and dying from COVID-19 (OR 1.75 95 %CI 1.54-2.00). COVID-19-related death was almost three times higher among obese vs non-obese patients with DM2 (OR 4.3 vs 1.6, respectively). For COVID-19 death, CAVDs mediated a) just 5.1 % of the total effect of DM2, b) 40 % of the effect of DM2 duration, and c) did not mediate the effect of glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: For COVID-19-related deaths in DM2 patients, the effect is mostly direct, obesity amplifies it, DM2 control and duration are important predictors, while CAVDs only slightly mediates it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Diabetes ; 14(8): 532-540, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001585

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Initial reports show an increase in youth onset type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to expand on existing evidence by analyzing trends over a longer period. OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to describe change in the amount, severity, and demographics of youth onset type 2 diabetes diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the five years before. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional review of youth (age ≤ 21) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic (1 May 2020-30 April 2021) and the five years before (1 May 2015-30 April 2020) at a tertiary care center. Children were identified by International Classification of Diseases codes. Charts were reviewed to confirm diagnosis. Chi-square, t tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for analyses. RESULTS: In the prepandemic era annual diagnoses of type 2 diabetes ranged from 41-69 (mean = 54.2), whereas during the pandemic period 159 children were diagnosed, an increase of 293%. The increase resulted in a higher incidence rate ratio during the pandemic than before, 2.77 versus 1.07 (p = .006). New diagnoses increased most, by 490%, in Non-Hispanic Black patients. The average HbA1c at presentation was higher during the pandemic (9.5% ± 2.6) (79.9 mmol/mol ± 28.2) than before (8.7%±2.1) (72.1 mmol/mol ± 23.1) (p = .003). Of those diagnosed during the pandemic, 59% were tested for COVID-19 and three tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: New diagnoses of type 2 diabetes increased during the pandemic, most notably in Non-Hispanic Black youth. There was not a significant correlation found with clinical or biochemical COVID-19 infection in those tested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(5): 658-663, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983798

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study was carried out to investigate fear levels, treatment compliance, and metabolic control of type II Diabetes Mellitus patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study employed a single-center, observational design and was conducted between January and April 2021. The study consisted of 303 patients who attended the internal medicine outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Turkey. For data collection, the Patient Identification Form, COVID-19 Fear Scale, and the Type II Diabetes Treatment Compliance Scale were used. The study complied with the Helsinki Declaration criteria. IBM SPSS v25.0 statistics package program was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 45.8 ± 7.5 years, the mean duration of illness was 8.2 ± 3.6 years. Moreover, 40.6% of patients presented with poor levels of treatment compliance. In addition, the mean FCV-19S score of the patients was 29.1 ± 3.05. It was noticeable that those with high mean scores of FCV-19S had poor compliance with treatment and metabolic control during the pandemic (p < 0.05). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Fear of COVID-19 negatively affects treatment compliance and metabolic control of type II diabetes patients. The patients avoided attending their regular follow-ups at the hospital due to fear of contracting COVID-19. In order to reduce the fear of COVID-19 it is paramount to maintain optimum metabolic control and treatment compliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Compliance
14.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(5): 640-643, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937064

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To understand the associations between sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and COVID-19-related changes in physical activity and diet and the reported number of days per week participants engaged in physical activity and consumed fruits and vegetables for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Respondents from Arkansas primary care clinics completed a survey between October 2020 and January 2021. Multivariable regression determined associations between sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and COVID-19-related changes in physical activity and diet and the reported number of days per week participants engaged in physical activity and consumed fruits and vegetables. RESULTS: Respondents exercised for at least 30 min on a mean of 2.09 days and consumed five or more fruit and vegetable servings on a mean of 3.57 days. Males engaged in one additional day of physical activity compared to women. Respondents with a college degree or higher ate 5 or more fruit and vegetable servings on fewer days per week than those with a high school education or less. CONCLUSIONS: Results reaffirm a need for diabetes education programs and health care providers to provide information on the importance of maintaining physical activity and a healthy diet as part of a self-care plan for T2DM, especially during public health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diet , Exercise , Female , Fruit , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Vegetables
15.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(5): 644-649, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To mitigate the spread of COVID-19, Saudi Arabia implemented a nationwide lockdown that lasted for approximately five months. Due to the limited availability of telemedicine in Saudi Arabia, many people with diabetes (PWD) lost access to diabetes care services during the lockdown period. Here, we examined the impact of lockdown on cardiometabolic health in PWD and how this may have differed between those who utilized diabetes telemedicine during lockdown versus those who did not. METHODS: Hemoglobin A1C (A1C), body weight, lipid, and other cardiometabolic parameters were retrospectively reviewed in 384 PWD who attended routine clinic visits in the pre-lockdown (September 2019 to March 2020) and post-lockdown (Aug to Dec 2020) periods. Changes in cardiometabolic parameters from pre- to post-lockdown were compared across 3 groups according to the type of visit that they had during lockdown (April to July 2020): "no visit" (n = 215), "in-person" visit (n = 44), or "virtual" visit (n = 125). The virtual visits in our institution followed a simplified protocol that utilized technological tools readily available to most PWD and clinicians. RESULTS: PWD who attended "virtual" visits during lockdown were the youngest and most likely to have type 1 diabetes; followed by those who attended "in-person" visits and those who had "no visit". A significant reduction in A1C from pre- to post-lockdown periods was noted in PWD who attended a "virtual visit" (9.02 to 8.27%, respectively, p < 0.01) and those who attended an "in-person" visit (9.18 to 8.43%, respectively, p < 0.05) but not in those who had "no visit" (8.75 to 8.57%, p > 0.05). No significant changes were noted in serum glucose, blood pressure, or lipid parameters during the lockdown in any of the groups. CONCLUSION: Simplified telemedicine visits, including real-time audio calls, were as effective as in-person visits in improving glycemic control in PWD during the lockdown period in a country where telemedicine infrastructure was not well-established. Older adults and those with type 2 diabetes were less likely to utilize telemedicine; suggesting a potential risk of digital divide that warrants greater attention in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Lipids , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 446, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Muscle health decline with age, but its deterioration in older persons with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) over time is not well-established. This study aimed to determine the change in muscle mass, handgrip strength and gait speed over time among community-dwelling ambulatory older multi-ethnic Asian patients with T2DM and their associated factors. METHODS: Among 387 eligible patients aged 60-89 years who were recruited at baseline, 348 (89.9%) were reviewed at a public primary care clinic in Singapore in the subsequent 9 to 34 months. The change in their clinical and functional status, levels of physical activity and muscle status (mass, grip strength and gait speed based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria) were recorded and compared. Their physical activity levels were assessed using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Their quality of life was evaluated based on the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) domains. Linear regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with muscle health change. RESULTS: The study population comprised men (52.9%), Chinese (69.3%), mean age of 68.4 ± SD5.6 years and had at least secondary education (76.4%). Their mean muscle mass significantly decreased by 0.03 ± SD0.06 kg/m2/month, mean handgrip strength by 0.06 ± SD0.26 kg/month and negligible change in gait speed of 0.002 ± SD0.01 m/sec/month. Their mean weight significantly decreased by 0.5 ± SD3.9 kg, waist and hip circumferences by 2.5 ± SD6cm and 3.2 ± SD5.1 cm respectively, with no change in BMI. Linear regression shows significant associations between muscle mass change and education level (ß = 0.36,p = 0.012, 95% CI = 0.08-0.64), BMI (ß = 0.11,p = < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.05-0.17), change in medication class (ß = 0.39,p = < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.06-0.71) and review interval (ß = - 0.003, p < 0.001, 95% CI = -0.004--0.002). Gait speed change was associated with singlehood (ß = - 0.13,p = 0.029, 95% CI = -0.25--0.01) and WHOQOL physical health (ß = 0.01,p = 0.024, 95% CI = 0.00-0.02) domain. No factor was associated with handgrip strength change. CONCLUSIONS: The study population with T2DM showed significant decline in their mean weight, waist and hip circumferences, mean muscle mass and mean grip strength but gait speed was unaffected. Muscle mass change was associated with education level, BMI and length of review interval. Handgrip strength change was not significantly correlated with any factor. Gait speed change was associated with singlehood and physical health.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asians , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Independent Living , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Muscle Strength , Muscles , Quality of Life , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Walking Speed
17.
Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care ; 48(4): 204-212, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879213

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of implementing A1C self-testing at home using the A1CNow® Self Check and to compare the accuracy of the A1CNow to a reference standard in African Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: African American adults with T2D were recruited from 13 different churches (N = 123). Phase 1, conducted during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, examined the feasibility of A1C assessment using the A1CNow performed at home by untrained participants. Phase 2, conducted when in-person research resumed, compared A1C values concurrently measured using the A1CNow and the DCA Vantage™ Analyzer (reference standard) collected by research staff at church testing sites. RESULTS: In Phase 1, 98.8% of participants successfully completed at least 1 at-home A1C test; the overall failure rate was 24.7%. In Phase 2, the failure rate of staff-performed A1CNow testing was 4.4%. The Bland-Altman plot reveals that A1CNow values were 0.68% lower than DCA values, and the mean differences (A1CNow minus DCA) ranged from -2.6% to 1.2% with a limit of agreement between -1.9% to 0.5%. CONCLUSIONS: A1C self-testing is feasible for use in community settings involving African American adults with T2D. The A1CNow Self-Check underestimated A1C values when compared with the reference standard. Ongoing improvements in point-of-care devices have the potential to expand research and clinical care, especially in underserved communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , African Americans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Self-Testing
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875480

ABSTRACT

Glucose management indicator (GMI) is frequently used as a substitute for HbA1c, especially when using telemedicine. Discordances between GMI and HbA1c were previously mostly reported in populations with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using real-time CGM. Our aim was to investigate the accordance between GMI and HbA1c in patients with diabetes using intermittent scanning CGM (isCGM). In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with diabetes who used isCGM >70% of the time of the investigated time periods were included. GMI of four different time spans (between 14 and 30 days), covering a period of 3 months, reflected by the HbA1c, were investigated. The influence of clinical- and isCGM-derived parameters on the discordance was assessed. We included 278 patients (55% T1DM; 33% type 2 diabetes (T2DM)) with a mean HbA1c of 7.63%. The mean GMI of the four time periods was between 7.19% and 7.25%. On average, the absolute deviation between the four calculated GMIs and HbA1c ranged from 0.6% to 0.65%. The discordance was greater with increased BMI, a diagnosis of T2DM, and a greater difference between the most recent GMI and GMI assessed 8 to 10 weeks prior to HbA1c assessment. Our data shows that, especially in patients with increased BMI and T2DM, this difference is more pronounced and should therefore be considered when making therapeutic decisions.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Obesity , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 7093707, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854489

ABSTRACT

Aims: We previously showed that the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) testing frequency links to diabetes control. Here, we examine the effect of variability in test interval, adjusted for the frequency, on change in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c). Materials & Methods. HbA1c results were collected on 83,872 people with HbA1c results at baseline and 5 years (±3 months) later and ≥6 tests during this period. We calculated the standard deviation (SD) of test interval for each individual and examined the link between deciles of SD of the test interval and ΔHbA1c level, stratified by baseline HbA1c. Results: In general, less variability in testing frequency (more consistent monitoring) was associated with better diabetes control. This was most evident with moderately raised baseline HbA1c levels (7.0-9.0% (54-75 mmol/mol)). For example, in those with a starting HbA1c of 7.0-7.5% (54-58 mmol/mol), the lowest SD decile was associated with little change in HbA1c over 5 years, while for those with the highest decile, HbA1c rose by 0.4-0.6% (4-6 mmol/mol; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that the association was independent of the age/sex/hospital site. Subanalysis suggested that the effect was most pronounced in those aged <65 years with baseline HbA1c of 7.0-7.5% (54-58 mmol/mol). We observed a 6.7-fold variation in the proportion of people in the top-three SD deciles across general practices. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the consistency of testing interval, not the just number of tests/year, is important in maintaining diabetes control, especially in those with moderately raised HbA1c levels. Systems to improve regularity of HbA1c testing are therefore needed, especially given the impact of COVID-19 on diabetes monitoring.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Reproducibility of Results
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