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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e072353, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243288

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: South Asians are more likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than white Europeans. Diet and lifestyle modifications may prevent GDM and reduce undesirable outcomes in both the mother and offspring. Our study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness and participant acceptability of a culturally tailored, personalised nutrition intervention on the glucose area under the curve (AUC) after a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant women of South Asian ancestry with GDM risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 190 South Asian pregnant women with at least 2 of the following GDM risk factors-prepregnancy body mass index>23, age>29, poor-quality diet, family history of type 2 diabetes in a first-degree relative or GDM in a previous pregnancy will be enrolled during gestational weeks 12-18, and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to: (1) usual care, plus weekly text messages to encourage walking and paper handouts or (2) a personalised nutrition plan developed and delivered by a culturally congruent dietitian and health coach; and FitBit to track steps. The intervention lasts 6-16 weeks, depending on week of recruitment. The primary outcome is the glucose AUC from a three-sample 75 g OGTT 24-28 weeks' gestation. The secondary outcome is GDM diagnosis, based on Born-in-Bradford criteria (fasting glucose>5.2 mmol/L or 2 hours post load>7.2 mmol/L). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HiREB #10942). Findings will be disseminated among academics and policy-makers through scientific publications along with community-orientated strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03607799.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Risk Factors , Blood Glucose , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Endocr Rev ; 43(5): 763-793, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319684

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) traditionally refers to abnormal glucose tolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM has long been associated with obstetric and neonatal complications primarily relating to higher infant birthweight and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for future maternal and offspring cardiometabolic disease. The prevalence of GDM continues to rise internationally due to epidemiological factors including the increase in background rates of obesity in women of reproductive age and rising maternal age and the implementation of the revised International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups' criteria and diagnostic procedures for GDM. The current lack of international consensus for the diagnosis of GDM reflects its complex historical evolution and pragmatic antenatal resource considerations given GDM is now 1 of the most common complications of pregnancy. Regardless, the contemporary clinical approach to GDM should be informed not only by its short-term complications but also by its longer term prognosis. Recent data demonstrate the effect of early in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia, with evidence for fetal overgrowth present prior to the traditional diagnosis of GDM from 24 weeks' gestation, as well as the durable adverse impact of maternal hyperglycemia on child and adolescent metabolism. The major contribution of GDM to the global epidemic of intergenerational cardiometabolic disease highlights the importance of identifying GDM as an early risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, broadening the prevailing clinical approach to address longer term maternal and offspring complications following a diagnosis of GDM.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Hyperglycemia , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Fetal Macrosomia , Glucose , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
3.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 21(4): 177-187, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314486

ABSTRACT

People with cardiometabolic diseases [namely type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, or metabolic syndrome] are more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and endure more severe illness and poorer outcomes. Hyperinflammation has been suggested as a common pathway for both diseases. To examine the role of inflammatory biomarkers shared between COVID-19 and cardiometabolic diseases, we reviewed and evaluated published data using PubMed, SCOPUS, and World Health Organization COVID-19 databases for English articles from December 2019 to February 2022. Of 248 identified articles, 50 were selected and included. We found that people with diabetes or obesity have (i) increased risk of COVID-19 infection; (ii) increased risk of hospitalization (those with diabetes have a higher risk of intensive care unit admissions) and death; and (iii) heightened inflammatory and stress responses (hyperinflammation) to COVID-19, which worsen their prognosis. In addition, COVID-19-infected patients have a higher risk of developing T2D, especially if they have other comorbidities. Treatments controlling blood glucose levels and or ameliorating the inflammatory response may be valuable for improving clinical outcomes in these patient populations. In conclusion, it is critical for health care providers to clinically evaluate hyperinflammatory states to drive clinical decisions for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation , Comorbidity , Obesity/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology
4.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 25(6): 521-533, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313695

ABSTRACT

High blood pressure (BP) and type-2 diabetes (T2DM) are forerunners of chronic kidney disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Home BP telemonitoring (HTM) and urinary peptidomic profiling (UPP) are technologies enabling risk stratification and personalized prevention. UPRIGHT-HTM (NCT04299529) is an investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, randomized trial with blinded endpoint evaluation designed to assess the efficacy of HTM plus UPP (experimental group) over HTM alone (control group) in guiding treatment in asymptomatic patients, aged 55-75 years, with ≥5 cardiovascular risk factors. From screening onwards, HTM data can be freely accessed by all patients and their caregivers; UPP results are communicated early during follow-up to patients and caregivers in the intervention group, but at trial closure in the control group. From May 2021 until January 2023, 235 patients were screened, of whom 53 were still progressing through the run-in period and 144 were randomized. Both groups had similar characteristics, including average age (62.0 years) and the proportions of African Blacks (81.9%), White Europeans (16.7%), women 56.2%, home (31.2%), and office (50.0%) hypertension, T2DM (36.4%), micro-albuminuria (29.4%), and ECG (9.7%) and echocardiographic (11.5%) left ventricular hypertrophy. Home and office BP were 128.8/79.2 mm Hg and 137.1/82.7 mm Hg, respectively, resulting in a prevalence of white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension of 40.3%, 11.1%, and 25.7%. HTM persisted after randomization (48 681 readings up to 15 January 2023). In conclusion, results predominantly from low-resource sub-Saharan centers proved the feasibility of this multi-ethnic trial. The COVID-19 pandemic caused delays and differential recruitment rates across centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Research Report , Pandemics , Health Care Reform , Proteomics , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 5(7): 100969, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether continuous glucose monitor use in type 2 diabetes mellitus in pregnancy is associated with improved perinatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane library from inception through May 9, 2022. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included all studies that compared continuous glucose monitor use with fingerstick glucose monitoring in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The initial search yielded 2463 unique citations that were screened in Covidence by 2 independent reviewers. Study types included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies. Our outcomes of interest were macrosomia or large-for-gestational-age infants, hemoglobin A1c, cesarean delivery, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia, gestational age at delivery, and neonatal hypoglycemia. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. We performed random-effects meta-analyses of estimates from 2 studies without risk of significant bias and reported summary adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis of 56 women with continuous glucose monitor use and 53 control women without continuous glucose monitor use showed that there was no difference in the incidence of large-for-gestational-age infants between continuous glucose monitor users and standard-of-care controls (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1.78) with an I2 of 0%. In addition, there was no difference in the development of preeclampsia between continuous glucose monitor users and standard-of-care controls (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-7.22) with an I2 of 0%. CONCLUSION: Continuous glucose monitor use was not associated with improved perinatal outcomes as assessed by large-for-gestational-age infants and preeclampsia. This review is limited by the small amount of data available for this population, and further research is needed.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Endocr Regul ; 57(1): 53-60, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281880

ABSTRACT

Objective. Nowadays, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting an estimated 5-10% of adults worldwide, and this disease also rapidly increased among the population in the Kurdistan region. This research aims to identify DNA methylation change in the TCF7L2 gene as a possible predictive T2D biomarker. Methods. One hundred and thirteen participants were divided into three groups: diabetic (47), prediabetic (36), and control (30). The study was carried out in patients who visited the private clinical sector between August and December 2021 in Koya city (Iraq Kurdistan region) to determine DNA methylation status using a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) with paired primers for each methylated and non-methylated region. In addition, the X2 Kruskal-Wallis statistical and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used, p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The results showed hypermethylation of DNA in the promoter region in diabetic and prediabetic groups compared to the healthy controls. Different factors affected the DNA methylation level, including body max index, alcohol consumption, family history, and physical activity with the positive Coronavirus. Conclusion. The results obtained indicate that DNA methylation changes in the TCF7L2 promoter region may be used as a potential predictive biomarker of the T2D diagnosis. However, the findings obtained in this study should be supported by additional data.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Adult , Humans , DNA Methylation/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/genetics , Iraq , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Biomarkers , Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein/genetics
8.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(3): 238-241, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251093

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study aim was to evaluate the effects of public lockdown during the covid-19 pandemic on glucose and metabolic parameters as well as body weight control in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: This study was conducted in two outpatient Diabetes Clinics and analyzed data available in database of Diabetes Clinic. Data related to a year before covid-19 pandemic and a year during covid-19 pandemic was collected from the database and analyzed. Patients with type 2 diabetes included in the analysis if they had referred to Diabetes Clinics both before and during covid-19 pandemic. Demographic information and data about metabolic status were collected from the records of previous outpatient Clinic visits and compared RESULTS: Finally 9440 patients with mean age of 61.08 ± 11.62 referred to Diabetes Clinics in both the year before and the year of the corona pandemic. Mean FBS and HbA1c in diabetes patients reduced significantly from 155.37 ± 62.93 and 7.97 ± 1.74 before pandemic, respectively to 138.77 ± 45.39 and 7.54 ± 1.34, respectively during covid-19 outbreak. During covid-19 pandemic, all metabolic parameters including glycemic and lipid profile (except for triglyceride) and BMI (body mass index) reduced significantly statistically, but, these changes were not clinically significant. However, triglyceride level increased statistically significantly but again it was not significant clinically. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19 lockdown, glycemic and metabolic control of diabetes patients have improved significantly except for triglycerides.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Communicable Disease Control , Triglycerides , Ambulatory Care
9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 211, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of people in Northern Iceland with prediabetes, at risk of developing T2DM or with manifest undiagnosed T2DM, as this information is lacking in Iceland. METHODS: A cross-sectional study. Clients of the three largest primary health care centres in the Health Care Institution of North Iceland (HSN) were invited to participate if fulfilling the following inclusion criteria: a) aged between 18 and 75 years, b) not diagnosed with diabetes, c) speaking and understanding Icelandic or English fluently and d) living in the included service area. Data collection took place via face-to-face interviews between 1 March 2020 and 15 May 2021. Participation included answering the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC), measuring the HbA1c levels and background information. RESULTS: Of the 220 participants, 65.9% were women. The mean age was 52.1 years (SD ± 14.1) and FINDRISC scores were as follows: 47.3% scored ≤8 points, 37.2% scored between 9 and 14 points, and 15.5% scored between 15 and 26 points. The mean HbA1c levels in mmol/mol, were 35.5 (SD ± 3.9) for men and 34.4 (SD ± 3.4) for women, ranging from 24 to 47. Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 was found in 32% of men and 35.9% of women. Prevalence of prediabetes in this cohort was 13.2%. None of the participants had undiagnosed T2DM. Best sensitivity and specificity for finding prediabetes was by using cut-off points of ≥11 on FINDRISC, which gave a ROC curve of 0.814. CONCLUSIONS: The FINDRISC is a non-invasive and easily applied screening instrument for prediabetes. Used in advance of other more expensive and invasive testing, it can enable earlier intervention by assisting decision making, health promotion actions and prevention of the disease burden within primary health care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is a pre-phase of the registered study "Effectiveness of Nurse-coordinated Follow up Program in Primary Care for People at risk of T2DM" at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov (NCT01688359). Registered 30 December 2020.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Finland/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors
10.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(3): 229-237, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect directly from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on health and fatality has received considerable attention, particularly among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, evidence on the indirect impact of disrupted healthcare services during the pandemic on people with T2DM is limited. This systematic review aims to assess the indirect impact of the pandemic on the metabolic management of T2DM people without a history of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies that compared diabetes-related health outcomes between pre-pandemic and during-pandemic periods in people with T2DM and without the COVID-19 infection and published from January 1, 2020, to July 13, 2022. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the overall effect on the diabetes indicators, including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profiles, and weight control, with different effect models according to the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Eleven observational studies were included in the final review. No significant changes in HbA1c levels [weighted mean difference (WMD), 0.06 (95% CI -0.12 to 0.24)] and body weight index (BMI) [0.15 (95% CI -0.24 to 0.53)] between the pre-pandemic and during-pandemic were found in the meta-analysis. Four studies reported lipid indicators; most reported insignificant changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 2) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 3); two studies reported an increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride. CONCLUSIONS: This review did not find significant changes in HbA1c and BMI among people with T2DM after data pooling, but a possible worsening in lipids parameters during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were limited data on long-term outcomes and healthcare utilization, which warrants further research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022360433.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Pandemics , Glycated Hemoglobin , COVID-19/epidemiology , Lipoproteins, HDL
12.
Trials ; 24(1): 218, 2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266553

ABSTRACT

The "Diabetes: Community-led Awareness, Response and Evaluation" (D:Clare) trial aims to scale up and replicate an evidence-based participatory learning and action cycle intervention in Bangladesh, to inform policy on population-level T2DM prevention and control.The trial was originally designed as a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial, with the interventions running from March 2020 to September 2022. Twelve clusters were randomly allocated (1:1) to implement the intervention at months 1 or 12 in two steps, and evaluated through three cross-sectional surveys at months 1, 12 and 24. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we suspended project activities on the 20th of March 2020. As a result of the changed risk landscape and the delays introduced by the COVID-19 pandemic, we changed from the stepped-wedge design to a wait-list parallel arm cluster RCT (cRCT) with baseline data. We had four key reasons for eventually agreeing to change designs: equipoise, temporal bias in exposure and outcomes, loss of power and time and funding considerations.Trial registration ISRCTN42219712 . Registered on 31 October 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 38(2): 245-252, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254970

ABSTRACT

BACKGRUOUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause various extrapulmonary sequelae, including diabetes. However, it is unclear whether these effects persist 30 days after diagnosis. Hence, we investigated the incidence of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the post-acute phase of COVID-19. METHODS: This cohort study used data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, a representative national healthcare database in Korea. We established a cohort of 348,180 individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 without a history of diabetes between January 2020 and September 2021. The control group consisted of sex- and age-matched individuals with neither a history of diabetes nor COVID-19. We assessed the hazard ratios (HR) of newly diagnosed T2DM patients with COVID-19 compared to controls, adjusted for age, sex, and the presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. RESULTS: In the post-acute phase, patients with COVID-19 had an increased risk of newly diagnosed T2DM compared to those without COVID-19 (adjusted HR, 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 1.33). The adjusted HRs of non-hospitalized, hospitalized, and intensive care unit-admitted patients were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.19), 1.34 (95% CI, 1.30 to 1.38), and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.59 to 1.99), respectively. The risk of T2DM in patients who were not administered glucocorticoids also increased (adjusted HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.32). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may increase the risk of developing T2DM beyond the acute period. The higher the severity of COVID-19 in the acute phase, the higher the risk of newly diagnosed T2DM. Therefore, T2DM should be included as a component of managing long-term COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Adult , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Incidence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
14.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(2): 113-118, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is known to be linked to malfunctioning antiviral defense; however, its association with the severity of monkeypox is poorly understood. In this review, we discuss key immunological mechanisms in the antiviral response affected by poor glucose control that could impact the susceptibility and severity of monkeypox infection, leading to a heightened emphasis on the use of the available antidiabetic drugs. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google scholar for articles published from January 1985 to August 2022. No criteria for publication data were set, and all articles in English were included. RESULTS: Currently, there are no studies about the risk or consequences of monkeypox infection in the diabetic population. A high incidence of diabetes is reported in countries such as China, India, Pakistan, EUA, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, Bangladesh, Japan, and Egypt, where unfortunately imported cases of monkeypox have been reported and the infection continues to spread. CONCLUSIONS: High incidence of diabetes together with the cessation of smallpox vaccination has left large numbers of the human population unprotected against monkeypox. The best option for the population remains confined to the prevention of infection as well as the use of hypoglycemic agents that have also been shown to improve immune mechanisms associated with viral protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 294, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2-diabetes mellitus (T2D), are characterized by visceral and ectopic adipose tissue expansion, leading to systemic chronic low-grade inflammation. As visceral adiposity is associated with severe COVID-19 irrespective of obesity, we aimed to evaluate and compare the predictive value for early intensive care or death of three fat depots (cardiac, visceral and subcutaneous) using computed tomography (CT) at admission for COVID-19 in consecutive patients with and without T2D. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients admitted for COVID-19 were retrospectively included between February and June 2020 and distributed in two groups: T2D or non-diabetic controls. Chest CT with cardiac (CATi), visceral (VATi) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATi) volume measurements were performed at admission. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome criteria including death or ICU admission at day 21 after admission. Threshold values of adipose tissue components predicting adverse outcome were determined. RESULTS: One hundred and eight controls [median age: 76(IQR:59-83), 61% male, median BMI: 24(22-27)] and ninety-four T2D patients [median age: 70(IQR:61-77), 70% male, median BMI: 27(24-31)], were enrolled in this study. At day 21 after admission, 42 patients (21%) had died from COVID-19, 48 (24%) required intensive care and 112 (55%) were admitted to a conventional care unit (CMU). In T2D, CATi was associated with early death or ICU independently from age, sex, BMI, dyslipidemia, CRP and coronary calcium (CAC). (p = 0.005). Concerning T2D patients, the cut-point for CATi was > 100 mL/m2 with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.50 (AUC = 0.67, p = 0.004) and an OR of 4.71 for early ICU admission or mortality (p = 0.002) in the fully adjusted model. Other adipose tissues SATi or VATi were not significantly associated with early adverse outcomes. In control patients, age and male sex (OR = 1.03, p = 0.04) were the only predictors of ICU or death. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac adipose tissue volume measured in CT at admission was independently predictive of early intensive care or death in T2D patients with COVID-19 but not in non-diabetics. Such automated CT measurement could be used in routine in diabetic patients presenting with moderate to severe COVID-19 illness to optimize individual management and prevent critical evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis
16.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 23(8): 1041-1045, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Italian population's habits changed dramatically during the "COVID- 19 lockdown" due to physical distancing and self-isolation. Moreover, medical consultations of patients with chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), were suspended or postponed, unless urgent or semi-urgent, for several consecutive months. Thus, it is expected that the lockdown could have affected glucometabolic control in T2D. v Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess changes in glucometabolic control in a cohort of T2D patients before (T1) and after (T2) the COVID-19 lockdown (March-May 2020). METHODS: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Bari, and all patients provided informed written consent to participate. Medical history, complete physical examination, and laboratory assessment were conducted as real-life clinical practice. Changes in clinical and laboratory variables between T1 and T2 were calculated. RESULTS: In detail, 13 patients were on metformin as monotherapy, 36 on GLP-1RA, 12 on sodiumglucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i), and 2 on dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i). The mean age was 65.3 years (43-83). Study participants were mainly men (73%). The body weight (BW) ranged from 56 to 145 kg, and the waist circumference ranged from 88 to 146 cm. The mean HbA1c was 51.0 mmol/mol. At T2, no statistically significant changes were observed frombaseline except for BW [-1.6 (-2.60 to -0.62)] and HbA1c [-2.90 (-4.69; -1.12)]. CONCLUSION: We evaluated the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on glucometabolic control in patients with background well-controlled T2D. We found that the lockdown had no adverse effects on metabolic profile regardless of background clinical characteristics and antihyperglycemic management. Despite limitations due to the nature of this study (sample size, retrospective observation, lack of data on lifestyle changes in our patients' everyday lives), T2D patients managed in our Diabetes Centers faced the lockdown-related restrictions without any detrimental consequence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Body Weight
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 282, 2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is increased in people with diabetes, but effects of diabetes type and other risk factors remain incompletely characterized. We studied this in a Swedish cohort of hospitalized patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), also including comparisons with influenza epidemics of recent years. METHODS: Nationwide healthcare registries were used to identify patients. A total of 11,005 adult patients with diabetes (T1D, n = 373; T2D, n = 10,632) were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from January 1, 2020 to September 1, 2021. Moreover, 5111 patients with diabetes (304 T1D, 4807 T2D) were hospitalized due to influenza from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019. Main outcomes were death within 28 days after admission and new hospitalizations for heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiorenal disease (CRD; composite of HF and CKD), myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke during 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: Number of deaths and CRD events were 2025 and 442 with COVID-19 and 259 and 525 with influenza, respectively. Age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models in COVID-19 showed higher risk of death and HF in T1D vs. T2D, hazard ratio (HR) 1.77 (95% confidence interval 1.41-2.22) and 2.57 (1.31-5.05). With influenza, T1D was associated with higher risk of death compared with T2D, HR 1.80 (1.26-2.57). Older age and previous CRD were associated with higher risks of death and hospitalization for CRD. After adjustment for prior comorbidities, mortality differences were still significant, but there were no significant differences in cardiovascular and renal outcomes. COVID-19 relative to influenza was associated with higher risk of death in both T1D and T2D, HR 2.44 (1.60-3.72) and 2.81 (2.59-3.06), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In Sweden, patients with T1D as compared to T2D had a higher age- and sex-adjusted risk of death within 28 days and HF within one year after COVID-19 hospitalization, whereas the risks of other non-fatal cardiovascular and renal disease events were similar. Patients with T1D as well as T2D have a greater mortality rate when hospitalized due to COVID-19 compared to influenza, underscoring the importance of vaccination and other preventive measures against COVID-19 for diabetes patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Failure , Influenza, Human , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Sweden/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/complications , Routinely Collected Health Data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications
18.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(1): 3-11, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. It also has a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the covid 19 pandemic. Due to pandemic measures, disruptions have emerged in the care treatments of patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to determine the effects of telehealth monitoring and patient training on the symptoms and metabolic outcomes in the patients with type 2 diabetes who are at risk of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: The current study is in the design of a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized into intervention group (n=41) and control group (n = 44). The patients in the intervention group received diabetes training once a week for the first 4 weeks and every other week for weeks 5-12. No training was given to the control group. The data was collected using the socio-demographic information form, the questionnaire of diabetes treatment, the form of metabolic control variables, and the Diabetes Symptoms Checklist. The data was analyzed with Chi-square, independent samples t-test, and paired sample t-test. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the control group was 56.86 ± 9.40, and the mean age of those in the intervention group was 54.12 ± 8.32. After the training, a statistically significant difference was found between the checklist averages of the groups in the subscale of hyperglycemia. However, a statistically significant difference was found between the subscales of neurology, cardiology, cognition, hyperglycemia, and the total checklist averages in the intervention group before and after the training (p < 0.05). In the control group, there was a statistically significant difference between the subscale of hyperglycemia and the total checklist averages at the beginning and 3 months later (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: It has been determined that the disease training given to the patients with diabetes via telehealth monitoring during the COVID-19 process has a positive effect on the diabetes control of the patients. Health education through telehealth methods can be an effective and cost-effective strategy to support patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Single-Blind Method , Educational Status
19.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 444, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that patients recovering after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may have a variety of acute sequelae including newly diagnosed diabetes. However, the risk of diabetes in the post-acute phase is unclear. To solve this question, we aimed to determine if there was any association between status post-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and a new diagnosis of diabetes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies assessing new-onset diabetes after COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were all searched from inception to June 10, 2022. Three evaluators independently extracted individual study data and assessed the risk of bias. Random-effects models estimated the pooled incidence and relative risk (RR) of diabetes compared to non-COVID-19 after COVID-19. RESULTS: Nine studies with nearly 40 million participants were included. Overall, the incidence of diabetes after COVID-19 was 15.53 (7.91-25.64) per 1000 person-years, and the relative risk of diabetes after COVID-19 infection was elevated (RR 1.62 [1.45-1.80]). The relative risk of type 1 diabetes was RR=1.48 (1.26-1.75) and type 2 diabetes was RR=1.70 (1.32-2.19), compared to non-COVID-19 patients. At all ages, there was a statistically significant positive association between infection with COVID-19 and the risk of diabetes: <18 years: RR=1.72 (1.19-2.49), ≥18 years: RR=1.63 (1.26-2.11), and >65 years: RR=1.68 (1.22-2.30). The relative risk of diabetes in different gender groups was about 2 (males: RR=2.08 [1.27-3.40]; females: RR=1.99 [1.47-2.80]). The risk of diabetes increased 1.17-fold (1.02-1.34) after COVID-19 infection compared to patients with general upper respiratory tract infections. Patients with severe COVID-19 were at higher risk (RR=1.67 [1.25-2.23]) of diabetes after COVID-19. The risk (RR=1.95 [1.85-2.06]) of diabetes was highest in the first 3 months after COVID-19. These results remained after taking confounding factors into account. CONCLUSIONS: After COVID-19, patients of all ages and genders had an elevated incidence and relative risk for a new diagnosis of diabetes. Particular attention should be paid during the first 3 months of follow-up after COVID-19 for new-onset diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Female , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119257

ABSTRACT

Screening, prevention, and management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, including obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes) is the core function of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a digital strategy developed by the Carlos Slim Foundation in Mexico. An extension of this strategy, MIDO COVID, was developed to address the need for an integrated plan in primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. MIDO COVID facilitates planning, surveillance, testing, and clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the major NCDs and their pre-disease states, to streamline the continuum of care. MIDO COVID screening was applied in 1063 Carso Group workplaces in 190 municipalities of the 32 Mexican states. Staff were trained to screen healthy workers for NCDs using a questionnaire, anthropomorphic measurements, and blood work; healthy individuals returning to work also received a SARS-CoV-2 antibody test. Between June 26 and December 31, 2020, 58,277 asymptomatic individuals underwent screening. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes was 32.1%, 25.7%, and 9.7% respectively. Only 2.2%, 8.8%, and 4.5% of individuals, respectively, were previously aware of their condition. Pre-obesity was identified in 38.6%, pre-hypertension in 17.4%, and prediabetes in 7.5% of the population. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was highest for individuals with multiple NCDs. Many Mexicans are unaware of their health status and potentially increased risk of COVID-19 and serious complications. As a universal strategy implemented regardless of social factors, MIDO COVID promotes equity in access to health care prevention and early stage detection of NCDs; the information gained may help inform decisionmakers regarding prioritising vulnerable populations for immunisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Humans , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Chronic Disease , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
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