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1.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(4): 714-724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794645

ABSTRACT

AIMS: It is well known that healthy lifestyles measured at one time-point are inversely associated with diabetes risk. The impact of transitions in combined lifestyles in real settings remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The trajectory patterns of combined lifestyles over three years were identified using group-based trajectory modeling in 26,647 adults in Japan. Two types of indices (not having the unhealthy lifestyle [easy goal] and having healthiest lifestyles [challenging goal]) were developed using five lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, sleep duration, and body weight control. This index was calculated using the yearly total score (0-5; higher score indicated healthier lifestyles). Diabetes was defined by high plasma glucose level, high hemoglobin A1c level, and self-report. RESULTS: Five trajectory patterns were identified for each index and it was shown that healthier patterns are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes during 6.6 years of average follow-up. For example, with a challenging-goal, compared with a persistently very unhealthy pattern, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.65 (0.59, 0.73), 0.50 (0.39, 0.64), 0.43 (0.38, 0.48), and 0.33 (0.27, 0.41) for 'persistently unhealthy', 'improved from unhealthy to moderately healthy', 'persistently moderately healthy', and 'persistently mostly healthy' patterns, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce the importance of improving and maintaining health-related lifestyles to prevent diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Life Style , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706287

ABSTRACT

Effective preventive care programs are urgently needed during humanitarian crises, as has been especially obvious during the COVID-19 pandemic. A pragmatic trial was designed: hybridized intervention (Diabetes Prevention Program [DPP] + medical nutrition therapy + liquid diet [LD]; LD group) vs. DPP only (DPP group). The participants were adults who were overweight/obese and at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The LD consisted of a "homemade" milk- and fruit-juice-based beverage. Pandemic restrictions delayed the program by nine months, tripled the amount of time required for screening, and reduced the total sample to 60%. Eventually, 127 participants were randomized, and 94/127 participants (74.0%) completed the first phase. Participant dropout was influenced by migration, COVID-19 symptoms, education level, and socioeconomic status. In two months, the LD group lost 2.9 kg (p < 0.001) and the DPP group, 2.2 kg (p < 0.001) (between-group p = 0.170), with improvements in their cardiometabolic risk factors. At this stage, the DPP was shown to be feasible and effective, demonstrating weight loss with the improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors in a primary setting in Venezuela, a middle-income country with a chronic humanitarian crisis, during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Venezuela/epidemiology
3.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(6): 1105-1108, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685351

ABSTRACT

The vaccine for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to potentially cause or worsen diabetes. A 73-year-old Japanese woman received two doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Four weeks after the second vaccination, her glycemic control began to deteriorate, and 8 weeks after the second vaccination, the patient was diagnosed with new-onset type 1 diabetes that was strongly positive for autoantibodies and showed a disease-susceptible human leukocyte antigen haplotype, DRB1*04:05:01-DQB1*04:01:01. The glucagon stimulation test suggested an insulin-dependent state, and induction of intensive insulin therapy brought about fair glycemic control. The time period from the COVID-19 vaccination to the development of type 1 diabetes was relatively longer than to the onset or exacerbation of type 2 diabetes, as previously reported, suggesting the complicated immunological mechanisms for the destruction of ß-cells associated with the vaccination. In recipients with the disease-susceptible haplotypes, one should be cautious about autoimmune responses for several months after the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Haplotypes , Humans , Insulin/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
5.
Obes Rev ; 23(5): e13415, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604448

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are independent risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality associated with influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Skewed cellular metabolism shapes immune cell inflammatory responsiveness and function in obesity, T2D, and infection. However, altered immune cell responsiveness and levels of systemic proinflammatory mediators, partly independent of peripheral immune cell contribution, are linked with SARS-CoV-2-associated disease severity. Despite such knowledge, the role of tissue parenchymal cell-driven inflammatory responses, and specifically those dominantly modified in obesity (e.g., adipocytes), in influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis remain poorly defined. Whether obesity-dependent skewing of adipocyte cellular metabolism uncovers inflammatory clades and promotes the existence of a 'pathogenic-inflammatory' adipocyte phenotype that amplifies SARS-CoV-2 infection diseases severity in individuals with obesity and individuals with obesity and T2D has not been examined. Here, using the knowledge gained from studies of immune cell responses in obesity, T2D, and infection, we highlight the key knowledge gaps underlying adipocyte cellular functions that may sculpt and grease pathogenic processes associated with influenza and SARS-CoV-2 disease severity in diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/pathology , Obesity/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutr Res ; 100: 19-32, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586919

ABSTRACT

Persons with underlying noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are more likely to acquire severe coronavirus disease 2019 disease and to die from coronavirus disease 2019. An urgent need for potential therapy to prevent and control NCDs is critical. We hypothesized that higher intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, or vegetables would be linked with a low risk of NCDs in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to explore the association between NCDs, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arthritis, depression, and dietary factors. A total of 56,462 adults aged 18 years (2009-2019) were included. Dietary factors, including intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, and vegetables, were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between dietary factors and NCDs. Interactions were found between intakes of multiple individual nutrients and sex for T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Only in women was a 2-fold increase in daily multiple individual nutrient intake (vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C; potassium, protein; phosphorus; calcium; iron; monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid; n-3 fatty acid and n-6 fatty acid; and water) associated with a lower prevalence of T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. In both women and men, high fruit or vegetable consumption was linked with a lower risk of T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis, and depression than low consumption. Our findings found higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and multiple individual nutrients are linked with a lower risk of NCDs in the Korean adult population. Further work is needed to identify whether interactions between intake of multiple individual nutrients, vegetables, and fruits affect the presence of NCDs.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Adult , Arthritis/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diet , Female , Fruit , Humans , Male , Nutrients , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vegetables
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253434, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Descriptive analyses of 2009-2016 were performed using the data of the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) which covers nearly 70 percent of the Thai population. The analyses described the time and geographical trends of nationwide admission rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular diseases, retinopathy, cataract, and diabetic foot amputation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The database of T2DM patients aged 15-100 years who were admitted between 2009 and 2016 under the UCS and that of the UCS population were retrieved for the analyses. The admitted cases of T2DM were extracted from the database using disease codes of principal and secondary diagnoses defined by the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th Revisions. The T2DM admission rates in 2009-2016 were the number of admissions divided by the number of the UCS population. The standardized admission rates (SARs)were further estimated in contrast to the expected number of admissions considering age and sex composition of the UCS population in each region. A linearly increased trend was found in T2DM admission rates from 2009 to 2016. Female admission rates were persistently higher than that of males. In 2016, an increase in the T2DM admission rates was observed among the older ages relative to that in 2009. Although the SARs of T2DM were generally higher in Bangkok and central regions in 2009, except that with CKD and foot amputation which had higher trends in northeastern regions, the geographical inequalities were fairly reduced by 2016. CONCLUSION: Admission rates of T2DM and its major complications increased in Thailand from 2009 to 2016. Although the overall geographical inequalities in the SARs of T2DM were reduced in the country, further efforts are required to improve the health system and policies focusing on risk factors and regions to manage the increasing T2DM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Patient Admission/trends , Universal Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cataract/complications , Cataract/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Thailand , Young Adult
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129733

ABSTRACT

While there are various kinds of drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus at present, in this review article, we focus on metformin which is an insulin sensitizer and is often used as a first-choice drug worldwide. Metformin mainly activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver which leads to suppression of fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. Metformin activates AMPK in skeletal muscle as well, which increases translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the cell membrane and thereby increases glucose uptake. Further, metformin suppresses glucagon signaling in the liver by suppressing adenylate cyclase which leads to suppression of gluconeogenesis. In addition, metformin reduces autophagy failure observed in pancreatic ß-cells under diabetic conditions. Furthermore, it is known that metformin alters the gut microbiome and facilitates the transport of glucose from the circulation into excrement. It is also known that metformin reduces food intake and lowers body weight by increasing circulating levels of the peptide hormone growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). Furthermore, much attention has been drawn to the fact that the frequency of various cancers is lower in subjects taking metformin. Metformin suppresses the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) by activating AMPK in pre-neoplastic cells, which leads to suppression of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis in pre-neoplastic cells. It has been shown recently that metformin consumption potentially influences the mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19). Taken together, metformin is an old drug, but multifaceted mechanisms of action of metformin have been unraveled one after another in its long history.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Metformin/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/drug effects , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
10.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(6): 804-808, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591581

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome are devastating pandemics. Effective control of metabolic parameters and their dysfunction may help prevent or minimize the acute and devastating effects of SARS-CoV-2 by reducing the local inflammatory response and blocking the entry of the virus into cells. With such consideration in mind, we gathered data from dietary surveys conducted in nine European countries to explore the relationship between actual clock hour of the large dinner meal and also interval in minutes between it and sunset in the respective countries and death rate above the median rate of per one million people as an index of mortality due to COVID-19 infection. Clock time of the dinner meal varied between 16:00 and 21:00 h across the European counties sampled, and the correlation between dinner mealtime and death rate was strongly correlated, R = 0.7991 (two-tailed p = 0.0098), with R 2 explaining 63% of the variation within the data. This strong linear positive correlation indicates that the later the clock time of the dinner meal, the higher is the death rate (and vice versa). The relationship between meal timing in reference to sunset, utilized as a gross surrogate marker of the activity/rest synchronizer of circadian rhythms, and death rate was negative and even slightly stronger, R = -0.8025 (two-tailed p = 0.0092), with R 2 explaining 64% of the variation within the data. This strong linear negative correlation indicates that the shorter the interval between the dinner meal and sunset, i.e., the closer the time of the largest meal of the day to bedtime, the greater is the death rate (and vice versa). Our preliminary approach to nighttime eating, in terms of the day's largest caloric intake, as a risk factor for the predisposing conditions of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other commonly associated comorbidities of being overweight, and death from COVID-19 infection reveals strong correlation with the time of the dinner meal, both in terms of its actual clock and circadian time.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Meals/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , COVID-19 , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Eating/physiology , Energy Intake/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Time
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