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1.
Biomol Concepts ; 12(1): 156-163, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597910

ABSTRACT

Studies published earlier this year demonstrated the association of the solute carrier SLC6A20 gene with the risk and severity of COVID-19. The SLC6A20 protein product (Sodium-dependent Imino Transporter 1 (SIT1)) is involved in the transport of amino acids, including glycine. Here we summarized the results of recent studies demonstrating the interaction of SIT1 with the ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 as well as an observed association of SLC6A20 with the risk and traits of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, it was also proposed that SLC6A20 represents the novel regulator of glycine levels and that glycine has beneficial effects against the proinflammatory cytokine secretion induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ivermectin, as a partial agonist of glycine-gated chloride channels, was also recently suggested to interfere with the COVID-19 cytokine storm by inducing the activation of glycine receptors. Furthermore, plasma glycine levels are found to be decreased in diabetic patients. Thus, further clinical trials are warranted to confirm the potential favorable effects of targeting the SIT1 transporter and glycine levels in the treatment of COVID-19, particularly for the severe case of disease associated with hyperglycemia, inflammation, and T2D. These findings suggest that SIT1 may potentially represent one of the missing pieces in the complex puzzle observed between these two pandemic diseases and the potential novel target for their efficient treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Glycine/blood , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392993

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to infection. Using peripheral monocytes and sera from human patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-A59) (an established murine model of SARS), we identified that coronavirus induces an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2. This decrease in SETDB2 upon coronavirus infection results in a decrease of the repressive trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at NFkB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters, effectively increasing inflammation. Mφs isolated from mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of SETDB2 displayed increased pathologic inflammation following coronavirus infection. Further, IFNß directly regulates SETDB2 in Mφs via JaK1/STAT3 signaling, as blockade of this pathway altered SETDB2 and the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection. Importantly, we also found that loss of SETDB2 mediates an increased inflammatory response in diabetic Mϕs in response to coronavirus infection. Treatment of coronavirus-infected diabetic Mφs with IFNß reversed the inflammatory cytokine production via up-regulation of SETDB2/H3K9me3 on inflammatory gene promoters. Together, these results describe a potential mechanism for the increased Mφ-mediated cytokine storm in patients with T2D in response to COVID-19 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the IFNß/SETDB2 axis in T2D patients may decrease pathologic inflammation associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Macrophages/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Female , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
3.
J Periodontol ; 92(7): 35-43, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and periodontitis predispose to a higher risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Recent studies show upregulation of innate immuno-regulatory microRNA-146a and -155 in oral fluids of patients with type 2 diabetes as well as of patients with periodontitis. The aim was to investigate whether upregulation of these microRNAs may relate to patient susceptibility to the infection via modulation of SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors expression. METHODS: Due to limited experimental feasibility and health risks in Coronavirus Disease 2019, bioinformatic analyses combining with system biology were used as initial investigation of interaction between microRNA-146 and -155 and genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 entry factors. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors are expressed in salivary glands and masticatory mucosa (tongue) at different expression levels, comparable with those measured in lungs and tonsil. MicroRNA-146 and -155 are widely involved in the regulation of SARS-CoV-2 oral cellular entry factors and may enhance expression of ACE2 and modulate genes involved in host immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes- and periodontitis-induced increase in microRNA-146a and -155 in oral cavity is predicted to upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression, essential SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, and modulate host antiviral response. As it could suggest increased infectivity of diabetes and periodontitis patients, additional protective measures for periodontists are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , MicroRNAs , Periodontitis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Periodontitis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104668, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322052

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has posed a massive threat to global public health, especially to people with underlying health conditions. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lethal comorbidity of COVID-19. However, its pathogenetic link remains unclear. This research aims to determine the genetic factors and processes contributing to the synergistic severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection among T2D patients through bioinformatics approaches. We analyzed two sets of transcriptomic data of SARS-CoV-2 infection obtained from lung epithelium cells and PBMCs, and two sets of T2D data from pancreatic islet cells and PBMCs to identify the associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) followed by their functional enrichment analyses in terms of protein-protein interaction (PPI) to detect hub-proteins and associated comorbidities, transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs) as well as the potential drug candidates. In PPI analysis, four potential hub-proteins (i.e., BIRC3, C3, MME, and IL1B) were identified among 25 DEGs shared between the disease pair. Enrichment analyses using the mutually overlapped DEGs revealed the most prevalent GO and cell signalling pathways, including TNF signalling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL-17 signalling, which are related to cytokine activities. Furthermore, as significant TFs, we identified IRF1, KLF11, FOSL1, and CREB3L1 while miRNAs including miR-1-3p, 34a-5p, 16-5p, 155-5p, 20a-5p, and let-7b-5p were found to be noteworthy. The findings illustrated the significant association between COVID-19 and T2D at the molecular level. These genetic determinants can further be explored for their specific roles in disease progression and therapeutic intervention, while significant pathways can also be studied as molecular checkpoints. Finally, the identified drug candidates may be evaluated for their potency to minimize the severity of COVID-19 patients with pre-existing T2D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , MicroRNAs , Computational Biology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 475-478, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is associated with low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Although metabolic and immunological changes may contribute to the increased risk for COVID-19 mortality in obese, little is known about the impact of obesity in the lungs of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression profiles of autopsy lungs of a cohort of 14 COVID-19 patients and 4 control individuals. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their comorbidities: hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. We then identified the molecular alterations associated with these comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Patients with only hypertension showed higher levels of inflammatory genes and B-cell related genes when compared to those with T2D and obesity. However, the levels of IFN-gamma, IL22, and CD274 (a ligand that binds to receptor PD1) were higher in COVID-19 patients with T2D and obesity. Several metabolic- and immune-associated genes such as G6PD, LCK and IL10 were significantly induced in the lungs of the obese group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs may exacerbate the immune response and chronic condition in obese COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Lung/immunology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/genetics , Autopsy , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/immunology , Obesity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234744

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with multiple organ failure and comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Risk factors, such as age, gender, and obesity, were associated with COVID-19 infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to use several host receptors for viral entry, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in the lung and other organs. However, ACE2 could be shed from the surface to be soluble ACE2 (sACE2) in the circulation. The epigenetic factors affecting ACE2 expression include a type of small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we aimed at exploring the status of the sACE2 as well as serum levels of several upstream novel miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers that might have a potential role in T2DM patients. Serum samples were collected from 50 T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls, and sACE2 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, RNA was extracted, and TaqMan miRNA reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to measure serum miRNA levels. Our results revealed that sACE2 is decreased in the T2DM patients and is affected by age, gender, and obesity level. Additionally, 4 miRNAs, which are revealed by in silico analysis to be potentially upstream of ACE2 were detectable in the serum. Among them, miR-421 level was found to be decreased in the serum of diabetic patients, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetic complications, as well as being differential in various body mass index (BMI) groups. The other 3 miRNAs (miR-3909, miR-212-5p, and miR-4677-3p) showed associations with multiple factors including age, gender, BMI, and serum markers, in addition to being correlated to each other. In conclusion, our study reveals a decline in the circulating serum levels of sACE2 in T2DM patients and identified 4 novel miRNAs that were associated with T2DM, which are influenced by different clinical and demographic factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/genetics
8.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 72, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest poorer glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk although these findings could be confounded by socioeconomic position. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization to clarify their role in COVID-19 risk and specific COVID-19 phenotypes (hospitalized and severe cases). METHOD: We identified genetic instruments for fasting glucose (n = 133,010), 2 h glucose (n = 42,854), glycated hemoglobin (n = 123,665), and type 2 diabetes (74,124 cases and 824,006 controls) from genome wide association studies and applied them to COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative summary statistics (17,965 COVID-19 cases and 1,370,547 population controls). We used inverse variance weighting to obtain the causal estimates of glycemic traits and genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes in COVID-19 risk. Sensitivity analyses included MR-Egger and weighted median method. RESULTS: We found genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes was not associated with any COVID-19 phenotype (OR: 1.00 per unit increase in log odds of having diabetes, 95%CI 0.97 to 1.04 for overall COVID-19; OR: 1.02, 95%CI 0.95 to 1.09 for hospitalized COVID-19; and OR: 1.00, 95%CI 0.93 to 1.08 for severe COVID-19). There were no strong evidence for an association of glycemic traits in COVID-19 phenotypes, apart from a potential inverse association for fasting glucose albeit with wide confidence interval. CONCLUSION: We provide some genetic evidence that poorer glycemic traits and predisposition to type 2 diabetes unlikely increase the risk of COVID-19. Although our study did not indicate glycemic traits increase severity of COVID-19, additional studies are needed to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Glycated Hemoglobin A/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Fasting/blood , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Male , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Cell ; 184(6): 1530-1544, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118348

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity has risen dramatically for decades and is expected to rise further, secondary to the growing aging, sedentary population. The strain on global health care is projected to be colossal. This review explores the latest work and emerging ideas related to genetic and environmental factors influencing metabolism. Translational research and clinical applications, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, are highlighted. Looking forward, strategies to personalize all aspects of prevention, management and care are necessary to improve health outcomes and reduce the impact of these metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pandemics , Precision Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Circadian Rhythm , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/metabolism , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Thermotolerance
10.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003553, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies report associations of diverse cardiometabolic conditions including obesity with COVID-19 illness, but causality has not been established. We sought to evaluate the associations of 17 cardiometabolic traits with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity using 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We selected genetic variants associated with each exposure, including body mass index (BMI), at p < 5 × 10-8 from genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We then calculated inverse-variance-weighted averages of variant-specific estimates using summary statistics for susceptibility and severity from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative GWAS meta-analyses of population-based cohorts and hospital registries comprising individuals with self-reported or genetically inferred European ancestry. Susceptibility was defined as testing positive for COVID-19 and severity was defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 versus population controls (anyone not a case in contributing cohorts). We repeated the analysis for BMI with effect estimates from the UK Biobank and performed pairwise multivariable MR to estimate the direct effects and indirect effects of BMI through obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases. Using p < 0.05/34 tests = 0.0015 to declare statistical significance, we found a nonsignificant association of genetically higher BMI with testing positive for COVID-19 (14,134 COVID-19 cases/1,284,876 controls, p = 0.002; UK Biobank: odds ratio 1.06 [95% CI 1.02, 1.10] per kg/m2; p = 0.004]) and a statistically significant association with higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization (6,406 hospitalized COVID-19 cases/902,088 controls, p = 4.3 × 10-5; UK Biobank: odds ratio 1.14 [95% CI 1.07, 1.21] per kg/m2, p = 2.1 × 10-5). The implied direct effect of BMI was abolished upon conditioning on the effect on type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. No other cardiometabolic exposures tested were associated with a higher risk of poorer COVID-19 outcomes. Small study samples and weak genetic instruments could have limited the detection of modest associations, and pleiotropy may have biased effect estimates away from the null. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found genetic evidence to support higher BMI as a causal risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. These results raise the possibility that obesity could amplify COVID-19 disease burden independently or through its cardiometabolic consequences and suggest that targeting obesity may be a strategy to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Disease Susceptibility , Obesity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Stroke , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Causality , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome-Wide Association Study/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/genetics
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(4): 166044, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103717

ABSTRACT

Diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality is predominantly due to complications of the disease that may cause debilitating conditions, such as heart and renal failure, hepatic insufficiency, retinopathy or peripheral neuropathy. Fibrosis, the excessive and inappropriate deposition of extracellular matrix in various tissues, is commonly found in patients with advanced type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and may contribute to organ dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, lipotoxic injury and insulin resistance activate a fibrotic response, not only through direct stimulation of matrix synthesis by fibroblasts, but also by promoting a fibrogenic phenotype in immune and vascular cells, and possibly also by triggering epithelial and endothelial cell conversion to a fibroblast-like phenotype. High glucose stimulates several fibrogenic pathways, triggering reactive oxygen species generation, stimulating neurohumoral responses, activating growth factor cascades (such as TGF-ß/Smad3 and PDGFs), inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, generating advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and stimulating the AGE-RAGE axis, and upregulating fibrogenic matricellular proteins. Although diabetes-activated fibrogenic signaling has common characteristics in various tissues, some organs, such as the heart, kidney and liver develop more pronounced and clinically significant fibrosis. This review manuscript summarizes current knowledge on the cellular and molecular pathways involved in diabetic fibrosis, discussing the fundamental links between metabolic perturbations and fibrogenic activation, the basis for organ-specific differences, and the promises and challenges of anti-fibrotic therapies for diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Disease Progression , Epigenesis, Genetic , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Fibrosis , Glucose/genetics , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Signal Transduction
12.
Metabolism ; 112: 154345, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations of obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI], central obesity) and their genetic predisposition with the risk of developing severe COVID-19 in a population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 489,769 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank-a population-based cohort study. The exposures of interest are BMI categories and central obesity (e.g., larger waist circumference). Using genome-wide genotyping data, we also computed polygenic risk scores (PRSs) that represent an individual's overall genetic risk for each obesity trait. The outcome was severe COVID-19, defined by hospitalization for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 489,769 individuals, 33% were normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), 43% overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and 24% obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). The UK Biobank identified 641 patients with severe COVID-19. Compared to adults with normal weight, those with a higher BMI had a dose-response increases in the risk of severe COVID-19, with the following adjusted ORs: for 25.0-29.9 kg/m2, 1.40 (95%CI 1.14-1.73; P = 0.002); for 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, 1.73 (95%CI 1.36-2.20; P < 0.001); for 35.0-39.9 kg/m2, 2.82 (95%CI 2.08-3.83; P < 0.001); and for ≥40.0 kg/m2, 3.30 (95%CI 2.17-5.03; P < 0.001). Likewise, central obesity was associated with significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, larger PRS for BMI was associated with higher risk of outcome (adjusted OR per BMI PRS Z-score 1.14, 95%CI 1.05-1.24; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based cohort, individuals with more-severe obesity, central obesity, or genetic predisposition for obesity are at higher risk of developing severe-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/genetics , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Waist Circumference/genetics
13.
J Periodontol ; 92(7): 35-43, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and periodontitis predispose to a higher risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Recent studies show upregulation of innate immuno-regulatory microRNA-146a and -155 in oral fluids of patients with type 2 diabetes as well as of patients with periodontitis. The aim was to investigate whether upregulation of these microRNAs may relate to patient susceptibility to the infection via modulation of SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors expression. METHODS: Due to limited experimental feasibility and health risks in Coronavirus Disease 2019, bioinformatic analyses combining with system biology were used as initial investigation of interaction between microRNA-146 and -155 and genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 entry factors. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors are expressed in salivary glands and masticatory mucosa (tongue) at different expression levels, comparable with those measured in lungs and tonsil. MicroRNA-146 and -155 are widely involved in the regulation of SARS-CoV-2 oral cellular entry factors and may enhance expression of ACE2 and modulate genes involved in host immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes- and periodontitis-induced increase in microRNA-146a and -155 in oral cavity is predicted to upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression, essential SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, and modulate host antiviral response. As it could suggest increased infectivity of diabetes and periodontitis patients, additional protective measures for periodontists are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , MicroRNAs , Periodontitis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Periodontitis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570251, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976246

ABSTRACT

Several countries around the world have faced an important obesity challenge for the past four decades as the result of an obesogenic environment. This disease has a multifactorial origin and it is associated with multiple comorbidities including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and dyslipidemia. With regard to dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia is a well-known activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome, triggering adipokines and cytokines secretion which in addition induce a systemic inflammatory state that provides an adequate scenario for infections, particularly those mediated by viruses such as HIV, H1N1 influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and it is responsible for the pandemic that we are currently living. COVID-19 causes an aggressive immune response known as cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm that causes multiorgan failure and in most cases leads to death. In the present work, we aimed to review the molecular mechanisms by which obesity-associated systemic inflammation could cause a more severe clinical presentation of COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 infection could potentiate or accelerate the pre-existing systemic inflammatory state of individuals with obesity, via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from cells trough Gasdermin-pores commonly found in cell death by pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(5): e13463, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949358

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are associated with COVID-19 risk and severity. Because epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) expresses ACE2, we wanted to identify the main factors associated with ACE2 levels and its cleavage enzyme, ADAM17, in epicardial fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epicardial and subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained from 43 patients who underwent open-heart surgery. From 36 patients, biopsies were used for RNA expression analysis by real-time PCR of ACE1, ACE2 and ADAM17. From 8 patients, stromal vascular cells were submitted to adipogenesis or used for studying the treatment effects on gene expression levels. Soluble ACE2 was determined in supernatants by ELISA. RESULTS: Epicardial fat biopsies expressed higher levels of ACE2 (1.53 [1.49-1.61] vs 1.51 [1.47-1.56] a.u., P < .05) and lower ADAM17 than subcutaneous fat (1.67 [1.65-1.70] vs 1.70 [1.66-1.74] a.u., P < .001). Both genes were increased in epicardial fat from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (1.62 [1.50-2.28] vs 1.52 [1.49-1.55] a.u., P = .05 for ACE2 and 1.68 [1.66-1.78] vs 1.66 [1.63-1.69] a.u., P < .05 for ADAM17). Logistic regression analysis determined that T2DM was the main associated factor with epicardial ACE2 levels (P < .01). The highest ACE2 levels were found on patients with diabetes and obesity. ACE1 and ACE2 levels were not upregulated by antidiabetic treatment (metformin, insulin or thiazolidinedione). Its cellular levels, which were higher in epicardial than in subcutaneous stromal cells (1.61 [1.55-1.63] vs 1 [1-1.34]), were not correlated with the soluble ACE2. CONCLUSION: Epicardial fat cells expressed higher levels of ACE2 in comparison with subcutaneous fat cells, which is enhanced by diabetes and obesity presence in patients with cardiovascular disease. Both might be risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Pericardium/metabolism , Stromal Cells/metabolism , Subcutaneous Fat/metabolism , Adipogenesis/genetics , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Coronary Artery Bypass , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pericardium/cytology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Subcutaneous Fat/cytology , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
17.
Cell Metab ; 32(6): 1041-1051.e6, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921862

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is associated with increased mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given literature suggesting a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and diabetes induction, we examined pancreatic expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the key entry factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specifically, we analyzed five public scRNA-seq pancreas datasets and performed fluorescence in situ hybridization, western blotting, and immunolocalization for ACE2 with extensive reagent validation on normal human pancreatic tissues across the lifespan, as well as those from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. These in silico and ex vivo analyses demonstrated prominent expression of ACE2 in pancreatic ductal epithelium and microvasculature, but we found rare endocrine cell expression at the mRNA level. Pancreata from individuals with COVID-19 demonstrated multiple thrombotic lesions with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein expression that was primarily limited to ducts. These results suggest SARS-CoV-2 infection of pancreatic endocrine cells, via ACE2, is an unlikely central pathogenic feature of COVID-19-related diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pancreas/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Pancreas/blood supply , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tissue Donors
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110378, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912500

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, in China, a disease derived from a new beta coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was reported, which was termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, it is known that endothelial cell dysfunction is a critical event in the infection by this virus. However, in a representative percentage of patients with COVID-19, neither cardiovascular disease nor diabetes mellitus, which could be linked with endothelial dysfunction, has been reported. Previous evidence has shown the presence of early endothelial dysfunction in healthy subjects but with a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-DM2), where glucose metabolism, the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as expression of genes involved with their synthesis are impaired. Besides, in subjects with an FH-DM2, the presence of hyperinsulinemia and high glucose levels are common events that could favor the infection of endothelial cells by the coronavirus. Interestingly, both events have been reported in patients with COVID-19, in whom hyperinsulinemia increases the surface expression of ACE2 through a diminution of ADAMTS17 activity; whereas hyperglycemia induces higher expression of ACE2 in different tissues, including microvascular endothelial cells from the pancreatic islets, favoring chronic hyperglycemia and affecting the release of insulin. Therefore, we hypothesized that an FH-DM2 should be considered an important risk factor, since the individuals with this background develop an early endothelial dysfunction, which would increase the susceptibility and severity of infection and damage to the endothelium, in the patient infected with the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(1): 4-9, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been found to be one of the leading comorbidities associated with fatality in COVID-19 patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry is facilitated by interaction with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) and possible polymorphisms in ACE2 can be a determining factor in host-viral protein interaction. A significant shift of healthcare towards 'Telemedicine' is also on the rise. In this review, the possible effects of ACE2 polymorphisms on SARS-CoV-2 entry along with the escalation of 'telemedicine' is discussed. METHOD: An expansive literature search using keywords: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "diabetes", "type 2 diabetes'', "type 1 diabetes", "ACE2", "polymorphism", "DPP4" and "telemedicine" was conducted on Pubmed and EMBASE till 7th August 2020. RESULT: Possible polymorphisms in ACE2 gene can play a role in influencing the virus entry in host body. Telemedicine can bring a new revolution for medical sector. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 severity is more heinous among diabetic population. So far, the in-silico studies involving human ACE2-viral Spike (S) interaction showed inconsistent predictions regarding some SNPs. But without actual in-vivo studies, a holistic understanding can't be established.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , DNA/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Telemedicine/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(16): 9478-9482, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635772

ABSTRACT

Recent retrospective studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) revealed that the patients with common comorbidities of cancers and chronic diseases face significantly poorer clinical outcomes than those without. Since the expression profile of ACE2, a crucial cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, could indicate the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, here we systematically dissected ACE2 expression using large-scale multi-omics data from 30 organs/tissues, 33 cancer types and some common chronic diseases involving >28 000 samples. It was found that sex and age could be correlated with the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection for certain tissues. Strikingly, ACE2 was up-regulated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma compared to controls. Furthermore, the patients with common chronic diseases regarding angiocardiopathy, type 2 diabetes, liver, pneumonia and hypertension were also with higher ACE2 expression compared to related controls, which were validated using independent data sets. Collectively, our study may reveal a novel important mechanism that the patients with certain cancers and chronic diseases may express higher ACE2 expression compared to the individuals without diseases, which could lead to their higher susceptibility to multi-organ injury of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Up-Regulation
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