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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 53-54, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719338

ABSTRACT

While all groups are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the elderly, underrepresented minorities, and those with underlying medical conditions are at the greatest risk. The high rate of consumption of diets high in saturated fats, sugars, and refined carbohydrates (collectively called Western diet, WD) worldwide, contribute to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and could place these populations at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 pathology and mortality. WD consumption activates the innate immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defense against viruses. Furthermore, peripheral inflammation caused by COVID-19 may have long-term consequences in those that recover, leading to chronic medical conditions such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease, likely through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that can be compounded by an unhealthy diet. Thus, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a top priority and individuals should be mindful of healthy eating habits to reduce susceptibility to and long-term complications from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Western/statistics & numerical data , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diet , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Nutritional Status , Obesity/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(2): 102406, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: DM patients' antibody response after the COVID-19 vaccine is still unknown amid the COVID-19 vaccination rollout. This study aimed to explore the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response or seropositivity among DM patients following the COVID-19 vaccine administration. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature consisting of observational or cross-sectional studies, which reported the antibody serology or seropositivity among DM patients by following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 64468 patients were identified, and 5156 (7.9%) of them had diabetes. Most studies showed that antibody response and seropositivity in DM patients were lower than healthy population after one until four weeks following full COVID-19 vaccination dose. CONCLUSION: The antibody response and seropositivity after the COVID-19 vaccine in DM patients were lower than in healthy subjects. Therefore, DM patients are expected to receive vaccines according to the dose and schedule appropriately and might be prioritized to receive vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561628

ABSTRACT

This review examines the beneficial effects of ultraviolet radiation on systemic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes, where the epidemiological evidence for the vitamin D-independent effects of sunlight is most apparent. Ultraviolet radiation, in addition to its role in the synthesis of vitamin D, stimulates anti-inflammatory pathways, alters the composition of dendritic cells, T cells, and T regulatory cells, and induces nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase metabolic pathways, which may directly or indirectly mitigate disease progression and susceptibility. Recent work has also explored how the immune-modulating functions of ultraviolet radiation affect type II diabetes, cancer, and the current global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. These diseases are particularly important amidst global changes in lifestyle that result in unhealthy eating, increased sedentary habits, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Compelling epidemiological data shows increased ultraviolet radiation associated with reduced rates of certain cancers, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and ultraviolet radiation exposure correlated with susceptibility and mortality rates of COVID-19. Therefore, understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on both vitamin D-dependent and -independent pathways is necessary to understand how they influence the course of many human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunlight , Vitamin D/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/radiation effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sedentary Behavior , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Vitamin D/immunology
4.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5042-5054, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295003

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) to respiratory viral infections. Despite the short history of COVID-19, various studies have shown that patients with DM are more likely to have increased hospitalisation and mortality rates as compared to patients without. At present, the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility are unclear. However, prior studies show that the course of COVID-19 disease is linked to the efficacy of the host's T-cell responses. Healthy individuals who can elicit a robust T-cell response are more likely to limit the severity of COVID-19. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that an impaired T-cell response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drives the severity of COVID-19 in this patient population. While there is currently a limited amount of information that specifically addresses T-cell responses in COVID-19 patients with T2DM, there is a wealth of evidence from other infectious diseases that T-cell immunity is impaired in patients with T2DM. The reasons for this are likely multifactorial, including the presence of hyperglycaemia, glycaemic variability and metformin use. This review emphasises the need for further research into T-cell responses of COVID-19 patients with T2DM in order to better inform our response to COVID-19 and future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Hyperglycemia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/virology
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 678771, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278395

ABSTRACT

Chronic and recurrent infections occur commonly in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D) and increase patient morbidity and mortality. Neutrophils are professional phagocytes of the innate immune system that are critical in pathogen handling. Neutrophil responses to infection are dysregulated in diabetes, predominantly mediated by persistent hyperglycaemia; the chief biochemical abnormality in T1D and T2D. Therapeutically enhancing host immunity in diabetes to improve infection resolution is an expanding area of research. Individuals with diabetes are also at an increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), highlighting the need for re-invigorated and urgent focus on this field. The aim of this review is to explore the breadth of previous literature investigating neutrophil function in both T1D and T2D, in order to understand the complex neutrophil phenotype present in this disease and also to focus on the development of new therapies to improve aberrant neutrophil function in diabetes. Existing literature illustrates a dual neutrophil dysfunction in diabetes. Key pathogen handling mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are decreased in diabetes, weakening the immune response to infection. However, pro-inflammatory neutrophil pathways, mainly neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, extracellular ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokine generation, are significantly upregulated, causing damage to the host and perpetuating inflammation. Reducing these proinflammatory outputs therapeutically is emerging as a credible strategy to improve infection resolution in diabetes, and also more recently COVID-19. Future research needs to drive forward the exploration of novel treatments to improve infection resolution in T1D and T2D to improve patient morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 475-478, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is associated with low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Although metabolic and immunological changes may contribute to the increased risk for COVID-19 mortality in obese, little is known about the impact of obesity in the lungs of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression profiles of autopsy lungs of a cohort of 14 COVID-19 patients and 4 control individuals. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their comorbidities: hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. We then identified the molecular alterations associated with these comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Patients with only hypertension showed higher levels of inflammatory genes and B-cell related genes when compared to those with T2D and obesity. However, the levels of IFN-gamma, IL22, and CD274 (a ligand that binds to receptor PD1) were higher in COVID-19 patients with T2D and obesity. Several metabolic- and immune-associated genes such as G6PD, LCK and IL10 were significantly induced in the lungs of the obese group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs may exacerbate the immune response and chronic condition in obese COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Lung/immunology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/genetics , Autopsy , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/immunology , Obesity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2025-e2034, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess. METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 596518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156116

ABSTRACT

Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04365634. Context: Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased severity and mortality of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia. So far the effect of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or hyperglycemia on the immune system among COVID-19 disease has remained unclear. Objective: We aim to explore the clinical and immunological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among COVID-19 patients. Design and Methods: In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 306 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients (including 129 diabetic and 177 non-diabetic patients) were analyzed. The serum concentrations of laboratory parameters including cytokines and numbers of immune cells were measured and compared between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Results: Compared with non-diabetic group, diabetic cases more frequently had lymphopenia and hyperglycemia, with higher levels of urea nitrogen, myoglobin, D-dimer and ferritin. Diabetic cases indicated the obviously elevated mortality and the higher levels of cytokines IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, as well as the distinctly reduced Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios compared with non-diabetic cases. The longitudinal assays showed that compared to that at week 1, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly elevated at week 2 after admission in non-survivors of diabetic cases, whereas there were greatly reductions from week 1 to week 2 in survivors of diabetic cases. Compared with survival diabetic patients, non-survival diabetic cases displayed distinct higher serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and lower Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios at week 2. Samples from a subset of participants were evaluated by flow cytometry for the immune cells. The counts of peripheral total T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells were markedly lower in diabetic cases than in non-diabetic cases. The non-survivors showed the markedly declined counts of CD8+ T cells and NK cells than survivors. Conclusion: The elevated cytokines, imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios and reduced of peripheral numbers of CD8+ T cells and NK cells might contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of high mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th1 Cells/pathology , Th2 Cells/pathology
9.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(8): 2036-2044, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155456

ABSTRACT

Aging and pre-existing conditions in older patients increase severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) severity and its complications, although the causes remain unclear. Apart from acute pulmonary syndrome, Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) can increasingly induce chronic conditions. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 triggers de novo type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) linked to age-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancers, and neurodegeneration. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 induces inflammation, possibly through damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling and 'cytokine storm,' causing insulin resistance and the adiponectin (APN) paradox, a phenomenon linking metabolic dysfunction to chronic disease. Accordingly, preventing the APN paradox by suppressing APN-related inflammatory signaling might prove beneficial. A better understanding could uncover novel therapies for SARS-CoV-2 and its chronic disorders.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin/metabolism , Aging/physiology , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Humans , Paracrine Communication/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6428, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142462

ABSTRACT

Hyperactivation of the immune system through obesity and diabetes may enhance infection severity complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The objective was to determine the circulatory biomarkers for macrophage activation at baseline and after serum glucose normalization in obese type 2 diabetes (OT2D) subjects. A case-controlled interventional pilot study in OT2D (n = 23) and control subjects (n = 23). OT2D subjects underwent hyperinsulinemic clamp to normalize serum glucose. Plasma macrophage-related proteins were determined using Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer-scan plasma protein measurement at baseline (control and OT2D subjects) and after 1-h of insulin clamp (OT2D subjects only). Basal M1 macrophage activation was characterized by elevated levels of M1 macrophage-specific surface proteins, CD80 and CD38, and cytokines or chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, RANTES) released by activated M1 macrophages. Two potent M1 macrophage activation markers, CXCL9 and CXCL10, were decreased in OT2D. Activated M2 macrophages were characterized by elevated levels of plasma CD163, TFGß-1, MMP7 and MMP9 in OT2D. Conventional mediators of both M1 and M2 macrophage activation markers (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13) were not altered. No changes were observed in plasma levels of M1/M2 macrophage activation markers in OT2D in response to acute normalization of glycemia. In the basal state, macrophage activation markers are elevated, and these reflect the expression of circulatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, that were not changed by glucose normalisation. These differences could potentially predispose diabetic individuals to increased infection severity complicated by ARDS. Clinical trial reg. no: NCT03102801; registration date April 6, 2017.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Macrophage Activation , Obesity/complications , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 9526701, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066964

ABSTRACT

The induction of inflammation and cytokine storm was proposed to play a critical role in COVID-19. This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between glucose metabolism and the inflammatory state of inpatients with COVID-19. 71 inpatients with COVID-19 were classified into nondiabetes mellitus (NDM) group, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group, and diabetes mellitus (DM) group. The average hospitalization days were significantly shorter in DM patients when compared with patients in the IFG group and NDM group. CD4+ T cell percentage was higher while CD8+ T cells percentage was lower in the DM group than those in the NDM group. The serum levels of IL-6, IL-2, IL-10, and INF-γ in the DM group were upregulated when compared with those in the NDM group. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-2, IL-10, and INF-γ were significantly higher in the DM group than those in the IFG group. A significant difference was observed in CD4+ T cell, CD4+/CD8+ ratio percentage, IL-6, and IL-10 between the NDM group and DM group with adjusted BMI. In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with elevated glucose levels have promoted cytokine profiles and immune response.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Time Factors
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107406, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049806

ABSTRACT

In patients with COVID-19,type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can impair the function of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and result in olfactory dysfunction. Exploring the causative alterations of T2DM within the nasal mucosa and NALT could provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms and bridge the gap between innate immunity and adaptive immunity for virus clearance. Here, we designed a case-control study to compare the olfactory function (OF) among the groups of normal control (NC), COVID-19 mild pneumonia (MP), and MP patients with T2DM (MPT) after a 6-8 months' recovery, in which MPT had a higher risk of hyposmia than MP and NC. No significant difference was found between the MP and NC. This elevated risk of hyposmia indicated that T2DM increased COVID-19 susceptibility in the nasal cavity with unknown causations. Therefore, we used the T2DM animal model (db/db mice) to evaluate how T2DM increased COVID-19 associated susceptibilities in the nasal mucosa and lymphoid tissues. Db/db mice demonstratedupregulated microvasculature ACE2 expression and significant alterations in lymphocytes component of NALT. Specifically, db/db mice NALT had increased immune-suppressive TCRγδ+ CD4-CD8- T and decreased immune-effective CD4+/CD8+ TCRß+ T cells and decreased mucosa-protective CD19+ B cells. These results indicated that T2DM could dampen the first-line defense of nasal immunity, and further mechanic studies of metabolic damage and NALT restoration should be one of the highest importance for COVID-19 healing.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/immunology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anosmia/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
14.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 24: 106-107, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028294

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. As of today, no specific treatment has been found COVID-19. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a widely used therapy to prevent life-threatening infections in patients with primary and secondary immune deficiencies and autoimmune/inflammatory conditions. IVIG administration could be beneficial in the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19. In this respect, this presentation aimed to report a case of COVID-19 treated with IVIG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 576818, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2), known as a highly contagious disease, currently affecting more than 200 countries worldwide. The main feature of SARS-CoV-2 that distinguishes it from other viruses is the speed of transmission combined with higher risk of mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). People with diabetes mellitus (DM), severe obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are more likely to get infected and are at a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. Among elderly patients who are at higher risk of death from COVID-19, 26.8% have DM. Although the reasons for this increased risk are yet to be determined, several factors may contribute to type-2 DM patients' increased susceptibility to infections. A possible factor that may play a role in increasing the risk in people affected by diabetes and/or obesity is the impaired innate and adaptive immune response, characterized by a state of chronic and low-grade inflammation that can lead to abrupt systemic metabolic alteration. SARS patients previously diagnosed with diabetes or hyperglycemia had higher mortality and morbidity rates when compared with patients who were under metabolic control. Similarly, obese individuals are at higher risk of developing complications from SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we will explore the current and evolving insights pertinent to the metabolic impact of coronavirus infections with special attention to the main pathways and mechanisms that are linked to the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Diabetes Complications , Immunity, Innate , Obesity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 193-196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often demonstrate impaired antibody response to influenza/hepatitis B vaccines. Hence, we compared anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in non-severe COVID-19 patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Records of non-severe COVID-19 patients admitted at our institution between April 10, 2020 and May 20, 2020 were retrieved. Qualitative detection of total (IgG + IgM) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was performed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay in plasma samples collected at least 14 days post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of diagnosis. RESULTS: Thirty-one non-severe COVID-19 patients were included. Nine patients (29%) had T2DM with mean HbA1c at admission of 8.3 ± 1.0%. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was estimated at a median of 16 (14-17) days post-PCR confirmation of COVID-19 diagnosis. Only three patients (10%) were seronegative, and all had T2DM. Patients with T2DM were more likely to have non-detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than those without DM (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with T2DM may not undergo seroconversion even after two weeks of diagnosis. Impaired seroconversion could theoretically increase the risk of reinfections in patients with DM. However, the finding requires validation in large-scale studies involving serial estimations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with and without DM.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/physiology , COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570251, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976246

ABSTRACT

Several countries around the world have faced an important obesity challenge for the past four decades as the result of an obesogenic environment. This disease has a multifactorial origin and it is associated with multiple comorbidities including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and dyslipidemia. With regard to dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia is a well-known activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome, triggering adipokines and cytokines secretion which in addition induce a systemic inflammatory state that provides an adequate scenario for infections, particularly those mediated by viruses such as HIV, H1N1 influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and it is responsible for the pandemic that we are currently living. COVID-19 causes an aggressive immune response known as cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm that causes multiorgan failure and in most cases leads to death. In the present work, we aimed to review the molecular mechanisms by which obesity-associated systemic inflammation could cause a more severe clinical presentation of COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 infection could potentiate or accelerate the pre-existing systemic inflammatory state of individuals with obesity, via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from cells trough Gasdermin-pores commonly found in cell death by pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11409-11420, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease and it has become an epidemic worldwide in recent decades. In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation, diabetes has become a serious health concern since large numbers of patients are vulnerable to die from the virus. Thus, diabetic patients affected by COVID-19 cause a major health crisis now. Reports show that large occurrence of diabetes makes it a serious comorbidity in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is crucial to understand how COVID-19 affects diabetes patients. This paper has reviewed published literature extensively to understand the pattern, importance, care, and medication. RESULTS: This review summarizes the association between COVID-19 and diabetes in terms of susceptibility for pneumonia and other diseases. It also discusses the harshness of COVID-19 with diabetes populations and immunological impacts. It further adds the ACE2 receptor role in diabetes with COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Finally, this paper illustrates different types of diabetes management techniques, such as blood glucose management, self-management, mental health management, and therapeutic management. It also summarizes the current knowledge about diabetic patients with COVID-19 to fight this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Pancreas/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 573662, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895303

ABSTRACT

Bearing a strong resemblance to the phenotypic and functional remodeling of the immune system that occurs during aging (termed immunesenescence), the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by an expansion of inflammatory monocytes, functional exhaustion of lymphocytes, dysregulated myeloid responses and the presence of highly activated senescent T cells. Alongside advanced age, male gender and pre-existing co-morbidities [e.g., obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)] are emerging as significant risk factors for COVID-19. Interestingly, immunesenescence is more profound in males when compared to females, whilst accelerated aging of the immune system, termed premature immunesenescence, has been described in obese subjects and T2D patients. Thus, as three distinct demographic groups with an increased susceptibility to COVID-19 share a common immune profile, could immunesenescence be a generic contributory factor in the development of severe COVID-19? Here, by focussing on three key aspects of an immune response, namely pathogen recognition, elimination and resolution, we address this question by discussing how immunesenescence may weaken or exacerbate the immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We also highlight how aspects of immunesenescence could render potential COVID-19 treatments less effective in older adults and draw attention to certain therapeutic options, which by reversing or circumventing certain features of immunesenescence may prove to be beneficial for the treatment of groups at high risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aging/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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