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1.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(4): 714-724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794645

ABSTRACT

AIMS: It is well known that healthy lifestyles measured at one time-point are inversely associated with diabetes risk. The impact of transitions in combined lifestyles in real settings remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The trajectory patterns of combined lifestyles over three years were identified using group-based trajectory modeling in 26,647 adults in Japan. Two types of indices (not having the unhealthy lifestyle [easy goal] and having healthiest lifestyles [challenging goal]) were developed using five lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, sleep duration, and body weight control. This index was calculated using the yearly total score (0-5; higher score indicated healthier lifestyles). Diabetes was defined by high plasma glucose level, high hemoglobin A1c level, and self-report. RESULTS: Five trajectory patterns were identified for each index and it was shown that healthier patterns are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes during 6.6 years of average follow-up. For example, with a challenging-goal, compared with a persistently very unhealthy pattern, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.65 (0.59, 0.73), 0.50 (0.39, 0.64), 0.43 (0.38, 0.48), and 0.33 (0.27, 0.41) for 'persistently unhealthy', 'improved from unhealthy to moderately healthy', 'persistently moderately healthy', and 'persistently mostly healthy' patterns, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce the importance of improving and maintaining health-related lifestyles to prevent diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Life Style , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 788285, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775954

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a critical Indigenous health inequity rooted in experiences of colonization and marginalization including disproportionate exposure to stressors, disruption of traditional family and food systems, and attacks on cultural practices that have led to more sedentary lifestyles. Thus, an important step in redressing inequities is building awareness of and interventions attuned to unique Indigenous contexts influencing T2D and Indigenous culture as a pathway to community wellbeing. Using a dynamic, stage-based model of intervention development and evaluation, we detail the creation and evolution of a family-based, culturally centered T2D preventive intervention: Together on Diabetes (later Together Overcoming Diabetes) (TOD). The TOD program was built by and for Indigenous communities via community-based participatory research and has been implemented across diverse cultural contexts. The TOD curriculum approaches health through a holistic lens of spiritual, mental, physical and emotional wellness. Preliminary evidence suggests TOD is effective in reducing diabetes risk factors including lowering BMI and depressive symptoms, and the program is viewed favorably by participants and community members. We discuss lessons learned regarding collaborative intervention development and adaptation across Indigenous cultures, as well as future directions for TOD.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Community-Based Participatory Research , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Humans , Risk Factors
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 728612, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775855

ABSTRACT

Background: Training programs must be evaluated to understand whether the training was successful at enabling staff to implement a program with fidelity. This is especially important when the training has been translated to a new context. The aim of this community case study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the in-person Small Steps for Big Changes training for fitness facility staff using the 4-level Kirkpatrick training evaluation model. Methods: Eight staff were trained to deliver the motivational interviewing-informed Small Steps for Big Changes program for individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Between August 2019 and March 2020, 32 clients enrolled in the program and were allocated to one of the eight staff. The Kirkpatrick 4-level training evaluation model was used to guide this research. Level one assessed staff satisfaction to the training on a 5-point scale. Level two assessed staff program knowledge and motivational interviewing knowledge/skills. Level three assessed staff behaviors by examining their use of motivational interviewing with each client. Level four assessed training outcomes using clients' perceived satisfaction with their staff and basic psychological needs support both on 7-point scales. Results: Staff were satisfied with the training (M = 4.43; SD = 0.45; range = 3.86-4.71). All learning measures demonstrated high post-training scores that were retained at implementation follow-up. Staff used motivational interviewing skills in practice and delivered the program at a client-centered level (≥6; M = 6.34; SD = 0.83; range = 3.75-7.80). Overall, clients perceived staff supported their basic psychological needs (M = 6.55; SD = 0.64; range = 6.17-6.72) and reported high staff satisfaction scores (M = 6.88; SD = 0.33; range = 6-7). Conclusion: The Small Steps for Big Changes training was successful and fitness facility staff delivered a motivational interviewing-informed program. While not all staff operated at a client-centered level, clients perceived their basic psychological needs to be supported. Findings support the training for future scale-up sites. Community fitness staff represent a feasible resource through which to run evidence-based counseling programs.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Motivational Interviewing , Counseling , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Exercise , Humans
4.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(4): 608, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775469
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220773, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718200

ABSTRACT

Importance: Women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether a resource-appropriate and context-appropriate lifestyle intervention could prevent glycemic deterioration among women with recent GDM in South Asia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, participant-unblinded controlled trial investigated a 12-month lifestyle intervention vs usual care at 19 urban hospitals in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Participants included women with recent diagnosis of GDM who did not have type 2 diabetes at an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 3 to 18 months postpartum. They were enrolled from November 2017 to January 2020, and follow-up ended in January 2021. Data were analyzed from April to July 2021. Interventions: A 12-month lifestyle intervention focused on diet and physical activity involving group and individual sessions, as well as remote engagement, adapted to local context and resources. This was compared with usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was worsening category of glycemia based on OGTT using American Diabetes Association criteria: (1) normal glucose tolerance to prediabetes (ie, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) or type 2 diabetes or (2) prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. The primary analysis consisted of a survival analysis of time to change in glycemic status at or prior to the final patient visit, which occurred at varying times after 12 months for each patient. Secondary outcomes included new-onset type 2 diabetes and change in body weight. Results: A total of 1823 women (baseline mean [SD] age, 30.9 [4.9] years and mean [SD] body mass index, 26.6 [4.6]) underwent OGTT at a median (IQR) 6.5 (4.8-8.2) months postpartum. After excluding 160 women (8.8%) with type 2 diabetes, 2 women (0.1%) who met other exclusion criteria, and 49 women (2.7%) who did not consent or were uncontactable, 1612 women were randomized. Subsequently, 11 randomized participants were identified as ineligible and excluded from the primary analysis, leaving 1601 women randomized (800 women randomized to the intervention group and 801 women randomized to usual care). These included 600 women (37.5%) with prediabetes and 1001 women (62.5%) with normoglycemia. Among participants randomized to the intervention, 644 women (80.5%) received all program content, although COVID-19 lockdowns impacted the delivery model (ie, among 644 participants who engaged in all group sessions, 476 women [73.9%] received some or all content through individual engagement, and 315 women [48.9%] received some or all content remotely). After a median (IQR) 14.1 (11.4-20.1) months of follow-up, 1308 participants (81.2%) had primary outcome data. The intervention, compared with usual care, did not reduce worsening glycemic status (204 women [25.5%] vs 217 women [27.1%]; hazard ratio, 0.92; [95% CI, 0.76-1.12]; P = .42) or improve any secondary outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that a large proportion of women in South Asian urban settings developed dysglycemia soon after a GDM-affected pregnancy and that a lifestyle intervention, modified owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, did not prevent subsequent glycemic deterioration. These findings suggest that alternate or additional approaches are needed, especially among high-risk individuals. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India Identifier: CTRI/2017/06/008744; Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: SLCTR/2017/001; and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03305939.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diet , Exercise , Glycemic Control/methods , Life Style , Postpartum Period , Adult , Bangladesh , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes, Gestational/ethnology , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , India , Pregnancy , Sri Lanka , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Urban Population
6.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706287

ABSTRACT

Effective preventive care programs are urgently needed during humanitarian crises, as has been especially obvious during the COVID-19 pandemic. A pragmatic trial was designed: hybridized intervention (Diabetes Prevention Program [DPP] + medical nutrition therapy + liquid diet [LD]; LD group) vs. DPP only (DPP group). The participants were adults who were overweight/obese and at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The LD consisted of a "homemade" milk- and fruit-juice-based beverage. Pandemic restrictions delayed the program by nine months, tripled the amount of time required for screening, and reduced the total sample to 60%. Eventually, 127 participants were randomized, and 94/127 participants (74.0%) completed the first phase. Participant dropout was influenced by migration, COVID-19 symptoms, education level, and socioeconomic status. In two months, the LD group lost 2.9 kg (p < 0.001) and the DPP group, 2.2 kg (p < 0.001) (between-group p = 0.170), with improvements in their cardiometabolic risk factors. At this stage, the DPP was shown to be feasible and effective, demonstrating weight loss with the improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors in a primary setting in Venezuela, a middle-income country with a chronic humanitarian crisis, during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Venezuela/epidemiology
7.
Nutr Res ; 100: 19-32, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586919

ABSTRACT

Persons with underlying noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are more likely to acquire severe coronavirus disease 2019 disease and to die from coronavirus disease 2019. An urgent need for potential therapy to prevent and control NCDs is critical. We hypothesized that higher intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, or vegetables would be linked with a low risk of NCDs in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to explore the association between NCDs, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arthritis, depression, and dietary factors. A total of 56,462 adults aged 18 years (2009-2019) were included. Dietary factors, including intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, and vegetables, were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between dietary factors and NCDs. Interactions were found between intakes of multiple individual nutrients and sex for T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Only in women was a 2-fold increase in daily multiple individual nutrient intake (vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C; potassium, protein; phosphorus; calcium; iron; monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid; n-3 fatty acid and n-6 fatty acid; and water) associated with a lower prevalence of T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. In both women and men, high fruit or vegetable consumption was linked with a lower risk of T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis, and depression than low consumption. Our findings found higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and multiple individual nutrients are linked with a lower risk of NCDs in the Korean adult population. Further work is needed to identify whether interactions between intake of multiple individual nutrients, vegetables, and fruits affect the presence of NCDs.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Adult , Arthritis/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diet , Female , Fruit , Humans , Male , Nutrients , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vegetables
8.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561628

ABSTRACT

This review examines the beneficial effects of ultraviolet radiation on systemic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes, where the epidemiological evidence for the vitamin D-independent effects of sunlight is most apparent. Ultraviolet radiation, in addition to its role in the synthesis of vitamin D, stimulates anti-inflammatory pathways, alters the composition of dendritic cells, T cells, and T regulatory cells, and induces nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase metabolic pathways, which may directly or indirectly mitigate disease progression and susceptibility. Recent work has also explored how the immune-modulating functions of ultraviolet radiation affect type II diabetes, cancer, and the current global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. These diseases are particularly important amidst global changes in lifestyle that result in unhealthy eating, increased sedentary habits, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Compelling epidemiological data shows increased ultraviolet radiation associated with reduced rates of certain cancers, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and ultraviolet radiation exposure correlated with susceptibility and mortality rates of COVID-19. Therefore, understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on both vitamin D-dependent and -independent pathways is necessary to understand how they influence the course of many human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunlight , Vitamin D/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/radiation effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sedentary Behavior , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Vitamin D/immunology
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2071, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Co-design has the potential to create interventions that lead to sustainable health behaviour change. Evidence suggests application of co-design in various health domains has been growing; however, few public-facing digital interventions have been co-designed to specifically address the needs of adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims to: (1) co-design, with key stakeholders, a digital dietary intervention to promote health behaviour change among adults at risk of T2D, and (2) evaluate the co-design process involved in developing the intervention prototype. METHODS: The co-design study was based on a partnership between nutrition researchers and designers experienced in co-design for health. Potential end-users (patients and health professionals) were recruited from an earlier stage of the study. Three online workshops were conducted to develop and review prototypes of an app for people at risk of T2D. Themes were inductively defined and aligned with persuasive design (PD) principles used to inform ideal app features and characteristics. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly female (range 58-100%), aged 38 to 63 years (median age = 59 years), consisting of a total of 20 end-users and four experts. Participants expressed the need for information from credible sources and to provide effective strategies to overcome social and environmental influences on eating behaviours. Preferred app features included tailoring to the individual's unique characteristics, ability to track and monitor dietary behaviour, and tools to facilitate controlled social connectivity. Relevant persuasive design principles included social support, reduction (reducing effort needed to reach target behaviour), tunnelling (guiding users through a process that leads to target behaviour), praise, rewards, and self-monitoring. The most preferred prototype was the Choices concept, which focusses on the users' journey of health behaviour change and recognises progress, successes, and failures in a supportive and encouraging manner. The workshops were rated successful, and feedback was positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study's co-design methods were successful in developing a functionally appealing and relevant digital health promotion intervention. Continuous engagement with stakeholders such as designers and end-users is needed to further develop a working prototype for testing.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Female , Health Behavior , Health Promotion , Humans , Middle Aged , Persuasive Communication , Social Support
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1107, 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused significant healthcare service disruptions. Surgical backlogs have been estimated but not for other healthcare services. This study aims to estimate the backlog of preventive care services caused by COVID-19. METHODS: This observational study assessed preventive care screening rates at three primary care clinics in Ottawa, Ontario from March to November 2020 using data from 22,685 electronic medical records. The change in cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, and type 2 diabetes screening rates were crudely estimated using 2016 census data, estimating the volume of key services delayed by COVID-19 across Ontario and Canada. RESULTS: The mean percentage of patients appropriately screened for cervical cancer decreased by 7.5% (- 0.3% to - 14.7%; 95% CI), colorectal cancer decreased by 8.1% (- 0.3% to - 15.8%; 95% CI), and type 2 diabetes decreased by 4.5% (- 0.2% to - 8.7%; 95% CI). Crude estimates imply 288,000 cervical cancer (11,000 to 565,000; 95% CI), 326,000 colorectal cancer (13,000 to 638,000; 95% CI), and 274,000 type 2 diabetes screenings (13,000 to 535,000; 95% CI) may be overdue in Ontario. Nationally the deficits may be tripled these numbers. Re-opening measures have not reversed these trends. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 decreased the delivery of preventive care services, which may cause delayed diagnoses, increased mortality, and increased health care costs. Virtual care and reopening measures have not restored the provision of preventive care services. Electronic medical record data could be leveraged to improve screening via panel management. Additional, system-wide primary care and laboratory capacity will be needed to restore pre-COVID-19 screening rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Fam Pract ; 70(6S): S1-S6, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372160

ABSTRACT

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of the activity, participants will be able to: • Identify how heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated cardiovascular (CV) risks are interconnected. • Initiate guideline-recommended therapy to reduce CV risk in patients with HF, CKD, and/or T2DM. • Apply evidence for sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2 inhibitors) to clinical practice, based on recent and emerging trials. • Review evidence suggesting increased incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/drug therapy , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Endocrinol ; 249(1): R25-R41, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112513

ABSTRACT

In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the role of physical activity as part of differing exposomes (our combined non-genetic exposures from conception onwards) and environmental influences on metabolic health. We discuss 'beneficial' exposomes (green/natural outdoor spaces, sun exposure, healthy diets and features of built environments) that could synergise with physical activity to prevent metabolic dysfunction, particularly that related to lifestyle diseases of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity may also reduce the capacity of some adverse exposomes, specifically those with significant levels of air pollution, to contribute towards metabolic dysfunction. Other exposomes, such as those experienced during pandemics (including COVID-19), potentially limit opportunities for physical activity, and there may be unexpected combined effects of physical activity with other infections (e.g. adenovirus-36) on metabolic health. Finally, we discuss how environments could be better optimised to create exposomes that promote the health benefits of physical activity and likely future directions of this research field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Exposome , Life Style , Obesity/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094259

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, claiming over 650,000 American lives annually. Typically not a singular disease, CVD often coexists with dyslipidemia, hypertension, type-2 diabetes (T2D), chronic system-wide inflammation, and obesity. Obesity, an independent risk factor for both CVD and T2D, further worsens the problem, with over 42% of adults and 18.5% of youth in the U.S. categorized as such. Dietary behavior is a most important modifiable risk factor for controlling the onset and progression of obesity and related disease conditions. Plant-based eating patterns that include beans and legumes support health and disease mitigation through nutritional profile and bioactive compounds including phytochemical. This review focuses on the characteristics of beans and ability to improve obesity-related diseases and associated factors including excess body weight, gut microbiome environment, and low-grade inflammation. Additionally, there are growing data that link obesity to compromised immune response and elevated risk for complications from immune-related diseases. Body weight management and nutritional status may improve immune function and possibly prevent disease severity. Inclusion of beans as part of a plant-based dietary strategy imparts cardiovascular, metabolic, and colon protective effects; improves obesity, low-grade inflammation, and may play a role in immune-related disease risk management.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Vegetarian/methods , Fabaceae , Obesity/prevention & control , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Fatty Acid Synthases , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/prevention & control , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Minerals/administration & dosage , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases , Nutritional Status , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/immunology , Overweight/complications , Phaseolus/chemistry , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Risk Factors , Vitamins/administration & dosage
18.
J Med Life ; 13(4): 499-509, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068253

ABSTRACT

Abuse of legal substances in India includes alcohol and tobacco, which are the major risk factors for various non-communicable diseases and deaths. The current pandemic has identified tobacco consumption as a risk factor for COVID-19, highlighting the need to control substance abuse. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of substance abuse in India and discuss the cost-effective public health strategies (such as yoga) to alleviate COVID-related anxiety in order to prevent substance abuse and its associated co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study reports the data on tobacco and alcohol abuse from a nationwide randomized two-arm diabetes control trial (Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata, 2017) conducted by the Indian Yoga Association (IYA) through Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA), Bengaluru. Data of 30,354 participants who abuse tobacco and 30,159 participants who abuse alcohol were collected all over India. The prevalence is estimated at around 8.7% for alcohol abuse and 7.9% for tobacco abuse, Arunachal Pradesh state ranking the highest regarding both alcohol and tobacco abuse, while the Tripura state ranked the lowest. School and college-based mandatory yoga programs need to be implemented to prevent the increase of substance abuse in India to alleviate the psychosocial stress of adolescents and college-going students, besides the installation of the mindfulness-based diabetes yoga protocol (DYP) in the wellness centers of Ayushman Bharat.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Yoga , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/prevention & control , Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Ethanol , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Tobacco Use/prevention & control , Universities
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