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1.
Clin Nurs Res ; 32(6): 983-991, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233914

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection can induce acute and chronic complications by affecting the self-management behaviors of individuals with diabetes. The objective of this study is to examine the physical, psychosocial health, and self-management experiences of type 2 diabetes patients who have recovered from COVID-19, 1 year after the infection. The study adopted a qualitative research design, specifically content analysis. In all, 14 patients with type 2 diabetes who presented to the diabetes outpatient clinic were interviewed by teleconferencing, which lasted approximately 25 to 30 minutes. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines were used. Based on the participants' responses, four main themes were determined: obstacles in activities of daily living, feeling of psychosocial problems, changes in health and treatment management, and patient self-management practices. Amid the pandemic, diabetes nurses should strive to recognize the issues that diabetes patients encounter. To assist patients, telemedicine should be leveraged, and evidence-based practices must be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , Qualitative Research
2.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e069982, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing concern in South Africa, where many find self-management challenging. Behaviour-change health interventions are enhanced by involving partners of patients. We aimed to develop a couples-focused intervention to improve self-management of T2D among adults in South Africa. DESIGN: We used the person-based approach (PBA): synthesising evidence from existing interventions; background research; theory; and primary qualitative interviews with 10 couples to ascertain barriers and facilitators to self-management. This evidence was used to formulate guiding principles that directed the intervention design. We then prototyped the intervention workshop material, shared it with our public and patient involvement group and ran iterative co-discovery think-aloud sessions with nine couples. Feedback was rapidly analysed and changes formulated to improve the intervention, optimising its acceptability and maximising its potential efficacy. SETTING: We recruited couples using public-sector health services in the area of Cape Town, South Africa, during 2020-2021. PARTICIPANTS: The 38 participants were couples where one person had T2D. INTERVENTION: We developed the 'Diabetes Together' intervention to support self-management of T2D among couples in South Africa, focussing on: improved communication and shared appraisal of T2D; identifying opportunities for better self-management; and support from partners. Diabetes Together combined eight informational and two skills-building sections over two workshops. RESULTS: Our guiding principles included: providing equal information on T2D to partners; improving couples' communication; shared goal-setting; discussion of diabetes fears; discussing couples' roles in diabetes self-management; and supporting couples' autonomy to identify and prioritise diabetes self-management strategies.Participants viewing Diabetes Together valued the couples-focus of the intervention, especially communication. Feedback resulted in several improvements throughout the intervention, for example, addressing health concerns and tailoring to the setting. CONCLUSIONS: Using the PBA, our intervention was developed and tailored to our target audience. Our next step is to pilot the workshops' feasibility and acceptability.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Adult , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , South Africa , Health Behavior , Patient Participation
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e063094, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: With the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has been increasingly deployed in lieu of face-to-face consultations for management of diabetes in primary care. There was a need to evaluate clinical effectiveness of telephone consultations for diabetes management and this study aimed to show whether one-off telephone consultation was inferior or not to face-to-face consultation in terms of glycaemic control among patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Data of all patients with type 2 diabetes who had a chronic disease consultation during the period 9 April 2020-18 September 2020, and met the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria was obtained from the electronic medical records. SETTING: A primary care clinic in the north-eastern region of Singapore. The clinic's patient population was representative of Singapore's population in terms of gender and age. PARTICIPANTS: 644 patients with type 2 diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.0% and above, aged 21-80 years old. INTERVENTIONS: Participants either underwent telephone or face-to-face consultation for diabetes management. OUTCOME MEASURE: Mean HbA1c change (∆HbA1c) between preintervention and postintervention. RESULTS: Over 4 months, the mean ∆HbA1c was -0.16 percentage points (p.p.) (95% CI -0.26 to -0.07) and -0.11 p.p. (95% CI -0.20 to -0.02) for face-to-face and telephone consultation groups, respectively. The difference in mean ∆HbA1c between the two groups was +0.05 p.p. (95% CI -∞ to 0.16), with the upper limit of the one-sided 95% CI less than the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 0.5 p.p. (p<0.05). In those with HbA1c≥9%, the difference in mean ∆HbA1c was +0.31 p.p. (95% CI -∞ to 0.79), which exceeded the non-inferiority margin. CONCLUSION: For patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes, one-time telephone consultation was non-inferior to face-to-face consultation in terms of glycaemic control in the short term. However, more studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of telephone consultations and for those with HbA1c≥9%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycemic Control , Referral and Consultation , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Telephone , Treatment Outcome
5.
Med Care ; 61(Suppl 1): S77-S82, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services broadened access to telehealth. This provided an opportunity to test whether diabetes, a risk factor for COVID-19 severity, can be managed with telehealth services. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the impacts of telehealth on diabetes control. RESEARCH DESIGN: A doubly robust estimator combined a propensity score-weighting strategy with regression controls for baseline characteristics using electronic medical records data to compare outcomes in patients with and without telehealth care. Matching on preperiod trajectories in outpatient visits and weighting by odds were used to ensure comparability between comparators. SUBJECTS: Medicare patients with type 2 diabetes in Louisiana between March 2018 and February 2021 (9530 patients with a COVID-19 era telehealth visit and 20,666 patients without one). MEASURES: Primary outcomes were glycemic levels and control [ie, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) under 7%]. Secondary outcomes included alternative HbA1c measures, emergency department visits, and inpatient admissions. RESULTS: Telehealth was associated with lower pandemic era mean A1c values [estimate=-0.080%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.111% to -0.048%], which translated to an increased likelihood of having HbA1c in control (estimate=0.013; 95% CI: 0.002-0.024; P<0.023). Hispanic telehealth users had relatively higher COVID-19 era HbA1c levels (estimate=0.125; 95% CI: 0.044-0.205; P<0.003). Telehealth was not associated with differences in the likelihood of having an emergency department visits (estimate=-0.003; 95% CI: -0.011 to 0.004; P<0.351) but was associated with more the likelihood of having an inpatient admission (estimate=0.024; 95% CI: 0.018-0.031; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Telehealth use among Medicare patients with type 2 diabetes in Louisiana stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with relatively improved glycemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Humans , Aged , United States , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin , Medicare , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Louisiana/epidemiology
6.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 42(1): 11, 2023 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is necessary to evaluate COVID-19 data on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) to confirm effective protective practice and to reduce risk in society. Hence, the study was carried out to determine KAP towards COVID-19 and the factors associated with knowledge and practices among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In this cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study, 357 patients with diabetes in Izeh participated in the study. The sampling method used was convenience sampling method. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire of demographic information and KAP of patients with T2D in relation to the new coronavirus. The validity and reliability of the research tool was confirmed using the content validity and test-retest. Data analysis was done in Stata.14.2 and Smartpls 3.2.8 using descriptive and analytical statistical tests. RESULTS: The mean score of participants' KAP towards Covid-19 was 74.22 (16.30), 72.88 (14.87), and 70.51 (19.70), respectively. The lowest and the highest score of the patients' knowledge was in the field of transmission (56.60 (20.96)) and care and prevention of the COVID-19 (88.58 (21.88)), respectively. Residence was the most important factor predicting the practice of diabetic patients with an explanatory coefficient ([SMD 1.08 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.30), P < 0.001] and R2 = 0.87%). CONCLUSION: Despite the good level of KAP of people towards the COVID-19 disease, there were answers showing poor knowledge, incorrect beliefs and attitudes, and insufficient practice regarding different aspects of the COVID-19 in some cases in our study. Residence was a strong predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients' practice in terms of protective behaviors against Covid-19. Hence, educational needs evaluation based on residence is recommended, especially in rural T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results
7.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 11(1)2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288527

ABSTRACT

The popularity of teleconsultation during the COVID-19 pandemic enabled increased accessibility for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, previous studies did not distinguish between synchronous and asynchronous teleconsultation. We evaluated the effectiveness of synchronous teleconsultation for patients with T2DM. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases from inception to July 2021. All included studies were randomized controlled trials of synchronous teleconsultation for adults with T2DM compared with usual care. Reviewers independently extracted data and used the Cochrane tool to evaluate risk of bias. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models. A pooled mean difference for both HbA1c (%) and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mm Hg), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) (mg/dL) were calculated. Patient-reported outcomes, such as depression, medication adherence, and quality of life, were also assessed. A total of 9807 abstracts were identified and 27 trials were included. Synchronous teleconsultation significantly resulted in greater decrease in HbA1c compared with usual care group (n=8746, 0.35, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.49, I2=73%, p<0.001). No significant effects on BMI (n=699, 0.08 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.69), SBP (n=5512, 1.32 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.09 to 2.73), DBP (n=2898, 0.17 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.18 to 1.52), or LDL-cholesterol (n=5276, 3.21 mg/dL, 95% CI -1.75 to 8.17) were found. The effect of teleconsultation in improving patient-reported outcomes was uncertain. Thus, synchronous teleconsultation could be an alternative to usual care. Systematic review registration is PROSPERO CRD42021267019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Remote Consultation , Adult , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Quality of Life , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , Cholesterol, LDL , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(3): 238-241, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251093

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study aim was to evaluate the effects of public lockdown during the covid-19 pandemic on glucose and metabolic parameters as well as body weight control in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: This study was conducted in two outpatient Diabetes Clinics and analyzed data available in database of Diabetes Clinic. Data related to a year before covid-19 pandemic and a year during covid-19 pandemic was collected from the database and analyzed. Patients with type 2 diabetes included in the analysis if they had referred to Diabetes Clinics both before and during covid-19 pandemic. Demographic information and data about metabolic status were collected from the records of previous outpatient Clinic visits and compared RESULTS: Finally 9440 patients with mean age of 61.08 ± 11.62 referred to Diabetes Clinics in both the year before and the year of the corona pandemic. Mean FBS and HbA1c in diabetes patients reduced significantly from 155.37 ± 62.93 and 7.97 ± 1.74 before pandemic, respectively to 138.77 ± 45.39 and 7.54 ± 1.34, respectively during covid-19 outbreak. During covid-19 pandemic, all metabolic parameters including glycemic and lipid profile (except for triglyceride) and BMI (body mass index) reduced significantly statistically, but, these changes were not clinically significant. However, triglyceride level increased statistically significantly but again it was not significant clinically. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19 lockdown, glycemic and metabolic control of diabetes patients have improved significantly except for triglycerides.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Communicable Disease Control , Triglycerides , Ambulatory Care
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 314, 2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) have gained attention worldwide. Latin America experienced a rise in rates of DM. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a telemedicine program was implemented in a quaternary care academic complex in Latin America to continue the follow-up of patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical experience of DM patient management through telemedicine and the HbA1c behavior of patients followed-up through this modality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes who were treated via telemedicine from March to December 2020. A Wilcoxon statistical test was used to compare the changes in glycosylated hemoglobin between the first teleconsultation and after 6 months of telemedicine follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 663 patients were included, 17.65% (117) of whom had type 1 diabetes and 82.35% (546) of whom had type 2 diabetes. Patients with both types of diabetes, presented with stable HbA1c values regardless of the length of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The use of telemedicine can be a helpful tool for both patients and health care providers to support the continuity of care to maintain acceptable control levels within glycemic control goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Latin America/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals
10.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(7): 926-943, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243374

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is an increasingly common chronic metabolic disorder in children worldwide. The discovery of insulin in 1921 resulted in unprecedented advancements that improved the lives of children and youth with diabetes. The purpose of this article is to review the history of diabetes in children and youth over the last century and its implications for future developments in the field. We identified 68 relevant events between 1921 and 2021 through literature review and survey of pediatric endocrinologists. Basic research milestones led to the discovery of insulin and other regulatory hormones, established the normal physiology of carbohydrate metabolism and pathophysiology of diabetes, and provided insight into strategies for diabetes prevention. While landmark clinical studies were initially focused on adult diabetes populations, later studies assessed etiologic factors in birth cohort studies, evaluated technology use among children with diabetes, and investigated pharmacologic management of youth type 2 diabetes. Technological innovations culminated in the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring that enabled semi-automated insulin delivery systems. Finally, professional organizations collaborated with patient groups to advocate for the needs of children with diabetes and their families. Together, these advances transformed type 1 diabetes from a terminal illness to a manageable disease with near-normal life expectancy and increased our knowledge of type 2 diabetes and other forms of diabetes in the pediatric population. However, disparities in access to insulin, diabetes technology, education, and care support remain and disproportionately impact minority youth and communities with less resources. The overarching goal of diabetes management remains promoting a high quality of life and improving glycemic management without undermining the psychological health of children and youth living with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Insulin/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
11.
Psychosom Med ; 84(9): 1041-1049, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluates the preliminary efficacy of a 4-month well-being therapy (WBT) and lifestyle intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes and overweight/obesity. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients were recruited from two outpatient clinics and randomized to receive the WBT-lifestyle intervention or the lifestyle intervention alone. Data were collected at baseline (T0), immediate postintervention (T1), 6-month follow-up (T2), and 12-month follow-up (T3). Primary efficacy outcomes included changes in weight, psychological distress, and well-being, whereas secondary efficacy outcomes included changes in lifestyle and physiological parameters. RESULTS: Compared with the lifestyle-alone intervention, the WBT-lifestyle intervention showed greater improvements in depression (p = .009, d = -0.6), hostility (p = .018, d = -0.6), and personal growth (p = .026, d = 0.5) at T1, in self-reported physical activity at T2 (p = .013, d = 0.7) and T3 (p = .040, d = 0.5), and in triglycerides (p = .019, d = -1.12) at T3. There were no differences between treatment groups in weight and other physiological parameters. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that WBT may be a valuable addition to lifestyle interventions for improving short-term psychological outcomes and promoting long-term healthy changes in physical activity, with a potential impact on physiological outcomes.Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03609463.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pilot Projects , Life Style , Overweight/therapy , Obesity/therapy
12.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0269350, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244930

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: When Italy was placed under lockdown to contain the COVID-19 pandemic from 9 March to 18 May 2020, alternative approaches to delivering care-such as telemedicine-were promoted for patients with chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to analyze patients' perception of, and satisfaction with the telehealth services offered during the COVID-19 emergency at an outpatient diabetes care unit in Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 250 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who regularly attended our diabetes care unit. Data were collected by means of telephone interviews, asking patients how they perceived the telehealth services, and their satisfaction with the televisit and computer-based care. A standardized questionnaire was administered: there were questions answered using a five-point Likert scale, and one open-ended question. Patients' demographic, anthropometric and biological data were collected from their medical records. Correlations between patients' characteristics, their perception of telemedicine, and their satisfaction with the televisit were examined. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient ρ (rho) and Kendall's rank correlation coefficient τ (tau) were used as nonparametric measures of the strength of the association between the scores obtained for the two ordinal variables, Perception and Satisfaction, and between other clinical parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to assess overall links between the variables. RESULTS: Almost half of the interviewees expressed a strongly positive perception of the medical services received, and more than 60% were very satisfied with the telehealth service provided during the COVID-19 emergency. There was a strong correlation between patients' perception and satisfaction ratings (p<0.0001). Duration of disease showed a significant positive correlation with patients' satisfaction with their medical care. By means of PCA, it was found that BMI correlated inversely with both perception and satisfaction. Following a qualitative analysis of patients' answers to the open-ended question, contact with their specialist was important to them: it was reassuring and a source of scientifically correct information about their disease and the association between COVID-19 and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our telephone interviews, patients appreciated the telehealth approach and were satisfied with it, regardless of the characteristics of their disease. Telemedicine proved essential to avoid interrupting the continuity of care, and therefore had not only clinical, but also psycho-social repercussions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Patient Satisfaction
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the need for safe care for people with diabetes mellitus in the current outbreak of COVID-19, it is critical to evaluate the model, service delivery, feasibility, and efficiency of diabetes mellitus telecoaching. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the model and efficacy of telecoaching to improve self-care and clinical outcomes. METHODS: This study uses the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). We searched on 22 March 2022, using keywords that matched the MeSH browser in four databases to find relevant studies, namely, PubMed/Medline, Proquest, Scopus, and EBSCOhost. Additionally, we collected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Google Scholar using the snowball technique. A quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool (RoB)2. The meta-analysis used the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model to analyze the pooled mean difference (MD) and its p-value. RESULTS: Thirteen RCT studies were included for the systematic review and meta-analysis with a total number of participants of 3300. The model of telecoaching is a form of using nurses-led telephone and mobile apps, which are relatively cost-effective. The meta-analysis showed a positively improved statistically significance in clinical outcomes, including in HbA1c (a pooled MD of -0.33; 95% CI: -0.51--0.15; p = 0.0003), blood glucose (-18.99; 95% CI: -20.89--17.09; p = 0.00001), systolic blood pressure (-2.66; 95% CI: -3.66--1.66; p = 0.00001), body mass index (-0.79; 95% CI: -1.39--0.18; p = 0.01), and weight (-2.16 kg; 95% CI: -3.95--0.38; p = 0.02). It was not, however, statistically significant in diastolic blood pressure (-0.87; 95% CI: -2.02-0.28; p = 0.14), total cholesterol (-0.07; 95% CI: -0.26-0.12; p = 0.46), low-density lipoprotein (-2.19; 95% CI: -6.70-2.31; p = 0.34), triglycerides (-13.56; 95% CI: -40.46-13.35; p = 0.32) and high-density protein (0.40; 95% CI: -1.12-1.91; p = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: The telecoaching with nurses-led telephone and mobile apps significantly affected clinical outcomes on HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, weight, and BMI. Moreover, there was no significant effect on the total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein. Thus, telecoaching has the potential as a care model in diabetes mellitus during COVID-19 and similar pandemics to improve self-care and clinical outcomes, but all the studies analyzed involved non-COVID-19 patients, limiting the generalizability of the results to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin , Self Care/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Triglycerides , Lipoproteins, LDL , Cholesterol
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 148, 2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires a continues bulk of cares. It is very probable COVID-19 pandemic is affected its healthcare coverage. METHODS: The interrupted time series analysis is used to model the trend of diabetes healthcare indices, such as the health worker visits, physician visits, body mass index (MBI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), before and after the start of COVID-19 pandemic. The reference of data was the totals of all T2DM patients living in Fars Province, Southern Iran, areas covered by Shiraz University of Medical Science (SUMS), from 2019 to 2020. RESULTS: A significant decrease for visits by the health workers, and physicians was observed by starting COVID-19 pandemic (ß2 = -0.808, P < 0.001, ß2 = -0.560, P < 0.001); Nevertheless, the coverage of these services statistically increased by next months (ß3 = 0.112, P < 0.001, ß3 = 0.053, P < 0.001). A same pattern was observed for the number of BMI, FBS and HbA1c assessments, and number of refer to hospital emergency wards (ß3 = 0.105, P < 0.001; ß3 = 0.076, P < 0.001; ß3 = 0.022, P < 0.001; ß3 = 0.106, P < 0.001). The proportion of T2DM patients with HbA1C < 7%, and controlled hypertension during study period was statistically unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: When the COVID-19 pandemic was announced, T2DM healthcare coverage drastically decreased, but it quickly began to rebound. The health monitoring system could not have any noticeable effects on diabetes outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Iran/epidemiology , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
16.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 65(1): e1-e7, 2023 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major public health problem. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patient education and counselling (PEC) for diabetes were curtailed. This project explored the possibility of offering group empowerment and training (GREAT) for diabetes via computer or tablets and Zoom video conferencing. The aim was to explore whether this was feasible in the low-income community context of primary health care in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Three dieticians facilitated four sessions of GREAT for diabetes with a group of five patients with type-2 diabetes. Once the programme was completed, focus group interviews were held with the facilitators and the patients to explore their experience. Interviews were recorded and analysed using a simplified framework method. RESULTS: Usual primary care was not offering PEC and service delivery was brief and mechanistic. The content, resources and group processes were successfully translated into the virtual environment. The guiding style of communication was more difficult. Patients reported changes in their self-management and appreciated being able to save time and money while participating from home. Patients required considerable support and training to use the technology. All participants were concerned about safety and crime with the hardware. CONCLUSION: It was feasible to conduct GREAT for diabetes via tablets and Zoom video conferencing in this low-income community. To implement at scale, a number of concerns need to be addressed. The feasibility of conducting the sessions via smartphone technology should be evaluated.Contribution: Demonstrates how digital technology could be used to develop new ways of empowering people with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Counseling/methods , Qualitative Research
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well documented that telemedicine offers effective accessibility and consistency which are useful in overcoming the barriers associated with the traditional delivery of chronic disease management. Furthermore, home-based telemonitoring approach for managing chronic disease conditions has been shown to break geographical barriers and facilitate provider-to-patient communication. However, the efficacy of telemedicine in reducing HbA1c is debatable. AIM: This systematic review aims to evaluate the effect of telemedicine on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHOD: This systematic review has been conducted in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework. Searches were primarily conducted using the EBSCOhost database. Other search engines such as Cochrane Library and Google scholar were also used and search of grey literature was performed using google, NHS.uk website, WHO websites, and gov.uk website. Nine articles were included in this review. RESULTS: Three themes were identified in this review including diabetes education/telemonitoring technology and glycaemic control, the attitude of participants, and cost effectiveness of tele-medicine. While three studies reported improved glycaemic control with statistically significant improvement in HbA1c compared to the control group, three other studies did not find significant improvement in glycaemic control. In addition, the findings suggest that participants' positive attitude to self-care can lead to an improved HbA1c, and finally, several of the selected studies found that telemonitoring is not cost-effective. CONCLUSION: The findings of this review show that telemedicine may be effective in managing blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, factors such as educational level of patients, attitude and costs may limit its application in primary care. More studies are required to fully establish the effectiveness of Telemonitoring in managing patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Blood Glucose
18.
Can J Diabetes ; 47(4): 345-351, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes requires ongoing monitoring and care to prevent long-term adverse health outcomes. In Canada, quarantine restrictions were put into place to address the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in March 2020. Primary care diabetes clinics limited their in-person services and were advised to manage type 2 diabetes (T2D) through virtual visits and reduce the frequency of routine diabetes-related lab tests and screening. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study used de-identified patient records from a primary care electronic medical records database in Ontario, Canada, to identify people with T2D who had at least 1 health-care touchpoint between March 1, 2018, and February 28, 2021. Outcomes were described on a monthly or yearly basis: 1) number of people with primary care visits (in-person vs virtual); 2) number of people with referrals; 3) number of people with each of the vital/lab measures; and 4) results of the vital/lab measures. RESULTS: A total of 16,845 individuals with T2D were included. Compared with the pre-pandemic period, the COVID-19 period had a 16.8% reduction in the T2D population utilizing any primary care and an increase of 330.4% in the number of people with at least 1 virtual visit. Compared with the pre-pandemic period, fewer people had vital/lab measures in the pandemic period. However, among the people with the test results available, the average values for all tests were similar in the pre- and pandemic periods. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to understand the impact of the reduction of in-person clinical care on the entire population with T2D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Primary Health Care
19.
Eval Program Plann ; 97: 102234, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178648

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Food as Medicine Program (modified and adapted based on supporting research of the Fresh Food Farmacy™ program) that was implemented at a southeast regional hospital with voluntary participants with diabetes. It was hypothesized that participants would experience a decline in type 2 diabetes symptoms following the 12-month program of bi-monthly healthy groceries, nutritional guidance, educational sessions, and group health coaching. For this initial pilot study, four cohorts of patients were admitted consisting of 20 participants. The 12-month program included bi-monthly food pick-ups, nutritional recipes, and bi-monthly group educational and health coaching sessions for participants. They also completed pre- and post-program assessments, including a medical history questionnaire, biometric screening (HbA1c, weight, BMI, and blood pressure), and health behavior questionnaires. While there were not statistically significant differences from pre- to post-program, mean HbA1c slightly decreased from the time of the initial test (i.e., month 1) to follow-up testing (i.e., month 12). The pre- to post-program trends for diabetes self-care activities indicated improvements for general and specific diet maintenance, days of exercise per week, blood glucose testing per week, foot care, and smoking habits. Participants also exhibited a decrease in diabetes distress for emotional, physical, regimen, and interpersonal distress from pre- to post-program. This is very important as self-regulation of behaviors is necessary to successful management of diabetes. The results are discussed in relation to the limitations created by COVID-19, along with future implementation suggestions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Pilot Projects , Glycated Hemoglobin , Program Evaluation
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 41, 2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While emerging studies suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic caused disruptions in routine healthcare utilization, the full impact of the pandemic on healthcare utilization among diverse group of patients with type 2 diabetes is unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in healthcare utilization, including in-person and telehealth visits, among U.S. veterans with type 2 diabetes before, during and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, by demographics, pre-pandemic glycemic control, and geographic region. METHODS: We longitudinally examined healthcare utilization in a large national cohort of veterans with new diabetes diagnoses between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018. The analytic sample was 733,006 veterans with recently-diagnosed diabetes, at least 1 encounter with veterans administration between March 2018-2020, and followed through March 2021. Monthly rates of glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements, in-person and telehealth outpatient visits, and prescription fills for diabetes and hypertension medications were compared before and after March 2020 using interrupted time-series design. Log-linear regression model was used for statistical analysis. Secular trends were modeled with penalized cubic splines. RESULTS: In the initial 3 months after the pandemic onset, we observed large reductions in monthly rates of HbA1c measurements, from 130 (95%CI,110-140) to 50 (95%CI,30-80) per 1000 veterans, and in-person outpatient visits, from 1830 (95%CI,1640-2040) to 810 (95%CI,710-930) per 1000 veterans. However, monthly rates of telehealth visits doubled between March 2020-2021 from 330 (95%CI,310-350) to 770 (95%CI,720-820) per 1000 veterans. This pattern of increases in telehealth utilization varied by community type, with lowest increase in rural areas, and by race/ethnicity, with highest increase among non-hispanic Black veterans. Combined in-person and telehealth outpatient visits rebounded to pre-pandemic levels after 3 months. Despite notable changes in HbA1c measurements and visits during that initial window, we observed no changes in prescription fills rates. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare utilization among veterans with diabetes was substantially disrupted at the onset of the pandemic, but rebounded after 3 months. There was disparity in uptake of telehealth visits by geography and race/ethnicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Healthcare Disparities , Telemedicine , Veterans , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
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