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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 812940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731774

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, affecting more than 219 countries and causing the death of more than 5 million people worldwide. The genetic background represents a factor that predisposes the way the host responds to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this sense, genetic variants of ACE and ACE2 could explain the observed interindividual variability to COVID-19 outcomes. In order to improve the understanding of how genetic variants of ACE and ACE2 are involved in the severity of COVID-19, we included a total of 481 individuals who showed clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and were diagnosed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and saliva samples. ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism was evaluated by the high-resolution melting method; ACE single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs4344) and ACE2 SNPs (rs2285666 and rs2074192) were genotyped using TaqMan probes. We assessed the association of ACE and ACE2 polymorphisms with disease severity using logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. The severity of the illness in our study population was divided as 31% mild, 26% severe, and 43% critical illness; additionally, 18% of individuals died, of whom 54% were male. Our results showed in the codominant model a contribution of ACE2 gene rs2285666 T/T genotype to critical outcome [odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95%CI = 1.01-3.29; p = 0.04] and to require oxygen supplementation (OR = 1.76; 95%CI = 1.01-3.04; p = 0.04), in addition to a strong association of the T allele of this variant to develop critical illness in male individuals (OR = 1.81; 95%CI = 1.10-2.98; p = 0.02). We suggest that the T allele of rs2285666 represents a risk factor for severe and critical outcomes of COVID-19, especially for men, regardless of age, hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Alleles , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Genotype , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 777130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662576

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with 7- & 30-day mortality and intensive care admission amongst diabetes patients admitted with COVID-19. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a cohort study collecting data from medical notes of hospitalised people with diabetes and COVID-19 in 7 hospitals within the Mersey-Cheshire region from 1 January to 30 June 2020. We also explored the impact on inpatient diabetes team resources. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and optimised by splitting the dataset into a training, test, and validation sets, developing a robust predictive model for the primary outcome. Results: We analyzed data from 1004 diabetes patients (mean age 74.1 (± 12.6) years, predominantly men 60.7%). 45% belonged to the most deprived population quintile in the UK. Median BMI was 27.6 (IQR 23.9-32.4) kg/m2. The primary outcome (7-day mortality) occurred in 24%, increasing to 33% by day 30. Approximately one in ten patients required insulin infusion (9.8%). In univariate analyses, patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of 7-day mortality [p < 0.05, OR 2.52 (1.06, 5.98)]. Patients requiring insulin infusion had a lower risk of death [p = 0.02, OR 0.5 (0.28, 0.9)]. CKD in younger patients (<70 years) had a greater risk of death [OR 2.74 (1.31-5.76)]. BMI, microvascular and macrovascular complications, HbA1c, and random non-fasting blood glucose on admission were not associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, CRP and age remained associated with the primary outcome [OR 3.44 (2.17, 5.44)] allowing for a validated predictive model for death by day 7. Conclusions: Higher CRP and advanced age were associated with and predictive of death by day 7. However, BMI, presence of diabetes complications, and glycaemic control were not. A high proportion of these patients required insulin infusion warranting increased input from the inpatient diabetes teams.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(3): 283-287, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611428

ABSTRACT

We studied laboratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 against the background of chronic pathologies (cardiovascular pathologies, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus, and cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statins). A decrease in pH and a shift in the electrolyte balance of blood plasma were revealed in all studied groups and were most pronounced in patients with cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statin. It was found that low pH promotes destruction of lipid components of the erythrocyte membranes in patients with chronic pathologies, which was seen from a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity and significant hyponatrenemia. In patients with cardiovascular pathologies and allergy to statins, erythrocyte membranes were most sensitive to a decrease in pH, while erythrocyte membranes of obese patients showed the greatest resistance to low pH and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypoxia/complications , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Drug Hypersensitivity/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Drug Hypersensitivity/virology , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Fluid Shifts/physiology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Hyponatremia/virology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology
4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(3): 471-480, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434399

ABSTRACT

Symptoms related with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) were previously shown to be linked with increased risk for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aim to interrogate the possibility of a shared genetic basis between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes. Using published GWAS data for GERD (78 707 cases; 288 734 controls) and COVID-19 susceptibility (up to 32 494 cases; 1.5 million controls), we examined the genetic relationship between GERD and three COVID-19 outcomes: risk of developing severe COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization and overall COVID-19 risk. We estimated the genetic correlation between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess genetic causality. Conditional analyses were conducted to examine whether known COVID-19 risk factors (obesity, smoking, type-II diabetes, coronary artery disease) can explain the relationship between GERD and COVID-19. We found small to moderate genetic correlations between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes (rg between 0.06 and 0.24). MR analyses revealed a OR of 1.15 (95% CI: 0.96-1.39) for severe COVID-19; 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for risk of COVID-19 hospitalization; 1.05 (0.97-1.13) for overall risk of COVID-19 per doubling of odds in developing GERD. The genetic correlation/associations between GERD and COVID-19 showed mild attenuation towards the null when obesity and smoking was adjusted for. Susceptibility for GERD and risk of COVID-19 hospitalization were genetically correlated, with MR findings supporting a potential causal role between the two. The genetic association between GERD and COVID-19 was partially attenuated when obesity is accounted for, consistent with obesity being a major risk factor for both diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Gastroesophageal Reflux/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/virology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Obesity/complications , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/adverse effects
5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) has emerged as a major roadblock in the recovery of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Amongst many symptoms like myalgia, headache, cough, breathlessness; fatigue is is most prevalent and makes the patient severely debilitated. Research on PCS, in particular fatigue, in patients with diabetes has not been done. METHODOLOGY: In this prospective study, we included patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who had COVID-19 (mild to moderate severity), and matched T2D patients who did not suffer from COVID-19. Demography, anthropometry, glycemic measures, treatment, and details of COVID-19 were recorded. Symptoms were scored using Chalder Fatigue Scale (reported as fatigue score, FS) and handgrip strength (in kg) was recorded by Jamar Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients were included (cases, 52, controls, 56). Both groups were matched for age, duration of diabetes, BMI, TSH, serum albumin and vitamin D levels. T2D patients who had COVID-19 showed significantly more fatigue when compared with patients who did not have COVID-19 but both groups had comparable handgrip strength. Furthermore, patients with T2D with previous COVID-19 infection and who had FS > 4 have had significant higher inflammation markers during acute illness, and post COVID-19, had increased post prandial blood glucose levels, lost more weight, had reduced physical activity and showed significantly lower handgrip strength as compared to those with FS < 4. CONCLUSION: Patients with T2D who had COVID-19 infection as compared to those without had significantly more fatigue after the acute illness, and those with higher FS had reduced handgrip strength indicating sarcopenia, even after careful matching for common contributory factors to fatigue at baseline. Rehabilitation of those with FS>4 after acute infection would require careful attention to nutrition, glycemic control and graduated physical activity protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
6.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 117-120, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436205

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of a 55-year-old man with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus who presented with progressive breathlessness, chest pain and hyperglycaemia. An initial impression of a chest infection was made. Management was initiated with antibiotics, but this was unsuccessful, and he continued to desaturate. A screen for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) returned positive. There was no prodrome of fever or flu-like illness or known contact with a patient known to have COVID-19. This case is instructive as he didn't fit the typical case definition for suspected COVID-19. There is significant community spread in Ghana, therefore COVID-19 should be a differential diagnosis in patients who present with hyperglycaemia and respiratory symptoms in the absence of a febrile illness. Primary care doctors must have a high index of suspicion in cases of significant hyperglycaemia and inability to maintain oxygen saturation. Patients known to have diabetes and those not known to have diabetes may develop hyperglycaemia subsequent to COVID-19. A high index of suspicion is crucial for early identification, notification for testing, isolation, treatment, contact tracing and possible referral or coordination of care with other specialists. Early identification will protect healthcare workers and patients alike from cross-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/virology , Ghana , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Urban Health Services
7.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 52-61, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the declaration of COVID-19 by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a global pandemic on 11th March 2020, the number of deaths continue to increase worldwide. Reports on its pathologic manifestations have been published with very few from the Sub-Saharan African region. This article reports autopsies on COVID-19 patients from the Ga-East and the 37 Military Hospitals to provide pathological evidence for better understanding of COVID-19 in Ghana. METHODS: Under conditions required for carrying out autopsies on bodies infected with category three infectious agents, with few modifications, complete autopsies were performed on twenty patients with ante-mortem and/or postmortem RT -PCR confirmed positive COVID-19 results, between April and June, 2020. RESULTS: There were equal proportion of males and females. Thirteen (65%) of the patients were 55years or older with the same percentage (65%) having Type II diabetes and/or hypertension. The most significant pathological feature found at autopsy was diffuse alveolar damage. Seventy per cent (14/20) had associated thromboemboli in the lungs, kidneys and the heart. Forty per cent (6/15) of the patients that had negative results for COVID-19 by the nasopharyngeal swab test before death had positive results during postmortem using bronchopulmonary specimen. At autopsy all patients were identified to have pre-existing medical conditions. CONCLUSION: Diffuse alveolar damage was a key pathological feature of deaths caused by COVID-19 in all cases studied with hypertension and diabetes mellitus being major risk factors. Individuals without co-morbidities were less likely to die or suffer severe disease from SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitals, Military/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Municipal/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Risk Factors
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314668

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection poses an important clinical therapeutic problem, especially in patients with coexistent diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Potential pathogenetic links between COVID-19 and diabetes include inflammation, effects on glucose homeostasis, haemoglobin deoxygenation, altered immune status and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Moreover, drugs often used in the clinical care of diabetes (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, metformin and insulin) may influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, so it is very important to verify their effectiveness and safety. This review summarises the new advances in diabetes therapy and COVID-19 and provides clinical recommendations that are essential for medical doctors and for patients suffering from type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5042-5054, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295003

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) to respiratory viral infections. Despite the short history of COVID-19, various studies have shown that patients with DM are more likely to have increased hospitalisation and mortality rates as compared to patients without. At present, the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility are unclear. However, prior studies show that the course of COVID-19 disease is linked to the efficacy of the host's T-cell responses. Healthy individuals who can elicit a robust T-cell response are more likely to limit the severity of COVID-19. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that an impaired T-cell response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drives the severity of COVID-19 in this patient population. While there is currently a limited amount of information that specifically addresses T-cell responses in COVID-19 patients with T2DM, there is a wealth of evidence from other infectious diseases that T-cell immunity is impaired in patients with T2DM. The reasons for this are likely multifactorial, including the presence of hyperglycaemia, glycaemic variability and metformin use. This review emphasises the need for further research into T-cell responses of COVID-19 patients with T2DM in order to better inform our response to COVID-19 and future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Hyperglycemia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/virology
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102143, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We studied the profile and outcome of patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: In this observational study, clinical details of patients with COVID-19, identified by Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction admitted to 4 hospitals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India were collected from May to November 2020. A total of 845 (n = 423 with diabetes, n = 422 without diabetes) were selected for the analysis. Clinical details, biochemical and radiological investigations, diabetes treatment, intensive care, mortality and other adverse outcomes were recorded. Patients with clinical history of T2DM, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and/or random blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) were included. Statistical analyses were done using chi-square or 't' test and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: At admission, patients with T2DM were older (p < 0.0001), had higher co-morbidities such as coronary artery disease (p = 0.02), hypertension (p < 0.0001), hypothyroidism (p = 0.03) and renal disorders (p = 0.01) than non-diabetes persons. Requirement for intensive care was higher among them. Acute renal injury or failure, pneumonia and myocardial infarction developed in higher percentage of T2DM. Mortality was significantly higher in T2DM (10.2% vs 5.9%, p = 0.02). However, in the multiple logistic regression analysis, only age (p < 0.0001) and renal disorders (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that mortality was associated with higher age and renal disorders but did not show an association with diabetes, among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Factors
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234744

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with multiple organ failure and comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Risk factors, such as age, gender, and obesity, were associated with COVID-19 infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to use several host receptors for viral entry, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in the lung and other organs. However, ACE2 could be shed from the surface to be soluble ACE2 (sACE2) in the circulation. The epigenetic factors affecting ACE2 expression include a type of small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we aimed at exploring the status of the sACE2 as well as serum levels of several upstream novel miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers that might have a potential role in T2DM patients. Serum samples were collected from 50 T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls, and sACE2 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, RNA was extracted, and TaqMan miRNA reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to measure serum miRNA levels. Our results revealed that sACE2 is decreased in the T2DM patients and is affected by age, gender, and obesity level. Additionally, 4 miRNAs, which are revealed by in silico analysis to be potentially upstream of ACE2 were detectable in the serum. Among them, miR-421 level was found to be decreased in the serum of diabetic patients, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetic complications, as well as being differential in various body mass index (BMI) groups. The other 3 miRNAs (miR-3909, miR-212-5p, and miR-4677-3p) showed associations with multiple factors including age, gender, BMI, and serum markers, in addition to being correlated to each other. In conclusion, our study reveals a decline in the circulating serum levels of sACE2 in T2DM patients and identified 4 novel miRNAs that were associated with T2DM, which are influenced by different clinical and demographic factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/genetics
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2025-e2034, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess. METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , Retrospective Studies
14.
Life Sci ; 275: 119371, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142119

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is considered to be one of the essential risks of adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).1 Metformin and insulin were suggested to affect the outcomes. However, divergent views are still expressed. We aim to gain further insight into metformin and insulin in both pre-admission and in-hospital usage in COVID-19 patients with pre-existed type 2 diabetes. MAIN METHODS: This is a multicentral retrospective study of the hospital confirmed COVID-19 patients between January 19 to April 09, 2020, who admitted to 3 main hospitals in Xiangyang city, China. The effect of type 2 diabetes, metformin, and insulin on COVID-19 were analyzed, respectively. Clinical characteristics, blood laboratory indices, clinical observational indices, and outcomes of these cases were collected. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 407 confirmed COVID-19 patients (including 50 pre-existed type 2 diabetes) were eligible in our study. COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes had more adverse outcomes than non-diabetes (OR2: mortality: 1.46 [95% CI3 1.11, 1.93]; P < 0.001). Pre-admission metformin usage showed a declined intensive care unit admission rate in a dose-dependent fashion (OR 0.04 [95% CI 0.00, 0.99]; adjust P = 0.049). While in-hospital insulin usage attempted to increase the invasive ventilation (8 [34.8%] vs. 1 [3.7%], adjust P = 0.043), independent of age and blood glucose. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicated that pre-admitted metformin usage may have beneficial effects on COVID-19 with pre-existed type 2 diabetes, insulin should be used sparingly in the hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Metformin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
15.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(3): 764-767, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137159

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a new class of glucose-lowering agents which have changed the landscape of diabetes therapy, due to their remarkable cardiorenal protective properties. The attack of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on the heart and kidneys shares similarities with diabetes; therefore, the notion that SGLT2i might have a role in the future management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is based on a solid pathophysiological hypothesis. SGLT2i have been proved to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, ameliorate oxidative stress and reduce sympathetic activity, thus resulting in downregulation of both systemic and adipose tissue inflammation. On the other hand, they have been linked to an increased risk of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of SGLT2i in COVID-19 are still debatable and remain to be clarified by ongoing randomized trials, to assess whether the benefits of treatment with these drugs outweigh the potential risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Risk Assessment , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
16.
J Diabetes ; 12(12): 895-908, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096641

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recent pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus. Diabetes (mostly type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM) and hyperglycemia are among the major comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 leading to poor outcomes. Reports show that patients with diabetes and COVID-19 are at an increased risk for developing severe complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. Here we explore potential mechanistic links that could explain the observed higher morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Patients with T2DM have an underlying increased level of inflammation associated with obesity and insulin resistance in addition to other comorbidities including hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and being older. We review evidence that T2DM with hyperglycemia are among factors that lead to elevated expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in lungs and other tissues; ACE2 is the cellular "receptor" and port of viral entry. The preexisting chronic inflammation with augmented inflammatory response to the infection and the increasing viral load leads to extreme systemic immune response ("cytokine storm") that is strongly associated with increased severity of COVID-19. Based on the available evidence, it is recommended by a panel of experts that safe but stringent control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids be carried out in patients with T2DM, measures that could potentially serve to decrease the severity of COVID-19 should these patients contract the viral infection. Once the infection occurs, then attention should be directed to proper glycemic control with use of insulin and frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Inflammation/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Obesity/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Morbidity , Prognosis , Survival Rate
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108695, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071243

ABSTRACT

In patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 in CORONADO study, 2.8% had a newly discovered. 2.8% had a newly discovered diabetes (NDD): mean age 60.2 ± 12.5 years and HbA1C 9.0 ± 2.5%. When compared with center, age and sex-matched patients with established type 2 diabetes, NDD was not significantly associated with a more severe COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Phenotype , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 171: 108529, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064996

ABSTRACT

In our study of 187 patients with diabetes hospitalised with COVID-19 we observed a more than 5 fold increased risk of intubation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms that explain the associations between retinopathy and other indices of microangiopathy with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107406, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049806

ABSTRACT

In patients with COVID-19,type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can impair the function of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and result in olfactory dysfunction. Exploring the causative alterations of T2DM within the nasal mucosa and NALT could provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms and bridge the gap between innate immunity and adaptive immunity for virus clearance. Here, we designed a case-control study to compare the olfactory function (OF) among the groups of normal control (NC), COVID-19 mild pneumonia (MP), and MP patients with T2DM (MPT) after a 6-8 months' recovery, in which MPT had a higher risk of hyposmia than MP and NC. No significant difference was found between the MP and NC. This elevated risk of hyposmia indicated that T2DM increased COVID-19 susceptibility in the nasal cavity with unknown causations. Therefore, we used the T2DM animal model (db/db mice) to evaluate how T2DM increased COVID-19 associated susceptibilities in the nasal mucosa and lymphoid tissues. Db/db mice demonstratedupregulated microvasculature ACE2 expression and significant alterations in lymphocytes component of NALT. Specifically, db/db mice NALT had increased immune-suppressive TCRγδ+ CD4-CD8- T and decreased immune-effective CD4+/CD8+ TCRß+ T cells and decreased mucosa-protective CD19+ B cells. These results indicated that T2DM could dampen the first-line defense of nasal immunity, and further mechanic studies of metabolic damage and NALT restoration should be one of the highest importance for COVID-19 healing.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/immunology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anosmia/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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