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1.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
2.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3227-3235, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is known that the highest COVID-19 mortality rates are among patients who develop severe COVID-19 pneumonia. However, despite the high sensitivity of chest CT scans for diagnosing COVID-19 in a screening population, the appearance of a chest CT is thought to have low diagnostic specificity. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is based on evaluation of clinical and radiological characteristics in patients with COVID-19 (n = 41) and no-COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia (n = 48) with mild-to-moderate symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS: To this purpose we compared radiological, clinical, biochemical, inflammatory, and metabolic characteristics, as well as clinical outcomes, between the two groups. Notably, we found similar radiological severity of pneumonia, which we quantified using a disease score based on a high-resolution computed tomography scan (COVID-19 = 18.6 ± 14.5 vs n-COVID-19 = 23.2 ± 15.2, p = 0.289), and comparable biochemical and inflammatory characteristics. However, among patients without diabetes, we observed that COVID-19 patients had significantly higher levels of HbA1c than n-COVID-19 patients (COVID-19 = 41.5 ± 2.6 vs n-COVID-19 = 38.4 ± 5.1, p = 0.012). After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, we found that HbA1c levels were significantly associated with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia (odds ratio = 1.234 [95%CI = 1.051-1.449], p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective case-control study, we found similar radiological and clinical characteristics in patients with COVID-19 and n-COVID-19 pneumonia with mild-to-moderate symptoms. However, among patients without diabetes HbA1c levels were higher in COVID-19 patients than in no-COVID-19 individuals. Future studies should assess whether reducing transient hyperglycemia in individuals without overt diabetes may lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444039

ABSTRACT

Background: Blood parameters, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, have been identified as reliable inflammatory markers with diagnostic and predictive value for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, novel hematological parameters derived from high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have rarely been studied as indicators for the risk of poor outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of these novel biomarkers in COVID-19 patients and the diabetes subgroup. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from January to March 2020 in five hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographics, clinical and laboratory findings, and outcomes were recorded. Neutrophil to HDL-C ratio (NHR), monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR), lymphocyte to HDL-C ratio (LHR), and platelet to HDL-C ratio (PHR) were investigated and compared in both the overall population and the subgroup with diabetes. The associations between blood parameters at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to the intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the utility of different blood parameters. Results: Of 440 patients with COVID-19, 67 (15.2%) were critically ill. On admission, HDL-C concentration was decreased while NHR was high in patients with critical compared with non-critical COVID-19, and were independently associated with poor outcome as continuous variables in the overall population (HR: 0.213, 95% CI 0.090-0.507; HR: 1.066, 95% CI 1.030-1.103, respectively) after adjusting for confounding factors. Additionally, when HDL-C and NHR were examined as categorical variables, the HRs and 95% CIs for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 were 0.280 (0.128-0.612) and 4.458 (1.817-10.938), respectively. Similar results were observed in the diabetes subgroup. ROC curves showed that the NHR had good performance in predicting worse outcomes. The cutoff point of the NHR was 5.50. However, the data in our present study could not confirm the possible predictive effect of LHR, MHR, and PHR on COVID-19 severity. Conclusion: Lower HDL-C concentrations and higher NHR at admission were observed in patients with critical COVID-19 than in those with noncritical COVID-19, and were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients as well as in the diabetes subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211045902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is the most common of comorbidity in patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia. Coagulation abnormalities with D-dimer levels are increased in this disease. OBJECTIFS: We aimed to compare the levels of D-dimer in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with COVID 19. A link between D-dimer and mortality has also been established. MATERIALS: A retrospective study was carried out at the University Hospital Center of Oujda (Morocco) from November 01st to December 01st, 2020. Our study population was divided into two groups: a diabetic group and a second group without diabetes to compare clinical and biological characteristics between the two groups. In addition, the receiver operator characteristic curve was used to assess the optimal D-dimer cut-off point for predicting mortality in diabetics. RESULTS: 201 confirmed-COVID-19-patients were included in the final analysis. The median age was 64 (IQR 56-73), and 56% were male. Our study found that D-dimer levels were statistically higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. (1745 vs 845 respectively, P = 0001). D-dimer level > 2885 ng/mL was a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic patients with a sensitivity of 71,4% and a specificity of 70,7%. CONCLUSION: Our study found that diabetics with COVID-19 are likely to develop hypercoagulation with a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/immunology
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430930

ABSTRACT

Vitamin B6 is a fascinating molecule involved in the vast majority of changes in the human body because it is a coenzyme involved in over 150 biochemical reactions. It is active in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids, and participates in cellular signaling. It is an antioxidant and a compound with the ability to lower the advanced glycation end products (AGE) level. In this review, we briefly summarize its involvement in biochemical pathways and consider whether its deficiency may be associated with various diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, or the prognosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutritional Status , Vitamin B 6 Deficiency/complications , Vitamin B 6/blood , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Heart Diseases/blood , Humans , Neoplasms/blood , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
8.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(2): 240-255, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359307

ABSTRACT

Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) have suddenly become part of routine care in many hospitals. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated the use of new technologies and new processes to care for hospitalized patients, including diabetes patients. The use of CGMs to automatically and remotely supplement or replace assisted monitoring of blood glucose by bedside nurses can decrease: the amount of necessary nursing exposure to COVID-19 patients with diabetes; the amount of time required for obtaining blood glucose measurements, and the amount of personal protective equipment necessary for interacting with patients during the blood glucose testing. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now exercising enforcement discretion and not objecting to certain factory-calibrated CGMs being used in a hospital setting, both to facilitate patient care and to obtain performance data that can be used for future regulatory submissions. CGMs can be used in the hospital to decrease the frequency of fingerstick point of care capillary blood glucose testing, decrease hyperglycemic episodes, and decrease hypoglycemic episodes. Most of the research on CGMs in the hospital has focused on their accuracy and only recently outcomes data has been reported. A hospital CGM program requires cooperation of physicians, bedside nurses, diabetes educators, and hospital administrators to appropriately select and manage patients. Processes for collecting, reviewing, storing, and responding to CGM data must be established for such a program to be successful. CGM technology is advancing and we expect that CGMs will be increasingly used in the hospital for patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/trends , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitals/trends , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Monitoring, Ambulatory/trends
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 300, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351933

ABSTRACT

Elderly people and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, resulting in severe complications and high mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigate whether miRNAs in serum exosomes can exert antiviral functions and affect the response to COVID-19 in the elderly and people with diabetes. First, we identified four miRNAs (miR-7-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-223-3p) through high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, that are remarkably decreased in the elderly and diabetic groups. We further demonstrated that these miRNAs, either in the exosome or in the free form, can directly inhibit S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Serum exosomes from young people can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and S protein expression, while the inhibitory effect is markedly decreased in the elderly and diabetic patients. Moreover, three out of the four circulating miRNAs are significantly increased in the serum of healthy volunteers after 8-weeks' continuous physical exercise. Serum exosomes isolated from these volunteers also showed stronger inhibitory effects on S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our study demonstrates for the first time that circulating exosomal miRNAs can directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and may provide a possible explanation for the difference in response to COVID-19 between young people and the elderly or people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Exercise , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Virus Replication
10.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(4): e00291, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312722

ABSTRACT

AIM: Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We examined the association of hyperglycaemia, both in the presence and absence of pre-existing diabetes, with severity and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from 74,148 COVID-19-positive inpatients with at least one recorded glucose measurement during their inpatient episode were analysed for presence of pre-existing diabetes diagnosis and any glucose values in the hyperglycaemic range (>180 mg/dl). RESULTS: Among patients with and without a pre-existing diabetes diagnosis on admission, mortality was substantially higher in the presence of high glucose measurements versus all measurements in the normal range (70-180 mg/dl) in both groups (non-diabetics: 21.7% vs. 3.3%; diabetics 14.4% vs. 4.3%). When adjusting for patient age, BMI, severity on admission and oxygen saturation on admission, this increased risk of mortality persisted and varied by diabetes diagnosis. Among patients with a pre-existing diabetes diagnosis, any hyperglycaemic value during the episode was associated with a substantial increase in the odds of mortality (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.52-2.07); among patients without a pre-existing diabetes diagnosis, this risk nearly doubled (OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 2.79-3.37). CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis identified hyperglycaemia in COVID-19 patients as an independent risk factor for mortality after adjusting for the presence of diabetes and other known risk factors. This indicates that the extent of glucose control could serve as a mechanism for modifying the risk of COVID-19 morality in the inpatient environment.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
12.
Hemoglobin ; 45(2): 124-128, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281786

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between Hb A1c levels and the clinical course of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) patients. Sixty-six COVID-19(+) patients with high Hb A1c and 46 with average Hb A1c and 30 COVID-19(-) patients with average Hb A1c were included. Hb A1c levels and parameters examined in COVID-19(+) patients were compared between groups, and correlation analysis was performed between these parameters and Hb A1c levels. The effect of Hb A1c levels on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was analyzed with the χ2 test. It was observed that hemoglobin (Hb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups was lower than the COVID-19 (-) group, while ferritin, D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were higher. The COVID-19 (+) group with high Hb A1c had higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), PCT and D-dimer levels than the other two groups, while Hb, partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) levels were lower. The Hb A1c levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups were positively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC), LDH, PCT and (K+) levels, while negatively correlated with Hb and PaO2 levels. Hb A1c was found to be associated with the inflammation process, coagulation disorders and low PaO2 in COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 patients with high Hb A1c levels had a higher mortality rate than other COVID-19 patients. Using Hb A1c measurements with other prognostic markers would contribute to the patient's risk of death assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hyperglycemia/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Complications/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
13.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 15(5): 1181-1187, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280566

ABSTRACT

Complications of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occur with increased frequency in people admitted to the hospital with diabetes or hyperglycemia. The increased risk for COVID-19 infections in the presence of these metabolic conditions is in part due to overlapping pathophysiologic features of COVID-19, diabetes, and glucose control. Various antiviral treatments are being tested in COVID-19 patients. We believe that in these trials, it will be useful to evaluate treatment effect differences in patients stratified according to whether they have diabetes or hyperglycemia. In this way, it will be possible to better facilitate development of antiviral treatments that are most specifically beneficial for the large subset of COVID-19 patients who have diabetes or hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Data Accuracy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Research Design , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(3): e00279, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269107

ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate the frequency of diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia in Mexican COVID-19 patients, to describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with admission hyperglycaemia and to determinate the impact of diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia on COVID-19 severity and mortality. Methods: A multicentric study was performed in 480 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Clinical and biochemical characteristics were evaluated in patients with admission hyperglycaemia and compared with non-hyperglycaemic patients. The effect of diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia on severity and risk of death were evaluated. Results: Age was 50.7 ± 13.6 years; 68.3% were male. Some 48.5% (n = 233) had admission hyperglycaemia; 29% (n = 139) of these patients had pre-existing diabetes. Patients with admission hyperglycaemia had more requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), higher levels of urea, D-dimer and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as well as lower lymphocyte count. An association between admission hyperglycaemia with IMV and D-dimer with glucose was found. Age ≥50 years (OR 2.09; 95%CI 1.37-3.17), pre-existing diabetes (OR 2.38; 95%CI 1.59-5.04) and admission hyperglycaemia (OR 8.24; 95%CI 4.74-14.32) were risk factors for mortality. Conclusions: Admission hyperglycaemia is presented in 48.5% of COVID-19 patients. Diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia are associated with the severity of disease and mortality. This study shows the devastating conjunction of hyperglycaemia and COVID-19. Clinical trial registration: Clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19, DI/20/204/04/41 (Hospital General de Mexico) and NR-13-2020 (Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad Ixtapaluca).


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Survival Rate
15.
Stem Cells Dev ; 30(15): 758-772, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254367

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is recognized as one of the factors contributing to organ failures and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Due to chronic inflammation, COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or renal disease (RD) have more severe symptoms and higher mortality. However, the factors that contribute to severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients with DM and RD have received little attention. In an effort to investigate potential treatments for COVID-19, recent research has focused on the immunomodulation functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, the correlation between DM and RD and the severity of COVID-19 was examined by a combined approach with a meta-analysis and experimental research. The results of a systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the odd of mortality in patients with both DM and RD was increased in comparison to those with a single comorbidity. In addition, in the experimental research, the data showed that high glucose and uremic toxins contributed to the induction of cytokine storm in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) in response to SARS-CoV Peptide Pools. Of note, the incorporation of Wharton's jelly MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (WJ-EVs) into SARS-CoV peptide-induced Calu-3 resulted in a significant decrease in nuclear NF-κB p65 and the downregulation of the cytokine storm under high concentrations of glucose and uremic toxins. This clearly suggests the potential for WJ-EVs to reduce cytokine storm reactions in patients with both chronic inflammation diseases and viral infection.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Wharton Jelly/cytology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Pregnancy , Toxins, Biological/metabolism , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Uremia/blood , Uremia/complications , Uremia/metabolism , Uremia/therapy
17.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(4): 713-718, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225362

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed at providing evidence to consider sex differences in interpretations of laboratory parameters of severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: For 118 diabetic patients, laboratory measurements and clinical outcomes were compared between males and females. This study also compared inflammatory ratios obtained from combinations of six inflammatory markers between the two groups. The risk factors for mortality were identified through logistic regression. RESULTS: Males were 54 (45.8%) and females were 64 (54.2%). Males showed a significant increase in ALT (P = 0.003), CRP (P = 0.03), mean platelet volume (MPV)-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001), and C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (P = 0.044), whereas females had a significant increase in lymphocytes (P < 0.005) and MPV (P = 0.01). In all participants, multivariate analysis illustrated that older age, male sex, increased serum total bilirubin, and decreased PO2 were significant independent predictors of mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes, there were significant sex differences in many laboratory characteristics with a higher risk of mortality among males.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Health Status Disparities , Age Factors , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 12301-12307, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220256

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing chronic diseases are more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet the underlying causes of increased risk are of infection remain unclear. Angiotensin-converting- enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell surface receptor that recognizes the coronavirus spike protein has protective effects against inflammation and chronic hyperglycemia in animal models. The roles of ACE2 in severe SARS-CoV-2 infections remains ambiguous due to contradictory findings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between human plasma ACE2 levels in diabetics and the high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. First, the medical records of 245 patients with SARS-CoV-2-positive who have chronic diseases were analyzed. We also recruited 404 elderly subjects with comorbid chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension and obesity, and investigated the ACE2 plasma levels. Plasma concentrations of ACE2 were much lower (2973.83±2196.79 pg/mL) in diabetics with chronic disease than in healthy controls (4308.21±2352.42 pg/ml), and the use of hypoglycemia drugs was associated with lower circulating concentrations of ACE2 (P=1.49E-08). Diabetics with lower plasma levels of ACE2 may be susceptible to severe COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the poor prognosis in patients with diabetes infected with SARS-CoV-2 may be due to low circulating ACE2 levels.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , COVID-19/enzymology , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3023-3032, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196533

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a risk factor for developing severe COVID-19, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated if the association of diabetes and COVID-19 severity may be mediated by inflammation. We also hypothesized that this increased risk may extend to prediabetes. Hospitalized patients in Singapore with COVID-19 were subdivided into three groups in a retrospective cohort: normoglycemia (HbA1c: ≤5.6%), prediabetes (HbA1c: 5.7%-6.4%) and diabetes (HbA1c: ≥6.5%). The primary outcome of severe COVID-19 was defined by respiratory rate ≥30, SpO2 ≤93% or intensive care unit admission. The association between clinical factors on severe COVID-19 outcome was analyzed by cox regression. Adjusted mediation analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) on the relationship between diabetes and severe COVID-19 was performed. Of 1042 hospitalized patients, mean age 39 ± 11 years, 13% had diabetes, 9% prediabetes and 78% normoglycemia. Severe COVID-19 occurred in 4.9% of subjects. Compared to normoglycemia, diabetes was significantly associated with severe COVID-19 on both univariate (hazard ratio [HR]: 9.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54-17.84; p < .001) and multivariate analysis (HR: 3.99; 95% CI: 1.92-8.31; p < .001), while prediabetes was not a risk factor (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.22-4.03; p = .929). CRP, a biomarker of inflammation, mediated 32.7% of the total association between diabetes and severe COVID-19 outcome. In conclusion, CRP is a partial mediator of the association between diabetes and severe COVID-19 infection, confirming that inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 in diabetes.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore/epidemiology
20.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(8): 537-545, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171321

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the conduct of clinic visits. We conducted a study to evaluate two academic laboratories' fingerstick capillary blood collection kits suitable for home use for laboratory measurement of HbA1c. Methods: Four clinical sites recruited 240 participants (aged 4-80 years, HbA1c 5.1%-13.5%). Capillary blood samples were obtained by the participant or parent using collection kits from two laboratories (University of Minnesota Advanced Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) and Children's Mercy Hospital Laboratory (CMH)) and mailed under varying shipping conditions by United States Postal Service to the laboratories. Comparisons were made between HbA1c measurements from capillary samples and contemporaneously obtained venous samples. The primary outcome was percentage of capillary HbA1c values within 5% of the corresponding venous values. Results: HbA1c values were within 5% of venous values for 96% of ARDL kit specimens shipped with a cold pack and 98% without a cold pack and 99% and 99%, respectively, for the CMH kits. R2 values were 0.98, 0.99, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. Results appeared similar across HbA1c levels and for pediatric and adult participants. Usability survey scores were high. Conclusions: Capillary blood collection kits, suitable for home use, from two academic laboratories, were demonstrated to be easy to use and provided results that are comparable with those obtained from venous specimens. Based on these results, there is strong evidence that HbA1c measurements from capillary specimens obtained with these specific kits can be used interchangeably with HbA1c measurements from venous specimens for clinical research and clinical care.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection/instrumentation , COVID-19 , Capillaries , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Specimen Handling/methods , Veins
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