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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732070

ABSTRACT

Almost two years have passed since the outbreak reported for the first time in Wuhan of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus, rapidly evolved into a pandemic. This infectious disease has stressed global health care systems. The mortality rate is higher, particularly in elderly population and in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy. Among them, subjects with diabetes have a high risk of developing severe form of COVID-19 and show increased mortality. How diabetes contributes to COVID-19 severity remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that it may be correlated with the effects of hyperglycemia on systemic inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunction. Vitamin D (VD) is a modulator of immune-response. Data from literature showed that vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients increases COVID-19 severity, likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, the use of vitamin D might play a role in some aspects of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients. Moreover, a piece of evidence highlighted a link among vitamin D deficiency, obesity and diabetes, all factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Given this background, we performed an overview of the systematic reviews to assess the association between vitamin D supplementation and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes; furthermore, vitamin D's possible role in COVID-19 patients was assessed as well. Three databases, namely MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, were reviewed to retrieve the pertinent data. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the recent advances about the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, immune response, inflammation, diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(4): 3349-3356, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640943

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 patients, both infected and recovered are rapidly contracting mucormycetes infections due to the 'Mucorales' order, under Zygomycetes class of fungi. The mucorales fungi commonly known to exist in our natural surroundings including soil, but the frequency of incidences was never rampant. This sudden spike in infections, is locally known as 'black fungus,' and is affecting various organs, including- eyes, sinuses, nose, brain, skin, intestine, lungs, etc. The severity of situation is ascertainable from the fact that, in certain cases surgical eye/jaws removal persists as the only viable option to avert mortality, as therapeutic interventions are limited. This epidemic situation intrigued experts to investigate the probable reason behind this unpredicted escalation in reported cases, including in recuperated COVID-19 patients, as person-to-person spread of infection is not common. The comparison of physiological parameters in healthy and COVID-19 afflicted patients highlights that the underlying conditions including diabetes mellitus, steroidal therapy, lymphopenia (decreased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes), deregulated cytokine release storm, elevated free iron levels (hemosiderosis) in blood and insulin insensitivity are playing major roles in deteriorating conditions in rarely pathogenic fungal infections. This review is an attempt to explain the rationalities that makes people vulnerable to mucormycetes infection.


Subject(s)
Mucorales/immunology , Mucormycosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Humans , Mucormycosis/etiology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Mucormycosis/therapy
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112230, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517059

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a serious challenge for medicine and science. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms associated with the clinical manifestations and severity of COVID-19 has identified several key points of immune dysregulation observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection. For diabetic patients, factors including higher binding affinity and virus penetration, decreased virus clearance and decreased T cell function, increased susceptibility to hyperinflammation, and cytokine storm may make these patients susceptible to a more severe course of COVID-19 disease. Metabolic changes induced by diabetes, especially hyperglycemia, can directly affect the immunometabolism of lymphocytes in part by affecting the activity of the mTOR protein kinase signaling pathway. High mTOR activity can enhance the progression of diabetes due to the activation of effector proinflammatory subpopulations of lymphocytes and, conversely, low activity promotes the differentiation of T-regulatory cells. Interestingly, metformin, an extensively used antidiabetic drug, inhibits mTOR by affecting the activity of AMPK. Therefore, activation of AMPK and/or inhibition of the mTOR-mediated signaling pathway may be an important new target for drug therapy in COVID-19 cases mostly by reducing the level of pro-inflammatory signaling and cytokine storm. These suggestions have been partially confirmed by several retrospective analyzes of patients with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Metformin/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Metformin/pharmacology , Mortality/trends , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/immunology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
4.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Pharmazie ; 75(8): 375-380, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435671

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for COVID-19 complications as it is one of the chronic immune-compromising conditions especially if patients have uncontrolled diabetes, poor HbA1c and/or irregular blood glucose levels. Diabetic patients' mortality rates with COVID-19 are higher than those of cardiovascular or cancer patients. Recently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has shown successful results in reversing diabetes in both rats and clinical trials based on different mechanisms from aerobic glycolysis to beta cells regeneration. BCG is a multi-face vaccine that has been used extensively in protection from tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy and has been repositioned for treatment of bladder cancer, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Recently, COVID-19 epidemiological studies confirmed that universal BCG vaccination reduced morbidity and mortality in certain geographical areas. Countries without universal policies of BCG vaccination (Italy, Nederland, USA) have been more severely affected compared to countries with universal and long-standing BCG policies that have shown low numbers of reported COVID-19 cases. Some countries have started clinical trials that included a single dose BCG vaccine as prophylaxis from COVID-19 or an attempt to minimize its side effects. This proposed research aims to use BCG vaccine as a double-edged weapon countering both COVID-19 and diabetes, not only as protection but also as therapeutic vaccination. The work includes a case study of regenerated pancreatic beta cells based on improved C-peptide and PCPRI laboratory findings after BCG vaccination for a 9 year old patient. The patient was re-vaccinated based on a negative tuberculin test and no scar at the site of injection of the 1st BCG vaccination at birth. The authors suggest and invite the scientific community to take into consideration the concept of direct BCG re-vaccination (after 4 weeks) because of the reported gene expressions and exaggerated innate immunity consequently. As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rats , Regeneration/immunology , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods
6.
Islets ; 13(3-4): 66-79, 2021 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310869

ABSTRACT

The link between COVID-19 infection and diabetes has been explored in several studies since the start of the pandemic, with associations between comorbid diabetes and poorer prognosis in patients infected with the virus and reports of diabetic ketoacidosis occurring with COVID-19 infection. As such, significant interest has been generated surrounding mechanisms by which the virus may exert effects on the pancreatic ß cells. In this review, we consider possible routes by which SARS-CoV-2 may impact ß cells. Specifically, we outline data that either support or argue against the idea of direct infection and injury of ß cells by SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss ß cell damage due to a "bystander" effect in which infection with the virus leads to damage to surrounding tissues that are essential for ß cell survival and function, such as the pancreatic microvasculature and exocrine tissue. Studies elucidating the provocation of a cytokine storm following COVID-19 infection and potential impacts of systemic inflammation and increases in insulin resistance on ß cells are also reviewed. Finally, we summarize the existing clinical data surrounding diabetes incidence since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Bystander Effect/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211814

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 pandemic has changed medical practice and daily routine around the world. Huge efforts from pharmacological industries have led to the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular two mRNA vaccines, namely the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and a viral-vectored vaccine, i.e. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), have recently been approved in Europe. Clinical trials on these vaccines have been published on the general population showing a high efficacy with minor adverse events. However, specific data about the efficacy and safety of these vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are still lacking. Moreover, the limited availability of these vaccines requires prioritizing some vulnerable categories of patients compared to others. In this position paper, we propose the point of view about the management of COVID-19 vaccination from Italian experts on IMIDs and the identification of high-risk groups according to the different diseases and their chronic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/virology , Vaccination/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe , Expert Testimony , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/virology , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/immunology , Uveitis/virology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 597399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167337

ABSTRACT

There exists increasing evidence that people with preceding medical conditions, such as diabetes and cancer, have a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and are more vulnerable to severe disease. To get insights into the possible role of the immune system upon COVID-19 infection, 2811 genes of the gene ontology term "immune system process GO: 0002376" were selected for coexpression analysis of the human targets of SARS-CoV-2 (HT-SARS-CoV-2) ACE2, TMPRSS2, and FURIN in tissue samples from patients with cancer and diabetes mellitus. The network between HT-SARS-CoV-2 and immune system process genes was analyzed based on functional protein associations using STRING. In addition, STITCH was employed to determine druggable targets. DPP4 was the only immune system process gene, which was coexpressed with the three HT-SARS-CoV-2 genes, while eight other immune genes were at least coexpressed with two HT-SARS-CoV-2 genes. STRING analysis between immune and HT-SARS-CoV-2 genes plotted 19 associations of which there were eight common networking genes in mixed healthy (323) and pan-cancer (11003) tissues in addition to normal (87), cancer (90), and diabetic (128) pancreatic tissues. Using this approach, three commonly applicable druggable connections between HT-SARS-CoV-2 and immune system process genes were identified. These include positive associations of ACE2-DPP4 and TMPRSS2-SRC as well as a negative association of FURIN with ADAM17. Furthermore, 16 drugs were extracted from STITCH (score <0.8) with 32 target genes. Thus, an immunological network associated with HT-SARS-CoV-2 using bioinformatics tools was identified leading to novel therapeutic opportunities for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Furin/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Gene Ontology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics , Humans , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Pancreas/immunology , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/virology , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
9.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211005645, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156054

ABSTRACT

Protective effects of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in RIN-m5F ß-cells and of thymulin in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes were recently reported. The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of thymulin and PRDX6 in a type 1 diabetes mellitus model induced by streptozotocin in mice. Effects of prolonged treatment with PRDX6 or thymic peptide thymulin on diabetes development were evaluated. We assessed the effects of the drugs on the physiological status of diabetic mice by measuring blood glucose, body weight, and cell counts in several organs, as well as effects of thymulin and PRDX6 on the immune status of diabetic mice measuring concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood plasma (TNF-α, interleukin-5 and 17, and interferon-γ), activity of NF-κB and JNK pathways, and Hsp90α expression in immune cells. Both thymulin and PRDX6 reduced the physiological impairments in diabetic mice at various levels. Thymulin and PRDX6 provide beneficial effects in the model of diabetes via very different mechanisms. Taken together, the results of our study indicated that the thymic peptide and the antioxidant enzyme have anti-inflammatory functions. As increasing evidences show diabetes mellitus as a distinct comorbidity leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and increased mortality in patients with COVID-19 having cytokine storm, thymulin, and PRDX6 might serve as a supporting anti-inflammatory treatment in the therapy of COVID 19 in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MAP Kinase Kinase 4/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Peroxiredoxin VI , Signal Transduction , Thymic Factor, Circulating , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Drug Discovery , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukins/blood , Mice , Peroxiredoxin VI/metabolism , Peroxiredoxin VI/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thymic Factor, Circulating/metabolism , Thymic Factor, Circulating/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
11.
JCI Insight ; 6(6)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097059

ABSTRACT

Comorbid medical illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes, are associated with more severe COVID-19, hospitalization, and death. However, the role of the immune system in mediating these clinical outcomes has not been determined. We used multiparameter flow cytometry and systems serology to comprehensively profile the functions of T cells and antibodies targeting spike, nucleocapsid, and envelope proteins in a convalescent cohort of COVID-19 subjects who were either hospitalized (n = 20) or not hospitalized (n = 40). To avoid confounding, subjects were matched by age, sex, ethnicity, and date of symptom onset. Surprisingly, we found that the magnitude and functional breadth of virus-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses were consistently higher among hospitalized subjects, particularly those with medical comorbidities. However, an integrated analysis identified more coordination between polyfunctional CD4+ T cells and antibodies targeting the S1 domain of spike among subjects who were not hospitalized. These data reveal a functionally diverse and coordinated response between T cells and antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2, which is reduced in the presence of comorbid illnesses that are known risk factors for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/physiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virion , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Envelope , Viral Proteins , Young Adult
12.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(3): 201-208, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066078

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In people living with HIV (PLWH), immune activation and inflammation levels are high even when viral suppression is maintained, potentially contributing to several comorbidities, and hampering the immune response to infections such as the recent SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). AREAS COVERED: Immune activation and inflammation play a role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe COVID-19 patients may experience cytokine release syndrome (CRS), leading to alveolar damage, pulmonary fibrinolysis, dysregulated coagulation, and pulmonary injury. Into the systemic circulation, cytokines in excess might leak out of pulmonary circulation, causing systemic symptoms and possibly a multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. Preexisting comorbidities are also linked to worse COVID-19 outcome: studies suggest that diabetes and hypertension are linked to higher mortality rates. Such comorbidities are more frequent in PLWH, but it is unclear if they have worse outcomes in the case of COVID-19. The literature was searched in PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE, and manually in COVID-19 resources. EXPERT OPINION: A body of evidence shows that HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are able to activate inflammatory pathways, acute in the case of SARS-CoV-2, chronic in the case of HIV, while the comorbidities seem to represent, in the first case, a contributory cause, in the second an effect of the virus-induced damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Comorbidity , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Inflammation , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110448, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969015

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is able to produce an excessive host immune reaction and may leads to severe disease- a life-threatening condition occurring more often in patients suffering from comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Infection by human corona viruses highly depends on host microRNA (miR) involved in regulation of host innate immune response and inflammation-modulatory miR-146a is among the first miRs induced by immune reaction to a virus. Moreover, recent analysis showed that miR-146 is predicted to target at the SARS-CoV-2 genome. As the dominant regulator of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) downstream signaling, miR-146a may limit excessive inflammatory response to virus. Downregulation of circulating miR-146a was found in diabetes, obesity and hypertension and it is reflected by enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, systemic effects accompanying severe COVID-19. Thus it could be hypothesized that miR-146a deficiency may contribute to severe COVID-19 state observed in diabetes, obesity and hypertension but further investigations are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Hypertension/complications , MicroRNAs/genetics , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Down-Regulation , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/immunology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Models, Biological , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/immunology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 5436832, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949234

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 is now the major issue in global health. Evidence implies that patients with diabetes are at a higher risk of severe disease or death due to COVID-19 than individuals without diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism for this differential effect in individuals with and without diabetes is not clearly understood. We have reviewed the pathophysiological pathways which may facilitate the entry of virus or an increase in its infectivity in host cells in the diabetic milieu. We suggest that the preexisting pathological pathways in patients with poorly controlled diabetes increase the risk of infectivity and are responsible for the higher levels of tissue injury and death in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoptosis , Blood Glucose/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1590-1592, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914663

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has emerged and rapidly evolved into a current global pandemic. Although bacterial and fungal coinfections have been associated with COVID-19, little is known about parasitic infection. We report a case of a COVID-19 patient who developed disseminated strongyloidiasis following treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and tocilizumab. Screening for Strongyloides infection should be pursued in individuals with COVID-19 who originate from endemic regions before initiating immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/parasitology , Diabetes Mellitus/parasitology , Hypertension/parasitology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/parasitology , Pneumonia, Viral/parasitology , Strongyloides stercoralis/pathogenicity , Strongyloidiasis/parasitology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Connecticut , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Ecuador , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/virology , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Male , Pandemics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Strongyloidiasis/immunology , Strongyloidiasis/virology
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 326: 237-242, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic. The ability to predict cardiac injury and analyze lymphocyte immunity and inflammation of cardiac damage in patients with COVID-19 is limited. We aimed to determine the risk factors and predictive markers of cardiac injury in these patients. METHODS: Data from 124 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 were collected. We compared the proportion of cardiovascular disease history in moderate, severe, and critical cases. We obtained high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTn I) results from 68 patients. Patients were divided into two groups based on positive hs-cTn I result: those with cardiac injury (n = 19) and those without cardiac injury (n = 49). RESULTS: Compared with the group with moderate disease, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and smoking were more common in severe and critical cases. Diabetes mellitus was most common in the critical group. Age older than 65 years, presence of chronic kidney disease, and lower blood lymphocyte percentage were independent risk factors of cardiac injury. The total T- and B-lymphocyte counts and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were significantly lower in those with cardiac injury. A minimal lymphocyte percentage < 7.8% may predict cardiac injury. The interleukin (IL) 6 level in plasma was elevated in the group with cardiac injury. CONCLUSIONS: The lymphocyte percentage in blood may become a predictive marker of cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients. The total T and B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts decreased and the IL-6 level increased in COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Heart Diseases/blood , Hospitalization/trends , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/immunology , Retrospective Studies
18.
Clin Immunol ; 221: 108611, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856558

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and analyzed the risk factors for prolonged viral RNA shedding. We retrospectively collected data from 112 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a single center in Wuhan, China. Factors associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding (≥28 days) were investigated. Forty-nine (43.8%) patients had prolonged viral RNA shedding. Patients with prolonged viral shedding were older and had a higher rate of hypertension. Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-2R (IL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were significantly elevated in patients with prolonged viral shedding. Multivariate analysis revealed that hypertension, older age, lymphopenia and elevated serum IL-2R were independent risk factors for prolonged viral shedding. This comprehensive investigation revealed the distinct characteristics between patients with or without prolonged viral RNA shedding. Hypertension, older age, lymphopenia and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines may be correlated with prolonged viral shedding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Hypertension/virology , Lymphopenia/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , China , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/immunology , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-2/biosynthesis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Virus Shedding
19.
Diabetologia ; 63(12): 2548-2558, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840591

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to characterise the humoral response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with diabetes. Demonstrating the ability to mount an appropriate antibody response in the presence of hyperglycaemia is relevant for the comprehension of mechanisms related to the observed worse clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with diabetes and for the development of any future vaccination campaign to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using a highly specific and sensitive measurement of antibodies by fluid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation assays, we characterised the IgG, IgM and IgA response against multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 509 patients with documented diagnosis of COVID-19, prospectively followed at our institution. We analysed clinical outcomes and antibody titres according to the presence of hyperglycaemia, i.e., either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, at the time of, or during, hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, 139 (27.3%) had diabetes: 90 (17.7%) had diabetes diagnosed prior to the hospital admission (comorbid diabetes) while 49 (9.6%) had diabetes diagnosed at the time of admission (newly diagnosed). Diabetes was associated with increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and hypercoagulopathy, as well as leucocytosis and neutrophilia. Diabetes was independently associated with risk of death (HR 2.32 [95% CI 1.44, 3.75], p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other relevant comorbidities. Moreover, a strong association between higher glucose levels and risk of death was documented irrespective of diabetes diagnosis (HR 1.14 × 1.1 mmol/l [95% CI 1.08, 1.21], p < 0.001). The humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes was present and superimposable, as for timing and antibody titres, to that of non-diabetic patients, with marginal differences, and was not influenced by glucose levels. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) was predictive of survival rate, both in the presence or absence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The observed increased severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with hyperglycaemia was not the result of an impaired humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. RBD IgG positivity was associated with a remarkable protective effect, allowing for a cautious optimism about the efficacy of future vaccines against SARs-COV-2 in people with diabetes. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
20.
Neuroscientist ; 27(4): 331-339, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797803

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease, originated in Wuhan City, China. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its biology is still poorly understood. Currently, there are no vaccines and drugs/or agents that can reduce severity of this new disease. Recent data suggest that patients with age-related comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and dementia are highly susceptible to severe respiratory illness due to coronavirus infection. Recent research also revealed that aged individuals with elevated baseline inflammation cause defects in T and B cells, leading to decreased body's immune response to viral infection. In the current article, we discuss the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on age-related chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Our article also highlights the interaction between coronavirus and immune cells, and how COVID-19 alters mitochondrial activities in host cells. Based on new and compelling evidence, we propose that mitochondrial fission is inhibited while fusion is promoted, causing mitochondrial elongation and providing a receptive intracellular environment for viral replication in infected cells. Further research is still needed to understand the cross talk between viral replication in mitochondria and disease progression in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Dementia/immunology , Dementia/pathology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Immune System/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular
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